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Journal and Proceedings of the 
Royal Society of New South ... 



Royal Society of New South Wales 



;iTY. 



DOLOOY 



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JOURNAL 



Aim 



PROCEEDINGS 



07 THE 



ROYAL SOCIETY 



OF 



NEW SOUTH WALES, 
1876. 



"T-OIi. X- 



BSITED BY 

A. LIVEESIDGE, 

Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the University of Sydney. 



THE AUTHOBS OF FAFEB0 ABB ALONE BE8P0NSIBLB FOB THB STATEMENTS 
HADE AND TBE OFINIONS BZFBB88ED THEBBIN. 



AQENT8 FOR THE 80Cf£TY : 

Messrs. Triibner & Co., 57, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. 



SYDNEY : CHARLES POTTER, ACTIKG GOVERNMENT PRINTER 
" 1877. 



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%^-vfevA,^^^ ki'^.M • 



'vV.^, \"^ 




RULES AND LIST OE MEMBERS 



OK THE 



ROYAL SOCIETY 



NEW SOUTH WALES, 

1877. 



r 

AGENTS FOR THE SOCIETY: 

Messrs. Triibner & Co., 57, Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. 



( 
I 

SYI>NEY : CHARLES POTTER, ACJTING GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 
1877. 

Zx 9—77 



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NOTICE. 

It is requested that all Communications respecting the 
Printing of the Journal of the Society^ or List of 
Members, may be sent to Professor Liversidge (EditorJ, 
Union Club, Sydney. 



All Donations presented to the Society are acknowledged 
by letter, and in the printed Proceedings of the Society. 



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RULES AND LIST OF MEMBERS 



ROYAL SOCIETY 



NEW SOUTH WALES, 

1877. 



AQEMTS FOR THE SOCIETY : 

. Messrs. Triibner & Co., 57, Ludgate Hill, London, B.C. 



SYDNEY: CHARLES POTTER, ACTING GOVERNMENT PRINTER^ 
1877. 



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NOTICE. 



Memhers of the Royal Society of New South Wales are informed 
that the Library will be open for consultation, and for the issue 
of books, on Wednesday afternoons from 4 to 6 p.m., and on 
the evenings of Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from 7 to 10 
p.m. during the session, except on the afternoon of the last, and 
the evening of the first Wednesday in each month. 

Publications. 

Certain of the following publications of the Society can now 
be obtained at the Society's Rooms in Elizabeth-street : — 
Transactions of the Philosophical Society of N.S.W., 1862-6, 

price, I OS. 6d. 
Tiansactions of the Royal Society, N.S.W., 1867, out of print. 

1868, 
,, 1869, price 5s. 

1870, „ 5s. 

1871, „ 5s. 

1872, „ 5s. 

1873, „ 5s. 
,, 1874, out of print. 
M 1875, price 7s. 6d. 
,, 1876, „ los. 6d. 



Transactions and Proceedings, 
Journal „ ,, ,, 



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NOTICE. 

The Royal Society of New South Wales originated m iSzj 
as the " Philosophical Society of Australia" ; after an interval 
of inactivity, it was resuscitated in 1850, under the name of the 
" Australian Philosophical Society," by which title it was known 
until 1856, when the name was changed to the "Philosophical 
Society of New South Wales" ; and finally, in May, 1866, by the 
sanction of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen, it assumed 
its present title. 



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OORBiaBlirDA- 



Tage, JJne. 

12 1 Fer " Dcpnty Gtovernor^* read " Lieutenant Goremor." 

235 27 For "lower strata, and thia" r*ai "lower strata. This 

meets, etc." 



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CONTENTS. 



VOLUKE X. 



PAOB. 

Abt. I. — Lisx OF Ofpicbbs, FrxDAMEXiix BuLES, By-Uw8, 

and List of Members i to xxz 

yABT. II. — ^Ajtkitkbsabt Addbbss by the Rer. W. B. Clarke, 

M.A., F.E.S., Vice-President 1 to 34 

Abt. ni. — ^Notes on some Bemarkable Errors shown by Ther- 
mometers. By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., Govern- 
ment Astronomer. (JDiatjram) 85 to 42 

^Abt. IV. — On the Origin and Migrations of the Polynesian 

Nation. By the Rev. Dr. Lang '. 43 to 7i 

ykar. V. — On the Deep Oceanic Depression oft Moreton Bay. 

By theReT. W. B. Clarke, M.A.,F.R.S 75 to 82 

Abt. VI. — Some Not«s on Jupiter during his Opposition. By 

a. D. Hirst 83 to 98 

'VAbt. VIL— On the Genus Ctenodus. By W. J. Barkas, 

M.R.C.S. Parts I to IV. {I%re plates) 99 to 123 

^ Abt. Vm. — On the Formation of Moss Gold and Silver. By 
Archibald Liversidge, Professor of Mineralogy in the 
University of Sydney 125 to 134 

''Abt. IX. — ^Recent Copper-extrncting Processes. By S. L. 

Bensusan 135 to 145 

^Obrr. X. — On some Tertiary Australian Polyzoa. By Rev. J. 

E- Tenison Woods, F.G.S., F.L.S. (Two plates) 147 to 160 

Abt. XI.— Meteorological Periodicity. By H. C. Russell, B.A., 

F.R.A.S., Govennnent Astronomer. {Three diagrame) 161 to 177 

Abt. XII. — Rffects of Forest Vegetation on Climate. By the 

Bev. W. B. Clarke, M.A.,F.R.S 179 to 235 

>/Axi. Xm. — ^Fossiliferous Siliceous Deposit, Richmond Rirer 
(pne plate) ; and the so-called Meerschaum from the 
Richmond River. By Pix>f essor Liversidge 237 to 239 



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X CONTENTS. 

PAOB. 

Abt. XIV. — Remarkable Example of Contorted Slate. By 

Prof. Liyersidge. (Two jplatet) 241,242 

Aet. XV.— Peocebdikgs 243 to 266 

Aet. XVI.— Additions to Libribt 267 to 276 

Abt. XVII.— Donations 277 to 281 

Aet. XVIIL— Repoets ^eom the Sbotions 285 to 314 

Pafees eead befoee Sections. 

1. Macrosamia spiralis. By F. Milford, M.D. 

(TtoopUUes) 296 

2. Transverse Section of Fang of Human Tooth, 

show-iug Exostosis. By Hugh Paterson 299 

>/3. Notes on two Species of Insectivorous Plants 
indigenous to this Colony. By J. U. C. 
Colyer 300 

4. Etching and Btohere. By E. L. Montefiore... 308 

Aet. XIX. — Appendix : Abstract of the Meteorological Obser- 
vations token at the Sydney Observatory. By H. C. 
Russell, B.A., F.R. A.S., aovemment Astronomer 315 to 328 

Aet. XX.~Index 329 



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^t ^0pl Siotkt^ d |kto (SmttJ Maks. 



OFMCEBS FOE 1876-7. 



PRESIDENT: 
mS XXOEIiLENOY SIB HEBOULES BOSmSOK, K.CM.Q,, 



VICE-PRESIDENTS: 

BBV. W. B. OLABKB, M.A., P.B.S., F.a.S. 
BOLLBSTON, OHBISTOPHBR 



HONORARY TREASURER: 
BEV. W. SOOTT, M.A. 

HONORARY SECRETARIES: 
FBOFBSSOB LIYEBSIDaE. | Db. ADOLFH LEIBIUS. 



COUNCIL : 



FATBFAX, JAMES B. 
JONES, P. SYDNEY, M.D. 
MOOBB, OHABLES, F.Ii.S. 



BUSSELL, H. C, BA-, F.B.A.S. 
SMITH, HON. J., O.M.a., M.D. 
WEIGHT, H. G. A., M.B.O.a 



ASSISTANT SECRETARY: 
WEBB, W. H. 



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FUNDAMENTAL RULES. 



Object of the Society, 

1. The object of the Societj is to rooeiye at its stated meetings original 
papers on subjects of Science, Art, Literature, and Philosopby, and especiallj 
on such subjects as tend to develop the resources of Australia, and to illustrate 
its Natural History and Productions. 

Prendent, 

2. The Goremor of Kew South Wales shall be ex officio the President of 
the Society. 

Other Qfficere. 
8. The other Officers of the Society shall consist of two Yice-Preeidents, 
a Treasurer, and two or more Secretaries, who, with six other Members, shall 
constitute a Council for the management of the affairs of the Society. 
Election of Officer: 
4. The yioe-Treeidents, Treasurer, Secretaries, and the six other Members 
of Ck>uncil, shall be elected annually at the Qeneral Meeting in the month of 
May. 

Vacancies during the year, 
6. Any yaoanoies occurring in the Council of Management during the year 
may be filled up by the Council. 

Fees, 

6. The entrance money paid by Members on their admission shaV be One 
Qtiinea ; and the annual subscription shall be One Gtiinea, payable in advance. 

The sum of Ten Pounds may be paid at any time as a composition for the 
ordinary annual payment for life. 

Sonoraty Members. 

7. The Honorary Members of the Society shall be persons who have been 
eminent benefiujtors to this or some other of the Australian Colonies, or dis- 
tinguished patrons and promoters of the objects of the Society. Every person 
proposed as an Honorary Member must be recommended by the Council and 
elected by tiie Society. Honorary Members shall be exempted from payment 
of fees and contributions ; they may attend the meetings of the Society, and 
they shall be furnished with copies of Transactions and Proceedings published 
by the Society, but they shall have no right to bold office, to TOte, or otherwise 
interfere in the business of the Society. 

Confirmation qf ByAams, 

8. By-laws proposed by the Council of Management shall not be binding 
ui^ ratified by a Qeneral Meeting. 

Alteration of F tmdam e n tal JSmIss. 

9. No alteration of or addition to the Fundamental Bales of tho Societj 
shall be made unless carried at two soooesdTO general meetiiigi^ 



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BY-LAWS 

Pflwerf ai a Oeneral Meeting of the Soeiety, held June 7th^ 1876. 



Ordinary Oeneral Meetings, 

I. An Ordinary General Meeting of the Eoyal Society, to be 
conyened by public adTertisement, shall take place at 8 p.m., on 
the first Wednesday in every month, during the last eight 
months of the year ; subject to alteration by the Council with 
due notice. These meetings will be open for the reading of 
papers, and the discussion of subjects of every kind if brought 
forward in conformity with the Fundamental Eules and By- 
laws of the Society, 

Annual Oeneral Meeting. ^Annual Beparts.^Ulection of Officers, 

II. A General Meeting of the Socieiy shall be held annually 
in May, to receive a Beport from the Council on the state of 
the Socieiy, and to elect Officers for the ensuing year. The 
Treasurer shall also at this meeting present the annual financial 
statement. 

Election of the Officers and Council. 

m. The Officers and other members of the Council shall be 
elected annually by ballot at the Annual General Meeting to be 
helcl in May. 

IV. It shall be the duty of the Council each year to prepare 
a list containing the names of members whom they recommend 
for election to the respective offices of Vice-Presidents and Hon. 
Secretaries and Hon. Treasurer, together with the names of six 
other members whom they recommend for election as ordinary 
members of Council. The names thus recommended shall be 
proposed at one meeting of the Council, and agreed to at a 
subsequent meeting. 



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VI 

y. Each member present at the Gteneral Annual Meeting 
shall have the power to alter the list of names recommended by 
the Cbuncil, by adding to it the names of any eligible members 
not already included in it and removing from it an equivalent 
number of names, and he shall use this list with or without such 
alterations as a balloting list at the election of Officers and 
CoundL 

Oouneil Meeting9, 

YI. Meetings of the Council of Management shall take place 
on the last Wednesday in every month, and on such other days 
as the Council may determine. 

Ahwneefrom Meetingt ofCkmneil, — Quorum, 

Vll. Any member of the Council absenting himself from three 
consecutive meetings of the Council, without giving a satisfactory 
explanation in writing, shall be considered to have vacated his 
office, and the election of a member to fill his place shall be 
proceeded with at the next (!!!ouncil meeting in accordance with 
Fundamental Eule Y. No business shall be transacted at any 
meeting of the Council unless three members are present. 

Duties cf Secretariet. 

Yin. The Honorary Secretaries shall perform, or shall cause 
the Assistant Secretary to perform, the following duties : — 

1. Conduct the correspondence of the Socieiy and Council. 

2. Attend the General Meetings of the Society and the 

meetings of the Council, to take minutes of the pro- 
ceedings of such meetings, and at the commencement 
of such to read aloud the minutes of the preceding 
meeting. 

3. At the Ordinary Meetings of the members, to announce 

the presents made to the Society since their last meeting ; 
to read the certificates of candidates for admission to 
the Socieiy, and such original papers communicated to 
the Society as are not read by their respective authors^ 
and the letters pddreeeed to it« 



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▼n 

4. To make abstracts of the papers read at the Ordinary 

G^eral Meetings, to be inserted in the Minutes and 
printed in tbe Proceedings. 

5. To edit the Transactions of the Society, and to superintend 

the making of an Index for the same. 

6. To be responsible for the arrangement and safe custody 

of the books, maps, plans, specimens, and other property 
of the So«iety. 

7. To make an entry of all books, maps, plans, pamphlets, 

Ac., in the Library Catalogue, and of all presentations 
to the Society in the Donation Book. 

8. To keep an account of the issue and return of books, 

Ac., borrowed by members of the Society, and to see 
that the borrower, in every case, signs for the same in 
the Library Book. 

9. To address to every person elected into the Society a 

prints copy of the Forms Nos. 2 and 3 (in the 
Appendix), together with a list of the members, a copy 
of the Fundamental Bules and By-laws, and a card of 
the dates of meeting ; and to acknowledge all donations 
made to the Society, by Form No, 6. 

10. To cause due notice to be given of all Meetings of the 
Society and Council. 

11. To be in attendance at 4 p.m. on the afternoon of 
Wednesday in each week during the session. 

12. To keep a list of the attendances of the members of the 
Council at the Council Meetings and at the Ordinary 
G^eral Meetings of the memben of the Society, in 
order that the same may be laid before the Society at 
the Annual General Meeting held in the month of 
May. 

The Honorary Secretaries shall, by mutual agreement, diride 
the performance of the duties above enumerated. 

The Honorary Secretaries shall, by virtue of their office, be 
members of all Committees appointed by the Council. 



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TUl 

Candidates for admission. 

IX. Every candidate for admission as an ordinary member of 
the Society shall be recommended according to a prescribed form, 
by not less than three members, to two of whom he most be 
personally known. 

Election of new Metnbers: 

X. The names of such candidates, with the names of their 
supporters, shall be read by one of the Secretaries at an Ordinary 
General Meeting of the Society. The vote as to admission to 
take place by ballot at the next subsequent meeting. At tfie 
ballot the assent of at least four-fifths of the members voting 
shall be requisite for the admission of the candidate. 

New Members to he informed of their election, 

XI. Every new member shall receive due notification of his 
election, and be supplied with a copy of the obligation (No. 8 in 
Appendix), together with a copy of the Fundamental Bules and 
By-laws of the Society, a list of members, and a card of the 
dates of meeting. 

Members whose subscriptions are unpaid to' enjoy no privileges, 

XII. An elected member shall not be entitled to attend the 
meetings nor to enjoy any privilege of the Society, nor shall his 
name be printed in the list of the Society, until he shall have 
paid his admission fee and first annual subscription, and have 
returned to the Secretaries the obligations signed by himself. 

Members shall sign Bules — Ibrmal admission, 

XIII. Every member who has complied with the preceding 
By-laws shall at the first Ordinary General Meeting at which 
he shall be present, sign a duplicate of the aforesaid obligation 
in a book to be kept for that purpose, after which he shall be 
presented by some member to the Chairman, who, addressing him 
by name, shall say : — ** By the authority and in the name of the 
Eoyal Society of New South Wales I admit you a member 
thereof." 



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IX 



Annual subicnptions, when due. 

XIY. Aimaal subscriptions sliall become due on the Ist of 
May for ihe year then commencing.. The entrance fee and first 
year's subscription of a new member shall become due on the 
day of his election. 

Subsery7tions in arrears, 

XY. Members who have not paid their subscriptions for the 
current year, on or before the 31st of May, shall be informed of 
the fact by the Hon, Treasurer. 

And at the meeting held in July, and at aU subsequent meetings 
for the year, a list of the names of all those members who are in 
arrears with their annual subscriptions shall be suspended in the 
Booms of the Society. Members shaU in such cases be informed 
that their names have been thus posted. 

ReHgnation of Members, 

XVI. No member shall be at liberty to withdraw from the 
Society without previously giving notice to one of the Secretaries 
of his desire to withdraw, and returning all books or other 
property belonging to the Society. Members will be considered 
liable for the payment of aU subscriptions due from them up to 
the date at which they may give notice of their intention to 
withdraw from the Society. 

Expulsion of Memhers, 

XVII. A majority of members present at any ordinary meet- 
ing shall have power to expel an obnoxious member &om the 
Society, provided that a resolution to that effect has been moved 
and seconded at the previous ordinary meeting, and that due 
notice of the same has been sent in writing to the member in 
question, within a week after the meeting at which such resolution 
has been brought forward. 

Contributions to the Society, 

XVni. Contributions to the Society, of whatever character^ 
must be sent to one of the Secretaries, to be laid before the 



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Council of Management. It will be the duty of the CouncU to 
arrange for promulgation and discuseion at an Ordinary Meeting 
such communications as are suitable for that purpose, as well as 
to dispose of the whole in the manner best adapted to promote 
the objects of the Society. 

Order of Butinest, 

XIX. At the Ordinary General Meetings the business shall be 
transacted in the following order, unless the Churman specially 
decide otherwise : — 

1 — Minutes of the preceding Meeting. 

2 — New Members to enrol their names and be introduced. 

3 — Ballot for the election of new Members. 

4 — Candidates for membership to be proposed. 

6 — Business arising out of Minutes. 

6 — Communications from the Council. 

7 — Communications from the Sections. 

8 — Donations to be laid on the Table and acknowledged. 

9 — Correspondence to be read, 
10 — Motions from last Meeting. 

11 — Notices of Motion for the next Meeting to be given in. 
12 — Papers to be read. 
13 — Discussion. 
14 — Notice of Papers for the next Meeting. 

Admission of Visitors. 

XX. Every ordinary member shall have the privilege of admit- 
ting two friends as visitors to an Ordinary General Meeting of 
the Society, on the following conditions : — 

1. That the name and residence of the visitors, together 

with the name of the member introducing them, be 
entered in a book at the time. 

2. That they shall not have attended two consecutive 

meetings of the Society in the current year. 

The Council shall have power to introduce visitors, irrespective 
of the above restrictions. 



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Management of Funds, 

XXI. The fonds of the Society sliaU be lodged at a Bank 
named bj the Council of Management. Claims against the 
Society, when approTed by the Council, shall be paid by the 
Treasurer. 

Money Orants. 

AAII. Grants of money in aid of scientific purposes from the 
funds of the Society — to Sections or to members — shall expire on 
the 1st of November in each year. Such grants, if not expended, 
may be re-voted. 

XX ML Such grants of money to Committees and individual 
members shall not be used to de&ay any personal expenses which 
a member may incur. 

Audit ofAeeotmts. 

XXIY. Two Auditors shall be appointed annually, at an 
Ordinary Meeting, to audit the Treasurer's Accounts. The 
accounts as audited to be laid before the Annual Meeting in 
May. 

JProperty of the Society to he vested in the Vice-Presidents , Sfc, 

XXV. All property whatever belonging to the Society shall be 
vested in the Vice-Presidents, Hon. Treasurer, and Hon. Secre- 
taries for the time being, in trust for the use of the Society ; but 
the Council shall have control over the disbursements of the funds 
and the management of the property of the Society. 

Library, 

XXVI. The Members of the Society shall have access to, and 
shall be entitled to borrow books from the Library, under such 
regulations as the Council may think necessary. 

Musewn. 
XXVn. It shall be one of the objects of the Society to form 
aMuieum. 



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xu 

Branch Societies. 

XXVIII. The Society shall have power to form Branch 
Societies in other parts of the Colony. 

Sectioks. 

XXIX. To allow those members of the Society who devote 
attention to particular branches of science fuller opportunities 
and facilities of meeting and working together with fewer formal 
restrictions than are necessary at the general Monthly Meetings 
of the Society, — Sections or Committees may be established in 
the following branches of science : — 

Section A. — Astronomy, Meteorology, Physics, Mathematics, 
and Mechanics. 

• Section B, — Chemistry and Mineralogy, and their application 
to the Arts and Agriculture. 

Section G, — Geology and FalsDontology. 

Section D. — Biology, i.e., Botany and Zoology, including 
Entomology. 

Section E. — Microscopical Science. 

Section F. — Geography and Ethnology. 

Section G. — Literature and the Eine Arts, including 
Architecture. 

Section R. — Medical. 

Section I. — Sanitary and Social Science and Statistics. 

Beportefrom Sections. 

XXX. There shall be for each Section a Chairman to preside 
at the meetings, and a Secretary to keep minutes of the pro- 
ceedings, who shall jointly prepare and forward to the Hon. 
Secretaries of the Society, on or before the 7th of November in 
each year, a report of the proceedings of the Section during 
that year, in order that the same may be transmitted to the 
Council. 



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Xlll 



Section Qmmitfeeg — Card qf Meetings. • 

XXXI. The first meeting of each Section shall be appointed 
by the Council. At that meeting the members shall elect their 
own Chairman, Secretary, and a Committee of four ; and arrange 
the days and hours of their future meetings. A card showing 
the dates of each meeting for the current year shall be printed 
fcNT distribution amongst the members of the Society. 

Money Grants to Sections, 

XXXII. By application to the Council, grants of money may 
be made out of the General Funds of the Society to the Sections. 

Membership of Sections. 

XXXin. No person who is not a member of the Society shall 
haTe the privilege of joining any of the Sections. 



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nv 
Fonn No* 1. 

BOTAL SOOIBTT OF NbW SOUTH WlLBB. 

CeHifleaU of a Candidaie for Meetion. 
Name 

Qualification or oocupation 

Address 

being desirona of admission into the Bojal Society of Kew Sooth Wales, ira, 

the undersigned members of the Society, propose and recommend him as a 

proper person to become a member tihereof . 

Dated this * day of , 18 . 



FbOK FBB80KAL KlTOWLBDGB. 



Signature of candidate 

Pate receired 18 



Wbom. G-miDULL Khowudoi. 



Form No. 2. 

BOTAL SOOXBTY OF NbW SoITTH WaLIS. 

The Society's Booms, 
Sir, Sydney, 18 . 

I hare the honor to inform you that you hare this day been elected a 
member of the Boyal Society of New South Wales, and I beg to forward to 
you a copy of the Fundamental Bules and By-laws of the Society, a printed 
copy of an obligation, a list of members, and a card announcing the dates 
of meeting during the present session. 

According to the Begulations of the Society (vide Bule No. 6), you are 
required to pay your admission fee of one guinea, and annual subscription 
of one guinea for the current year, before admission. You are also requested 
to sign and return the endoeed form of obligation at your earliest conyenienoe. 

I haye honor to be. 
Sir, 
Your most obedient seryant. 

To Hon. Seoretaiy. 

Fonn No* 3* 

BoTAL Soomrr of Nbw Soitth Walbb. 

I, the undersigned, do hereby engage that I will endeayour to promote. 

the interests and wel&re of the Boyal Society of New South Wales, and to 

obserye its Bules and By-laws as long as I shall remain a member thereof. 

Signed, 
Address 

Date 



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XV 

Fonn No. 4. 

BOTAL SOOIBTT 07 NbW SoUTH WaLBS. 

The Society's Booms, 
Sip, Sydney, 18 . 

I hare the honor to inform yon thafc your annual subscription of one 
guinea for the current year became due to the Boyal Society on the Ist of 
May last. 

It is requested that payment may be ftiade by cheque or Post Office order 
drawn in faTOur of the Hon. Treasurer. 

I hare the honor to be, 
Sir, * 
Your most obedient serrant. 

To Hon. Treasurer. 



Form No. 5« 

BOTAL SOCIBTT OF NsW SOTTTH WALBS. 

The Sooie^s Booms, 

Sir, Sydney, 18 . 

I am desired by the Boyal Society of New South Wales to forward to 

you a copy of its Journal for the year 18 , as a donation to the library of 

your Society. 

I am further requested to mention that the Society will be thankful to 

receiYe such of the yeiy valuable publications issued by your Society as it 

may feel disposed to send. 

I hare the honor to be. 

Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

Hon. Seoretaiy. 



Form No* 6. 

BOTAL SOOITBT 07 NlW SOITTH WaLBS. 

The Society's Booms, 
Sir, Sydney, 18 . 

On behaH of the Boyal Society of Kew South Wales, I beg to acknow- 
ledge the receipt of and I am directed to convey to you the 
best thanks of the Society for your most valuable donation. 

I have the honor to be. 
Sir, 
Your most obedient servant, 

Hon* Sdcretary. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XVI 

Form No. 7. 

Balloting lAHfor the Sleetum of the Officers attd Council, 

BoTAL SocntTT OP Nbw South Walks. 

May, 18 



If jovL wish to substitute any other name in place of that proposed, erase 
the printed name in the seooncf column, and write opposite to it, in the third, 
that which you wish to substitute. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



LIST OF THE MEMBERS 



NOTICE. 

Memben are particularly requested to communicate any change 
of address to the Hon. Secretaries/ for which purpose this slip is 
inserted. 



Corrected Addrmi, 




\ 
\ 

1876 
1876 
1875 
1875 

1877 
1875 
1876 



To the 

Hon* SeorotariMy 

Boyal Sooiefy of K. S. W., 

Eliiabeth-Bt, STdney. 



1877 



xyumooia. * 
Bartels, W. C. W., UDion Club. 
Bassetfc, W. F., M.R.C.8., JEng., Bathurst. 
Bedford, W. J. G., M.R.C.S. Eng,, Staff Surgeon. 
Belgrare, Thomas B., M.D. Edin., M.R.C.S. Ef^,y LiTerpool- 

street. 
Belfield, Algernon H., £7er8leigh, Armidale. 
BelisariOy John, M.D. Ljons' Terrace. 
Benbow, Clement A., 24, College-street. 
P 3 Beosusan, S. L., Exohanffe, Pitt-street. 
Bennett, John, Yictoria Theatre, Sydney. 



Digitized by VjQQ QlC 



XXVI 



EleotedL 

1871 
1868 

1874 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1875 

1875 



1876 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1866 
1872 

1870 
1876 
1876 
1850 



PI 



P19 



1874 

1876 

1876 

1876 
1856 
1876 
1874 
1859 
1865 

1869 
1870 



1878 
1876 
1876 

1874 
1875 
1876 
1876 



P2 
P2 



Brazier, John, C.M.Z.S., 11, Windmill-street. 

Brereton, John Le Qaj, M.D. St. Andrew* t, L.B.G.8. Bdin.^ 

Macquarie-strcet. 
Brewster, John, George-street. 
BristoTre, E. H. C, 372, Crown-strect, Sydney. 
Brodribb, W. A., Double Bay. 
Brown, Henry Joseph, Newcastle. 

Brown, Thomas, EskbAnlc, Boweufels, and Australian Club. 
Bum, James Henry, Moncur-strcet, WooUahrs. 
Busby, The Hon. William, M.L.C., Bedleaf, South Head Boad, 

near Woollahra. 
Burton, Edmund, Land Titles Office, Elizabeth-street North. 



Cadell, Alfred, Yeffetable Creek, New England. 
CadcU, Thomas, Wotonga, East St. Leonards. 
Campbell, Allan, L.R.C.P., OlasqoWf Yasa. 
Campbell, The Hon. Alexander. M.L.C., WooUahra. 
CampbeU, The Hon. Charles, M.L.C., Pino Villa, Newtown, 
Campbell, The Hon. John, M.L.C., Campbell's Wharf, Lower 

George-street. 
Cane, Alfred, Stanley-street. 
Chandler, Alfred, 185 Pitt-streot. 
Christie, Wm., L.8., Hawthorn Lodge, Glen Innes. 
fCkrke, Eev. W. B., M.A. Cantab., F.B.S., F.G.S., O.M.Z.S., 

F.R.G.S., Mem. G^ol. Soc. France, Corres. Imp. Roy. GeoL 

Inet. Austria, Hon. Mem. N.Z. Inst. Cor. Mem. Boy. Soe. 

Tasmania, Fellow of St. Paul's College, Tice-Prendent, 

Branthwaite, St. Leonards, North Shore. 
Clay, William French, M. A., Can<ai.,-M.D. Syd., M.R.C.S. Eng.^ 

Fellow of St. Paul's Col., North Shore. 
Clune, Michael Joseph, M.A.,Lic. K. & Q. Coll. Phys. IreL, 

Lie. R. Coll. Sur. Irtl., 4, Hyde Park Terrace. 
Codrington, John Fredk., M.R.C.S., E. ; Lie. B.C. Phys., L. ; 

Lie. B.C. Phvs., Edin., Orange. 
Colyer, John Usher Cox, A.S.N. Company, Sydney. 
Comrie, James, Northfield, Eurrajong. 
Conder, Wm-, Survey Office, Sydney. 
Coombcs, Edward, Bathurst. 

Cox, James, M.D. JSdin, C.M.Z.S., F.L.S., Hunter-street. 
CrackneU, £. C, Superintendent of Telegraphs, Telegraph Office, 

George-street. 
Creed, J. Mildred, M.B.C.S. Sng,y Scone. 
Croudace, Tliomas, Lambton. 



Daintrey, Edwin, .^)olia, Randwiok. 
Dalgamo, John Y., Telegraph Office, George-street. 
Dansey, (George fVederick, M.R.C.S., London, York and Mar- 
garet Streets, Wynyard Square. 
Dansey, John, M.R.C.S. Sng., Wynyard Square. 
Dangar, Frederick H., Greenknowes, Darlinghurst. 
Darl^, Cecil West, Newcastle. 
Daridson, L. Gordon, M.D., M.C., Aberdeen, Goulbum. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



xxvu 



1856 
1869 
1876 
1875 
1873 
1876 
1876 
1875 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1873 
1874 



1875 
1876 
1876 

1874 

1876 
1876 
1876 



1868 
18B8 
1872 
1874 

1876 
1876 
1856 
1863 
1875 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1876 



1868 
1876 
1876 
1875 
1876 

1876 
1859 
1868 
1876 



PI 



Deffell, George H., Glark's-street, Hunter's Hill. 

De Lissa, Alfred, Pitt-street. 

De Sali«, The Hon. Lconold Fane, M.L.C., Union Club. 

De Salis, L. W. junr., Union Club. 

Dibbs, G^eorge R., M.P., 131, Pitt-street. 

Digbt, Arthur, Bichmond. 

Dixon Douglas, Australian Club. 

Dixon, W. A., F.C.S., Hunter-street. 

Docker, Ernest, M.A. Stfdn,f Roslyn st, Macleay-street. 

Douglas James, L.B.C.S. Bdin,^ Hope Terrace, Glebe Road. 

Drake, William Hedley, Commercial Bank, InTercU. 

Du Eaur, Eccleston, P.B.G.S., Bialto Terrace. 

Dumaresq, William A. 



Eaffar, The Hon. Ckoltrey, Colonial Treasury, Macquarie-street. 

Ea&e, John, Duckenfteld Park, Morpeth. 

Egan Myles, M.B.O.S., Eng., 2, Hyde Park Terrace, Liverpool- 
street. 

Eichler, Oharlcj P., M.D., Heidelberg, M.B.C.S., Eng,y Bridge- 
street. 

Eldred, W. H., 119, Castlereagh-street. 

Evans, George, Como, Darling Point. 

Evans, Owen Spencer, M.R.C.S., Eng., Darling-street, Balmain. 



Fairfax, The Hon. John, M.L.C., Herald Office, Hunter-street. 

Fairfax, James B., Herald Office, Hunter-street. 

Famell, J. Squire, M.P., Ryde. 

Fischer, Carl F., M.D., F.L.S., Soc. Zool. Bot. Vindob. Socius., 

251, Macquarie-street. 
Fisher, Chas. Marshall, 132, Pitt-street. 
Fitzgerald, R. D., F.L.S., Surveyor Gkncral's Office. 
Flavelle, John, George-street. 

Fortescne, G., M.B. Lond., P.B.C.S., F.L.S., Lyons' Terrace. 
Eraser, Hon. John, M.L.C., Quirang, WooUahra. 
Frean Bichard, M.R.C.8. Eng., Sydney Infirmary. 
Freehill, Bernard Austin, 130, Elizabeth-street. 
Firth, Bev. Frank, Wesleyan Parsonage, Newcastle. 
Fyffie, Benjamin, M.B.C.S. Eng.^ Castlereagh-street. 



Ghmran, Andrew, LL.D. 8gd., Rerald Office, Hunter-street 

George, W. B, 172, Castlereagh-street. 

Gilchrist, W. O., Elizabeth Bay. 

Gilliat, Henry Alfred, Australian Club. 

Giilman, Thomas Henry, B.A., CM., M.D., Queen's Univ. Irehy 

Mast. Surg. Queen's Univ. Irel.y 20, College-street. 
Gipps, F. B., Strathspey House, Macquarie-street. 
6K)odlet, John H., George-street. 

Goodchap, Charies, Department of Public Works, Phillip-street. 
Goode, George, M.B. Univ. Dif*., B.A., M.C.L., Eversaeld 

House, Camden. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XXTUl 



mected. 
1876 
1873 
1875 



1864 
1874 
1874 

1876 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1859 
1876 
1868 
1876 



1870 



1876 



1876 

1876 
1876 

1874 
1876 

1876 
1867 
1874 
1868 

1876 
1873 
1876 

1873 

1874 
1874 
1875 



1876 
1867 
1876 



PI 



PI 



P8 



Graham, Hon. Wm., M.L.C., The Union Club, Sydney. 
Greares, W. A. B., Armidale. 
Grundy, F. H., 183, Pitt-streefc. 



Hale, Thomas, Gresham-Btreet. 

Hardy, J., Hunter-street. 

Hay, The Hon. John, M.A., Olas^ow, M.L.O., President of the 

Legislative Counal, Rose Bay, WooUahra. 
Hayley, WUliam Foxton, M.R.C.S., JSn^., Goulbum. 
Heaton, J. H., Town and Country Office, Pitt-street. 
Helsham, Douglass, York's Terrace, Glebe. 
Heron, Henry, 4, Kialto Terrace, "William-street South. 
tHill, Edward S., C.M.Z.S., Rose Bay, Woollalira. 
Hirst, G^o. D., 379, GkoMe-street. 

Holt, The Hon. Thomas, M.L.C., The Warren, near Sydney. 
Holroyd, Arther Todd, M.B. Cantab., M.D. Edin,, Fi.S., 

F.Z.S., F.R.G.S., Master-in-Eqm^, Sherwood Scrube, 

Parramatta. 
Horton, Rer. Thomas, Point Piper Road, Woollahra. 



Icely, Thos. R., Oarcoar. 



Jackson, Henry William, L.R.O.S. Sdin., Lie. R. Phys., JWmi., 

130, Phillip-street. 
Jarrett, Fredk. C, 292, George-street. 
Jenkins, Richard Lewis, M.B.C.S., Nepean Towers, Douglass 

Park. 
Jennings, P. A., Edgecliffe Road, Woollahra. 
> Jones, James Aberdeen, lie. R.O. Phys,. JEdin., Booth-street, 

Balmain. 
Jones, Richard Theophilus, H.D. Svdn,, L.B.O.P..i?<f »'»., Ashfield. 
Jones, P. Sydney, M.D* Lond,, F.R.O.S. Eng., College-street^ 
Jones James, Bathurst-street. 
Josephson, Joshua Frey, F.G.S., District Court Judge, Enmore 

Road, Newtown. 
Josephson, J. P., 253, Maequarie-street North. 
Eater, Henry Herman, Burwood. 
Eede, Thos. Wm., Harbours and Rirers Department, Phillip* 

street. 
Kennedy, Hugh, B.A. Oxon, Registrar of the Sydney Unirer- 

sity, Enmore Road. 
King, Philip G., William-street, Double Bay. 
Enox, George, B.A., Cantab., Eing-street. 
Enox, Edwturd, 24, Bridge-street. 



Lambert, G.P., M.R.C.S. JFn^., Phillip-street. 

Lang, Rev. Jolm Dumnore, D.D., M JL. GUuffow, Jamison-street. 

Langley, W.E., Merald Office, Sydney. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XXIX 



Electod. 
1874 
1876 

1859 

1874 
1872 



1875 

1874 
1876 
1876 



1870 
1859 
1868 
1872 
1874 
1876 
1876 
1876 

1873 
1873 
1876 

1869 
1872 
1876 

1876 
1876 
1875 
1876 
1876 
1874 

1876 
1876 

1868 
1873 
1876 

1876 
1875 
1875 
1876 
1856 



P 1 Latta, a. J., 0*Ck)nncU.8trect. 

Laure, Louis Thos., M.D. Surg. Unir. Parisy 131, Oastlcreagh- 
street. 
P 5 fLeibius, Adolph, Ph. D. Heidelberg^ Senior Assayer to the 
Sydney Branch of the Boyal Mmt, Hon, Secretary, 
Lenehan, Henry Alfred, Computer,, Sydney Observatory. 
P 8 fLirersidge, ^Archibald, F.O.S. ; P.a.S. ; Assoc. R. S. Mines, 
Lond. ; Mem. Phy. Soc. London ; Mem. Mineralogical Soc. 
Gt. Brit, and Irel. ; Cor. Mem. Roy. Soc. Tas. ; Cor. Mem. 
Senckenberg Institute, Frankfurt ; Dor. Mem. Soc.d'Acclimat. 
Mauritius; Professor of Qeology and Mineralogy in the 
University of Sydney, Hon. Secretary, Union Club. 
Living, John, MarsLloo, North Shore. 
Lloyd, Georee Alfred, M.P., F.R.G.S., O'Connell-street. 
fLord, The Hon. Francis, M.L.C., North Shore. 
Lyons, W., M.R.C.S., Eng., WoUongong. - 



Macafee, Arthur H. C, York-street. 
MacDonnell, William, George-street. 
MacDonnell, William J., F.R.A.8., George-street. 
Mackenzie, John, F.G.S., Examiner of Coal Fields, Newcastle. 
Mackenzie, W. F., M.R.C.S., Eng., Lyons* Terrace. 
Mackenzie, Rev. P. F., Paddington. 

Mackellar, Chas; Kinnard, M.B., CM., Olae., Lyons* Terrace. 
Maclaurin, Henry Norman, M.A., M.D. Univ., JSdin.f Lie. R. 

Coll. Sur. Sdin., 187, Macquario-strect. 
Makin, G. E., Berrima. 
fManning, James, Milsom's Point, North Shore 
Manning, Frederick Norton, M.D. Univ. St, And., M.R.C.S., 

Sng.f Lie. Soc. Apoth. Lond,, Gladesville. 
Mansfield, G.A., Pitt-street. 

Marsden, The Right Rev. Dr., Bishop of Bathurst, Bathurst. 
Marshall, George, M.D. Univ. Olas., Lie. R. Coll. 8. Edin., 

Lyons' Terrace. 
Martin, Rev. George, Newtown. 
Martin, John, Ryde. 
Mathews, R. H., Mundooran. 
McCarthy, W. F., Deepdeen, Glcnmore Road. 
M'Culloch, A. H., jun., 165, Pitt-street. 
M*Cutcheon, Jolin Warner, Assayer to the Sydney Branch of the 

Royal Mint. 
M*Guire, W. H., Telegraph Office, George-street. 
M*Kay, Charles, M.D. Univ. St. And., Lie. R. Coll. Surg. Edin,, 

Church Hill. 
Metcalfe, Midiael, Bridge-street. 

Milford, F., M.D., Heidelberg, M.R.C.S. Eng., CoUege-street. 
Milford, Saml. Fredk. Tollett, M.R.C.S., E., M.B. Univ. 

Heidelberg, College-street. 
l^Iillard, Rev. Henry Shaw, Newcastle Grammar School. 
Moir, James, Margaret-street. 
Montefiorc, E. L., Maclcay-street. 
Monteflore, George B., 5, Gresham-street. 
tMoore, Charles, F.L.S., Director of the Botanic Gardens, 

Botanic Gardens. 



P4 



P4 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



zxx 



Elected. 

1865 

1872 

1876 

1876 

1865 
1876 
1876 



1873 
1874 
1874 
1876 

1876. 

1873 

1875 



1876 
1875 



1876 
1876 
1876 
1861 
1874 
1872 
1876 
1876 

1862 



1876 

1876 
1876 



1865 

1876 
1874 
1868 



PI 



PI 



Morehead. R. A. A., 30, O'Connell-street. 

Morrell, G. A., C.E., Department of WoAb, Phillip-streot. 

Morgan, Cosby William, M.D. BrusSeU, LJEt.O^. Land., 1, 
Grofvenor Terrace, Church Hill. 

Morgan, Allan Bradley, M.B.C.S. En^., Lie. Mid. Lie. B. CoU. 
Phjs. Sdin,, Ashenhurst, Burwood. 

Morgan, Thos. Cecil, Lie. R.C.S., E., 1j.M.B.CJ3., Irel, Austra- 
lian Club. 

Mnruin, M. E., Exchange, Bridge-street. 

Murray, W. G., Macquarie-street. 

Myles, Chas. Henry, WjToela, Burwood. 



NeiU, William, City Bank, Pitt-street. 

Neill, A. L. P., City Bank, Pitt-street 

Nicol, D., Burwood. 

Niekl, John Cash, M.D. & CD., Berlin, M.B.O.S. Eng., Lie. 

Soc. Apoth. Lond,, Elzabeth-street, Sydney. 
Kilson, Aroid, Department of Mines. 
Norton, James, Elizabeth-street. 
Nott, Thomas, M.D. Aherdeem, M.B.C.8. JBng., WooUahia. 



O'Beilly, W. W. J., M.D., M.C., Q. Univ. /rei., M.B.C.S., Sny., 

liyerpool-street. 
Owen, The Hon. Bobert, M.L.a, 88, Eli«abcth-stpeet. 



Palmer, J. H., Legislative Assembly. 

Parbury, Chas., Uiiion Club. 

Parrott, Thomas S., Ashfield. 

Paterson, Hugh, Macquarie-street. 

Pedley, Frederick, Wynyard-square. 

Pendergast, Bobert, Hay-street. 

Phillip, H., Pacific Insimince Company. 

Pickbum Thomas, l^LD., Aberdeen, Ch. M^ M JLC.S., JSng., 40, 

College-street. 
'Prince, Henry, George-street. 



Quaife, Fredk. Harrison, M.D., Mast. Snrg. UxiiT. Gloi,, Piper- 
street, Woollahra. 
Quirk. Bcv. Dr. J. A., OjS.B., LL.Q., Sjfd,, Lyndhurst CdUge. 
Quodling, W. H., Burwood. 



(Bamsay, Edward, F.L.S., Curator of the Austzaliftn Museum* 

College-street. 
Batte, F., Noumea, New Caledonia. 
Bead, Beginald Bligh, M.B.C.S., Soff,, Bandwick. 
Beading, E., Mem. Odont. Soa Land,, Castkreagh-street. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XXXI 



Ktoeted. 
1876 
1870 

1856 
1868 

1876 
1871 
1872 

1873 
1856 
1865 
1876 
1864 



1875 

1876 
1876 
1876 

1856 



1876 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1875 
1876 
1873 

1875 
1872 
1852 



1875 
1874 
1876 
1876 
1870 
1876 
1874 
1872 



1867 
1876 



Beeco, J. D., Surrejor General's Office. 

Benwick, Arthur, k.D. Edin., B.A., Sjfdn., P.B.O.S.B., 295, 

Elizabeth-street. 
Boberts, J., G^eorge-street. 
F 7 Roberts, Alfred, M.B.O.S. Enff., Hon. Mem. Zool. and Bot. Boo. 

Vienna, Phillip-street. 
Roberts, Bey. W. fl., B. A., Dublin, St. Paul's College, Newtown. 
Bobertson, Thomas, M.P., Pitt-street North. 
Bobipson, HiaEzcellencj 8ir Hercules, K.G.M.G., Goremor of 

New South Wales, GoTemment House. 
Boeers, Bev. Edward, Bural Dean, Fort-street. 
PlOJtRoUeston, Christopher, Auditor General, Cattlereagh-street. 
Boss, J. Grafton, 24, Bridge-street. 
Bowling, Dr., Mudgee. 
P 9 fBussell, Henry 0., B.A., %i., F.BjLS., RM.S., Hon. Mem. 

S. Aust. Inst., GoTemment Astronomer, -Sydney Obserra- 

tory, Tice-President. 



Sa^, Charles L., Germin Consul, Consulate of the German 

Empire, Wynyard Square. 
Saliniere, Rev. E. M., Glebe. 

Samuel, The Hon. Saul, C.M.G., M.L.C., Gresham«street. 
Schuette, Rudolf, M.D., Umr. Ootdn^en, Lie. Soc. Apoth. Lond., 

10, College-street. 
P8 tJScott, Bot. William, M.A. Cantab., Hon. Mem. Boy. Soc. Vic., 

Warden of St. Paul's College, Son. Treasurer, St. Paul's 

College, Newtown. 
Scott, A.W., M.A. Cantab., Femdale, South Head Boad. 
Sedgwick, Wm. Gillett, M.B.CJ3., Ew;., Newtown. 
Sharp, James Burleigh, J.P., Clifton Wood, Yass. 
Sharp, Henry, Green Hills, AdelOng. 
Sheppard, Bey. G., EliiabeUi-street. 
Shields, John, M.B.C.S., Ed., Boga. 
Simon, Eugene, Consul for France, French Consulate, Gkorge- 

street. 
Slade, G.P., Wlieatley, North Shore. 
Sleep, John 8., 189, Pitt-rtreet 
P7 fSmith, John, The Hon., M.D., LLJ)., Aberdeen, M.L.C., F.C.8., 

Hon. Mem. Boy. Soc. Vic., Professor of Physics and 

Chemistry in the University of Sydney, 193, Macquarie- 

street. 
Smith, Bobt, B.A., Shfd., Solicitor, Bridge-street 
Smith, J<>hn M'Gturrie, 404, George-street. 
Smith, R. S., Surveyor Genwral's Office. 
Southey, H.E., Oaklands, Mittagong. 
Spencer, Walter W., Lyons' Terrace. 
Stackhour<e, Tlios., Commander R J^., AiistraUan Club. 
Stephen, Edward M., Madeay-street. 
P 1 Stephen, Gkofge Milner, B. A., F.G.9., Mem. Geol. Soc. of €kr- 

many ; Cor. Mom. Nat. Hist Soc., Dresden ; F.B.GJ9. of 

Cornwall; Aahfield. 
Stephens, William John, MJl. Oxon., 233, Darlinghurst Boad. 
Stopps, Arthur J., Surveyor General's Office. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XXXll 



Elected. 
1876 

1874 

1876 
1876 



1874 
1876 
1862 
1876 
1870 
1875 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1873 
1876 
1868 
1875 
1875 



1874 
1876 



1867 
1870 
1867 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1859 
1874 
1876 
1876 
1867 

1874 
1875 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1874 
1876 
1862 
1876 
1873 
1874 
1876 
1872 



P4 
PI 



Stroi?g, Wm. Edmund, M.D., Ahefdeen, M.K.C.S., Eng.f Lirer- 

pool. 
Stuart, The Hon. Alexander, M.P., CJoloiiial Treasurer, Glanes, 

Cambridge-street, South Kingston, Petersham. 
Stuart, Clarendon, Upper William Street South. 
Suttor, Wm. Henry, XP., Cangoura, Bathurst. 



Taylor, Chas., M.D. Syd,, M.R.C.S., :Eng,, Parramatta. 

Tayler, William George, F.R.C.S., Lond.y 219, Pitt-street. 

Tebbutt, John, junr., F.R.A.S., Private Observatory, Windsor. 

Tennant, E. G., M.R.C.S.B., Orange. 

Thompson, H. A., O'Connell-stroet. 

Thompson, Joseph, Potts' Point. 

Thomas, H., Arding, Narellan. 

Thomas, Wm. SmiUi, M.R.C.S., Eng,, WoUongong. 

Tibbits, Walter Hugh, Dubbo. 

Toohey, J. T., Melrose Cottage, Cleveland-street. 

Trebeck, Prosper N., George-street. 

Trouton, F. H., A.S.N. Company's Offices, Sydney. 

Tucker, WiUiam, Clifton, North Shore. 

Tulloh, W. H., Maraaret-street. 

Turner, G., Argyle Terrace, Redfem. 



Vessey, Leonard A., Survey Office. 
Voss, Houlton H., Union Club. 



Walker, Philip B., Telegraph Office, G^eorge-street. 

Wallis, William, Moncur Lodge, Potts* Point. 

Ward, R. D., M.R.C.S. ^ii^.. North Shore. 

Waterhouse, J. M.A. Syd.^ Newington College, Parramatta. 

Watkins, John Leo, B.A. Cantab,, M.A. Syd.y Randwick. 

Watson, C. Russell, M.R.C.S., Eng.^ Camden Terrace, Newtown. 

Watt, Charles, New Pitt-street. 

Watt, John B., The Hon., M.L.C., 104, Madcay-street. 

Waugh, Isaac, M.B., M.C., T,C,I>., Parramatta. 

Webster, A. S., Union Club. 

Weigall, Albert Bythesea, B.A. Oxon., M.A. 8yd,y Head Master 

of the Sydney Grammar School, College-street. 
White, Rev. James S., M.A., LL.D., Svd., Gowrie, Singleton. 
White, Hon. James, M.L.C., Cranbrook, Double Bay. 
Wilson, F. H., Newtown. 

Windeycr, Hon. W. C, M.A., M.L.A., Sgd., King-street. 
Wise, George Foster, Immigration Office, Hyde Park. 
Wilkinson, C. S., GK)vemment Otologist, Department of Mines. 
Wilkinson, Henry Toller, Department of Mmes. 
Williams, J. P., New Pitt-street. 
Williams, Percy, Treasury. 

Wood, Harrie, Under Secretary for Mines, Department of Mines. 
Woodgate, E., Parramatta. 
Woolrjch, F. B. W., 138, Castlereagh-street. 
Wright, Horatio, G. A., M.R.C.S., Eng.y Wynvard Square. 



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XXXIU 



HoHOBABY Members. 

Elect4fd, Aitgutt, 1875. 

Agnvw, Dr., Hon. Seoretary, Bojal Society of Tasmania, Hobart Town. 

Baiklbb, The Horn F., Colonial Secretary of Western Australia, Perth. 

Bebkays, Lewis A., P.L.S., Yioe-President of the Queensland Acclimatization 
Society, Bnabane. 

EuJEBY, Bobert F., F.B.S., F.BA.S., Qt)yenmient Astronqpmar of Victoria, 
Melbourne. 

Obbgoby^ Augustus Charles, F.B.G.S., Surreyor (General of Queenshind, 
Brisbane. 

Haast, Dr. Julius tou, Ph. D., F.B.S., F.G-.S., Goyemment G^logist and 
Director of the Canterbury Museum, New Zealand. 

Heotoe, James, C.M.Q-., M.D., F.B.S., Director of the Colonial Museum and 
Geologic^ Surrey of New Zea^ndi, Wellington. 

M'COY, Frederick, F.G.S., Hon. F.C.P.S., CJ1.Z.S., Professor of Natural 
S<3eDce in the Melbourne Uniyersity, Gk>yemment Paheontologist, and 
Director of the National Museum, Melbourne. 

MFiiBB, Baron Ferdinand von, CMLG., M.D., Ph. D., F.R.S., F.L.S., 
Gk^yemment Botanist, Melbourne. 

ScHOMBUBGH, Dr., Director of the Botanic Gardens, Adelaide, South 
Australia. 

WATKRH0T7SB, F. G., F.G.S., C.M.Z.S., Curator of the Museum, Adelaide, 
South Australia. 

WooD^ Bey. Julian B. Tenison, F.G.S., F.B.G.S., Hon*. Mem. Boy. Soo., 
Yic, Hobart Town, Tasmania, 



Cockle, His Honor Sir James, Chief Justice, M.A., F.B.S., Brisbane, 
Queensland. 



Bleated, December 6, 1876. 
ir James, Chief J 

Db Kokinck, Prof., M.D.^Li^e, Belgium. 

Obituabt, 1876. 

Elected. 

1876. Cakebon, £wen, Balmain. 
1876. OsBOBKB, James, WoUongong. 
1874. Kaymond, L. C, Union Bank. 
1876. Cambbok, a. B., M.D., Bichmond. 



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ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS, 

Delivered to the Eoyal Society, 17th May, 1876, by Eev. W. B. 
Clabke. Jf^.. F.R.S.. W.n Ft /«•/* rv/./.. P*./»a*-/7-*.^ 



EREATA SLIP. 

For the correction of errors, this slip should be filled up and returned to 
the Hon. Secretaries. 



Corrected Addrest. 



J» Name 



.; Titles, &o.. 



Address 



Date 



To-night I have not been enabled to exercise similar caution, 
but I am equally contented to have personal experience of the 
continuation of the blessings now being showered upon us. 



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ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS, 

Delivered to the Boyal Society, 17th May, 1876, by Eev. W. B. 
Clabke, M.A., F.B.8., F,G.S,, ^c, Vtce-Fresident, 



Geittlemen, 

On the last Anniversary I ventured to draw somewhat 
largely on your patience by a discussion of two important topics 
which required a considerable amount of research and made it 
necessary for me to detain you somewhat longer than usual. To- 
night I propose to confine myself to the Society itself, and to 
what may be suggested by the events of the period that has 
elapsed since I last addressed you. 

It is my first duty to mention the Conversazione which was 
held on the 3rd instant, and was, I understand, a great success. 
The multiplicity of interesting objects exhibited, and the 
explanations afforded by the Astronomer and others, gratified a 
company of three hundred persons, many of whom were the guests 
of the Society. It was unfortunate that several ladies who had 
graced the room with their presence suffered from the heavy 
rain that fell as they returned from the assembly, but after the 
alarming dryness that had so long threatened and at last had 
begun to create fears of a continuous drought, they could scarcely 
complain of what was an undoubted blessing to thousands in the 
land. I regret that I was not well enough to attend, but at the 
same time I confess I was warned early in the day by the appear- 
ance of the sky, and recrossed the harbour before the hour of 
meeting. 

To-night I have not been enabled to exercise similar caution, 
but I am equally contented to have personal experience of the 
contiDuation of the blessings now being showered upon us. 



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2 ANKIYEBSIAT ADDBE8S. 

Tou have heard from the Treasurer what is our pecuniary 
condition. Considering the expenses which were incurred for 
furniture and other unavoidable demands upon us in the form of rent 
and other necessary obligations, it would seem that the Society's 
finances are in a satisfactory state ; as the bank balance is now 
somewhat in advance of what it was in May, 1875, whilst the 
assets exceed the liabilities. But in consideration of future con- 
tingencies, of which I will speak presently, economy will have to 
be used if we are to continue as a self-supporting body. 

It is a great mishap that so many former members, some of 
whom were included in our last year's registration, should have 
induced the Council to put in force a regulation of the Society 
which, after notice given at the last Anniversary and not responded 
to, required the removal of their names from the list. 

I express my regret at such necessity ; but under our present 
constitution, not only was the measure justifiable, but it must be 
apparent to each of us that to join any Society which must be 
self-supporting, on a pledge implied by the rules of election, and 
to obtain membership by the implied condition of a smi^l annual 
contribution, and then to ignore not only the obligation itself 
but continued reminders of it, is suicidal to the respect due to 
those who regard a "debt of honor" as imperative as any 
ordinary obligation in life. And it is also plain, that if we all 
acted in this way the Society itself would collapse by an act of 
general bankruptcy. 

I am glad, however, to find that notwithstanding this secession 
and additional losses by death, our numbers afe still on the in- 
crease, and the roll of members now contains 170 names. Forty 
new members have been elected since the last Anniversary, and 
there are some fresh ones elected this evening, and others coming 
forward. 

Having got over this difficulty, and having, as our statistics 
show,met thedemands consequent on theadvantagesderivablefrom 
our better arrangements in respect of house accommodation and 



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of charges for library and ftmiitiire, we liave good reason for the 
conTiction that the existence of the Society is strengthened and 
its frirther progress assured. 

But, gentlemen, we must not let these considerations suffice. 

A question might arise — " cut bono /" Why are we associated 
at all ? What are our objects ? What are our designs ? It 
can, however, hardly be expected that I should again give answer 
to such inquiries. If we are not of use to each other, nor to the 
community at large, it would save a great deal of trouble to 
some of us if we came to a decision to dissolve and retire from 
these gatherings altogether. 

I do not so miscalculate your wishes and views as to agree in 
such a determination. As I have frequently said before, so I 
now repeat, that our objects are praiseworthy, and that our 
endeavours to maintain and occupy a respectable position in the 
social and intellectual life of the Colony in which we dwell, are 
deserving of support not only vrithin, but beyond the horizon to 
which we stretch our expectations. For myself, and may I not 
add for all of you, I would venture to express a renewed hope, 
humble as is our present position in the great assemblage of men 
who are devoting their best energies to the advancement of 
learning and what is technically called science, that hereafter 
our Society may expand and increase till it shall be acknowledged 
to have attained a right, on the score of its usefulness, to the 
suffrages and liberal support of future generations. To those 
who go with me in such an aspiration, the words in which we 
might best express our thoughts would be, " Esto perpetua,'^ 

Yet our duty now is clear — not to rest in expectations of the 
future, but to be diligent and thoughtful in the necessary duties 
of the present. The suggestions of others and my own agree- 
ment with them, lead me, therefore, now to make a distinct 
allusion and appeal on what is at this time needful to be con- 
sidered. 

We have already elected, to the satisfaction of those who have 
been so elected, into the rank of Honorary members, many gen- 



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4 ANNITEBSABT ADDRESS. 

tlemen distinguished for their attainments and recognized posi- 
tion in the fields of science in other Colonies, who would not so 
willingly have joined our Society had they not been assured that, 
in so doing, they become members of a body that has in itself 
not only some vitality, but is active and vigorous. 

As our foreign associates have conferred some dignity upon us, 
let us not forget that we are expected to show that we do not 
forget our obligations to them and to ourselves. 

Thinking over what I am satisfied would be wise and profitable, 
and what may perhaps not be very difficult to obtain, I propose 
to you to apply for a Charter. It may be true that at present 
we have very little property ; and if that is a fatal objection, the 
wish for incorporation may at this moment be premature. 

But the most renowned of Societies in Great Britain had as 
small a beginning as our own ; and its incorporation has made it 
an institution in the land to which it is now reckoned a chief honor 
to belong ;* and in a less degree, but measured in proportion to 
the smallness of the population of this country, elections to our 
Society would be then considered not so much a mere temporary 
contribution to our treasury, as a significant token of respect for 
such as are " wise in their generation," and anxious for its 
advancement. 

Placing before you, gentlemen, this suggestion for your further 
consideration, I would now appeal to you on a subject which is 
equally deserving of attention, and which is wholly in your power, 
whatever becomes of support from without. 

• When this alluBion to the Kojal Society of London was made, the author 
of the Address did not know that he had been selected bj the Council of that 
Society for election to a Fellowship, which took place on 1st June, a fortnight 
after the delivery of the Address. This circumstance would not here be 
noticed in this place were it not (as afterwards transpired), that one of the 
grounds of recommendation for election was the following : — 

" 4. Important part taken in the re-founding of the Bojal Society of Kew 
South Wales, and m the promotion of scientific knowledge in the Colony." 

It may be satisfactory to the members of this Society to have thus shared 
in the nonor conferred on one of their members, and to have such evidence 
of the interest taken in our proceedings by the leading Society in Sngland. 



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ANKIYEESABT ABDBESS. 5 

You cannot but have noticed that the actual work done in our 
Society has fallen upon a few only of its members. 

It has been suggested that there would be more contributors 
to our Transactions if those whose attention has been turned to 
any given subject, whether of a scientific, a literary, or any other 
class, were associated together in Sections or Committees. It is 
surmised that in such a case men who could now enlighten us on 
various interesting subjects might in notices, however brief, fi^Q up 
gaps left in discussions by their fellow-members who sometimes 
in discursive essays have left unnoticed many apparently trifling, 
but really important, facts or suggestions. 

It is not an easy task (I speak from experience) to discuss any 
topic with the conviction that nothing more remains to be said. 
And on those particular subjects which especially pertain to the 
objects set forth in our Fundamental Kules, many are the obser- 
vations which have been made by different persons, which by 
such a sectional arrangement as is suggested would doubtless 
find a place in the record of our proceedings. 

Short notes might often contain materials for long meditation 
and inquiry, and as the Council of the Society has authority to 
determine what shall or what shall not be read at our monthly 
meetings, no great mischief would eventually be done, even if 
such communications as have been alluded to might, perchance, 
contain useless or indefensible matter. Such would, undoubtedly, 
be put out of the way of public recognition. 

All this is, however, only suggestive on my part ; but I recom- 
mend it to the consideration of all who are sincerely and heartily 
interested in the progress of the Royal Society. 

There are, it may be, thousands of facts of apparently littlo 
importance at thjB moment of observation — or they may be 
observed by men unused to scientific, or, as the term is, philoso- 
phical inferences, which nevertheless are deserving of being 
registered, as either bearing on some past discussion or leading 
to some future application. This kind of contribution to our 
work would be happily brought into the common garner by the 



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6 AJnaVEBSABT ADBBBSB. 

device of small Committees, who would take in charge the collec- 
tion of all matters bearing on any division of the subject for the 
illustration of which they would be thus specially set apart. 
The humblest contributor would in this way find his observations 
not lost, but probably utilized when recorded in what I am glad 
to find has at last been commenced, — viz., the Proceedings of our 
Society. 

A similar consideration in relation to scientific progress has 
been expressed by thinkers at Home, in much stronger terms than 
I have ventured to employ. For instance, a writer in the 
Oeological Magazine for January, 1876, has set before his readers 
some powerful arguments as to the way in which particular 
sciences must be cultivated hereafter. As his remarks bear upon 
some of those just made by myself, and are applicable to other 
subjects as well, I will quote one or two. " K," says the author, 
'* the geologist wishes now-a-days to increase our general stock of 
knowledge, he cannot study in detail rock formations and palsBon- 
tology, nor can he take up palaeontology as a whole ; he must 
devote himself particularly to one or other of the great classes of 
animals or to plants whose remains are preserved to us in a fossil 
state." 

'' The testimony of a man who would undertake to name a 
collection of igneous rocks, and at the same time undertake the 
identification of a series of fossil bones, shells, corals, or other 
organic remains, woiild be received with a certain amount of 
caution." 

Again, ''As an illustration, one would be surprised to hear that 
Professor Bamsay was about to describe a new species of fossil 
bird, or that Professor Huxley had elucidated the stratigraphical 
relations of the Devonian rocks ; that Professor Prestwich would 
report on the affinities of Graptolites, or that Mr. Etheridge had 
undertaken the microscopical examination of igneous rocks. And 
yet each one would naturally be acquainted with the general 
results of study in each department of geology." 



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AmnVEBSABT ABBBBSS. 7 

Now, although these quotations appertain to the divisions of 
work in building up of one science — they may be applied with 
tenfold force to divisions of study and labour in the whole range 
of topics included in the aims oi such a Society as ours, — though 
it be chiefly directed towards the study of the physical history of 
Australia. One man sees one thing, another man observes 
another thing. When these separate parts are brought together, 
all of them assist towards completion of the whole object. The 
manufacture of a single pin requires numerous skilled workmen, 
and so in any science to do the work effectually there are required 
numerous observers and skilful application of principles. If, 
therefore, there be any member of this Society who can con- 
tribute to any particular branch of study, let him associate himself 
with others in mutual investigations, and we shall then realize 
the Sectional or Committee arrangement proposed. 

I know there are with us several good Astronomers, some 
good Botanists, some clever Mathematicians, Chemists, Surveyors, 
and Engineers, &c., &c. Now, would not more good come from 
mutual assistance to each other in the work of our body, if, in 
each department of science, or art, or literature, facts were 
brought together from different quarters all tending one way, viz., 
towards the completion of our knowledge ? 

There is one other important consideration which ought not to 
be neglected. 

All persons who have entered upon any kind of scientific study 
know how needful it is to have the fullest information respecting 
the state of the particular science which they cultivate. And 
this is well put in the paper from which I have already quoted 
two passages. ^< The literature of the science," says the author, 
*' is such a vast subject that before adding to it one must neces- 
sarily learn what has been previously done, and whether one is in 
possession of any facts not made public, or of any explanations or 
theories not previously suggested. To study the literature of all 
branches of geological and paloBontological research would indeed 
be a Herculean task. It is true that our standard manuals 



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8 AKNITEBSABT ADBBESS. 

and text-books put us in possession of the leading facts and 
conclusions, but our magazines and journals are ever increasing 
the number of facts and of observers." 

• ••• • • •••• 

"And after all, the high-water-mark of thought (as Professor 
Huxley puts it) consists in dealing with educational, scientific, 
and philosophical subjects in a broad, general, and interesting 
way, so that one may get out of the groove in whicb one's 
special work lies, and afford time for the consideration of subjects 
the outcome of special work in all departments of science." 
[Geological Progress, Geological Magazine, January , 1876.] 

I would illustrate this by the volume to which I now refer. It 
is the first of a series, intended to be annual, — ^a Catalogue with 
short abstracts of works on Gteology, Mineralogy, and Paleon- 
tology, published during any given year.* It was undertaken by 
gentlemen who have long felt the necessity of a record of the 
kind. This, the first volume, gives a list of publications on tho 
subjects named during the year 1874, and it occupies 378 closely 
printed pages, together with an index of 19 pages more, each 
page arranged in three columns, each of which gives forty or 
fifty distinct articles. Even this, however, is hardly sufiicient to 
embrace everything that was written in 1874, and gives no room 
for any works preceding that date. 

Such then being the case, the members of our Society require 
the advantages to be found in a good library of scientific and 
philosophical works ; and the Council have been endeavouring to 
supply it partially by allowing the sum of £30 for the purchase 
of periodicals. "We need, however, more than this small expen- 
diture. If the Government would contribute somewhat liberally 
for the purpose of starting and supporting a library of such scien- 
tific works as our Society requires, it would serve a double 
purpose; it would enable us to turn its patronage to good 
account, and would also be a strong argument for the Incor- 
poration before suggested. 

• "Geological Record "—edited bj William Wbitaker, B.A., F.G.8., of tho 
Geological Surrey of England. 



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ANirrVEBSAEY ADDBE8S. 9 

An application was made nearly two years ago by myself and a 
member of the present Conncil to the Minister of Public Instruc- 
tion respecting a grant for our special purposes, and this 
application was favourably received ; but, in consequence of 
objections raised by some of our members, the necessary steps 
were not then taken to bring the matter before the Parliament. 
The objectors thought it was not right to place this Society on 
the same footing as a mere School of Arts, which sometimes 
becomes a circulating library of light literature ; but it was alto- 
gether forgotten that the Eoyal Society of Great Britain receives 
a grant (I believe, yearly) from the Parliament for its general 
purposes. And I do not doubt that a proper statement of our 
application would have met with no denial. "VVe may, I think, 
appeal to-night to such private individuals as may be willing to 
contribute to our library, works of scientific value in their posses- 
sion which they could spare, and I have sufficient faith in the 
kindly disposition of many in this community in relation to the 
" higher education" as it is called, to believe that our incipient 
library might, in this way, be gradually increased, though not so 
efficiently at once as by the Government itself. 

Believed of some of our internal expenses in this way, our own 
funds might go in another direction in helping to obtain a resi- 
dence for the Society free of rent, the amount of which could 
then be employed in necessary wants that would be sure to arise 
on its establishment and extended undertakings. By the active 
exertions of our Secretaries a wide correspondence has been 
opened with kindred Societies in Europe and America, and the 
greatest desire has been expressed by leading Associations to 
exchange publications with us. 

Messrs. Triibner and Co., of London, have also offered to be 
our agents in the business of such exchanges, and the President 
of the Smithsonian Institution in America has not only endorsed 
the circular on the subject, issued by us last year, but has under- 
taken to collect publications for our service from the various 
Societies in the United States and Canada. An abstract of 
this correspondence has been placed in your hands. 



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10 unnrsBBABT addbxsb. 

Whilst thus dealing with those affairs of our Society which 
ought now to have the strongest claims upon its members, I am 
by no means inclined to overlook the progress of other Associa- 
tions ; such, for instance, as the Linnean Society of Sydney, or 
that Society in whose room wo are now assembled, and which has 
already been assisted by public money. Any right-thinking person 
must rejoice in the advancement of mental research, when con- 
ducted under the wholesome influence of sound moral principles, 
not forgetting the Author of all we see and speak of, because the 
study of Nature as it is termed, will in the end, if properly pur- 
sued, lead only to higher aims and an access to truth, or what is. 
But it would seem to me, looking at things in a matter-of-fact 
way, that a multiplication of Associations in a limited population 
only tends to the weakness of all ; and if the scheme pointed out 
of sectional Committees were put in force, it would be in the 
power of any Society, with such a range as ours, to meet aU the 
exigencies of the case. In this respect New Zealand has already 
led the way, and all her former Provincial Societies are now con- 
solidated in the comprehensive New Zealand Institute. As con- 
cerns ourselves the scheme would for the present be confined to 
this Colony alone. I must add, however, that I look with no jea- 
lousy on the success of other Societies, and that the first Address 
of the President of the new Linnean Society, on the Progress of 
Natural History in Australia, furnishes a valuable contribution to 
the literature of science. I do not know if there be any other 
suggestion of great importance at this time to require attention ; 
but, if such should arise, it may be noticed hereafter. 

Obituabt. 

Let me now refer to the losses which the Society has sustained 
by death since the last Anniversary. 

Although but one of these deceased members was an actual 
contributor to our Transactions, four deserve commemoration as 
publicly connected with the advancement of Australia by explor- 
ation, or by identification with its literary or scientific progress. 



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AKKTVEBSABT ADDBB88. 11 

Mb. Bdwabd S. F. Bebfobd joined this Society in 1864, the 
year after his arriyal in Sydney, and contributed in 1866 to the 
then Philosophical Society " Bemarks on the support of the 
young of marsupial animals in the pouch," which he illustrated 
by a diagram and various marsupial bones. To the Transactions 
of the Eoyal Society he contributed in 1867 a paper " on the 
reappearance of scurvy in the merchant service," and in 1868, a 
communication " on dry earth conservancy." 

He had been for several years before an active member of the 
Boyal Society of Tasmania, of which he remained a Corresponding 
member to the time of his death on 24th February, 1876, at 
the age of 67. 

He had held some important medical offices in Tasmania, and 
was at one time a member of its Legislative Council. On his 
departure from that Colony an Address was presented to him 
from the leading members of his profession, and another from 
the Judges, President, Speaker, Ministers, Magistrates, and 
Clergy, bearing witness to his ability and public usefulness, and 
to the high qualifications of his social character. 

On arrival in New South Wales he was received with respect 
for his previous reputation, and obtained several official appoint- 
ments which he held at the time of his death. In all my 
intercourse with him I found him kind, gentlemanly, and intelli- 
gent, and a warm supporter of the two Boyal Societies, in each of 
which he had been an administrator. He was Honorary 
Treasurer and member of Council of this Society from 1867 
to 1874. To his praise be it said, he established in Tasmania a 
hospital of his own of which he took the management, his medical 
brethren on his departure testifying " their entire confidence and 
esteem, which he had gained by the unvarying exercise of 
unswerving integrity and the strictest professional honor and 
courtesy in all the numberless instances in which they had been 
brought together." 

He was son of the senior Chaplain in Tasmania, tbo Eev. Dr. 
Bedford, and brother-in-law of our late highly respected Chief 



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12 ANinrrEBSAHT ABDBES8. 

Justice, Sir A. Stephen, C.B., K.C.M.Gr., now Deputy-GoTemor 
of New South Wales. 

Mb. Howabd Eeed arrived in this Colony about 1867, and 
soon after became a member of this Society. He was the 
youngest son of Dr. Andrew Eeed, and brother of Sir Charles 
Eeed, who for some time had a seat in the Imperial Parliament, and 
is still, I believe. Chairman of the London Board of Education. 

The father of these gentlemen was a man of great benevolence, 
and had been mainly instrumental in the erection of no less than 
six hospitals and asylums in England. 

The subject of our notice chose Agriculture as his pursuit, and 
to his exertions the Agricultural Society of New South Wales is 
mainly indebted for its existence. He was also connected with 
the Press in England and this Colony, and his contributions to 
various journals have elicited the respectful attention of numerous 
readers. After an illness of some months' duration Mr. Eeed 
died on 23rd October, at the age of forty-eight. He did not 
contribute any written paper to our Transactions, but he took 
part in our oral discussions. 

A third loss by death occurred in the death of Dr. John Piebce, 
of Maitland, whose membership dates from 1873 ; but, as I havo 
been unable to leam any particulars of his career, I content 
myself with recording his decease. 

Mr. W. HovELL, of Goulburn, commonly called Captain 
Hovell, aa in early life he had been a commander in the mercan- 
tile marine, joined the Society in 1868. He was associated with 
Mr. Hamilton Hume in the exploration of the country to the 
south and south-west. He was with Mr. Hume when ho 
discovered the country beyond the Murrumbidgee Eiver, in 182i. 
An expedition having been projected by Sir Thomas Brisbane, the 
then Governor, to traverse the land from Wilson's Promontory 
to Sydney, Hume and Hovell shared the cost of the expedition 
which they undertook ; but their journey was made from Lake 
George to Western Port, and the exit was actually about 
Geelong. Mr. Hume's namo was given to the upper part of the 



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AITHIYERSABT ABBBESS. 13 

Murray, which they jointly discovered, and in after years this 
gave rise to a controversy between the explorers, which, as in 
many other siniilar cases, called forth much needless acrimony. 

A very fair account of the work done by these " first Over- 
landers," as they are named by one of your recently elected 
Honorary Members, the Eev. Julian E. Tenison Woods, in his 
" History of the Discovery and Exploration of Australia," gives 
to Mr. Hume the distinction of leader ; and he was so in more 
senses than one, having first discovered the country round 
Berrima, at the age of seventeen, in the year 1814, and afterwards 
Lake Bathurst in 1817, and for these he received a grant of 300 
acres of land. 

The Murrumbidgee had been discovered by Currie and Ovens 
in 1823, before Hume and Ho veil started on the overland route 
to Port Phillip, during which the latter two had discovered the 
Southern Alps and various rivers flowing from them. 

Mr. "Woods says justly : — "Their expedition was, without doubt, 
cue of the most important made in Australia, as far as the value of 
the country discovered is concerned. The New South Wales 
Government fully appreciated this, and Messrs. Hume and Hovell 
were both rewarded by a grant of land of 1,200 acres each." Mr. 
Hovell afterwards explored the Western Port district, which they 
were at first commissioned to visit, and which Hovell fancied he 
had reached when the party arrived at Port Phillip. 

It is not worth our while now to discuss the controversy 
respecting the share each may have had in first making out any 
particular part of the country traversed. As their initials were 
cut on two neighbouring trees not far from what is now Geelong, 
and, I believe, were not long since recognizable, no doubt can 
exist that both were sharers in the labour and toil of the whole 
exploration, Mr. Hovell therefore should have his share of credit. 
Though the name of " Hume Eiver" was afterwards supplanted by 
Captain Sturt*s name " The Murray," and Hovell's name given 
by himself to the " Goulbum" still retains the name assigned to 
it by Hume, yet Mr. Hovell deserves remembrance by ourselves 



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14 AinnrsBSABT jLBDsniB. 

as one of the pioneers in the great undertaking of opening up a 
vast territory, a great portion of which is now in the occupation 
and government of tho sister Colony, Victoria, but was for a long 
time part of New South Wales. Mr. Hoyell was born, I believe, 
about 1785, and Mr. Hume on 18th June, 1797. The former, 
therefore, was fully 90 years of age, and may be considered in 
our records, in relation to the late Alexander Berry, as the twin 
nonagenarian of our Society. Mr. Hume died in April, 1878. 

COMMODOEE GoODENOrGH, E.N. 

It is impossible to name the late Commodore Gk>odenough, 
who joined us shortly after his arrival, without calling to mind 
the deep feelings which stirred the whole community when the 
first news of his death accompanied the arrival of his body for 
interment. 

In the short intercourse with him with which some of us were 
honored, we could not but learn to appreciate the sterling ex- 
cellencies of his disposition and the disinterestedness of his 
character, amply illustrated as these have been by the facts 
related of his death in the discharge of his voluntary efforts as a 
christian man to conciliate the savages by whom he was treacher- 
ously slain. 

His merits have been honorably acknowledged by the 
Sovereign and Country whom he served with success during a 
period of two-and-thirty years. In May, 1844, he entered the 
Navy, became captain in May, 1863, and after a distinguished 
career was decorated with the insignia of C.B. and C.M.G. 

It may seem a work of supererogation in me to venture now 
on any further tribute to his memory ; but as he rendered good 
service to this Colony, especially in relation to the annexation of 
Fiji, in which he took a prominent part, we seem to have lost one 
of our best public friends, and such he was in more senses than 
one. 

He now rests in peace between two youthful seamen, each 
eighteen yearsof age,belonging to H.M.S. ^' Pearl " under his com- 



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AJnsriYXBSABT JlDBBESB. 15 

mand, who lost their liTes in the same cidamitj, and but a short 
space ^m the tomb of a friend of my own and a connexion of 
the Commodore, Captain Owen Stanley, E.N., who died in com- 
mand of H.M.S. " Battlesnake " in 1860, and over whose remains 
it was my sad duty to ofiBciate. To him also was accorded, as 
to Commodore Goodenough, a public funeral. 

It was a satisfaction to have enrolled in our list of members, 
though for so short a time, one who was so distinguished as the 
latter, and who expressed so deep an interest in the welfare of our 
Society which he had promised to assist by future communications. 

As to his professional character it woidd not become me to yen- 
ture an opinion. I can do far better by quoting the testimony 
of a brother officer of equal rank with himself, to whom he had long 
been known : "As I write these lines," says Captain Moresby (who 
was here not long since in command of H.M.S. " Basilisk"), " a 
telegram has arrived announcing the death of Commodore Good- 
enough, C.B., C.M.G., commanding on the Australian station, by 
the poisoned arrows of the natives of Santa Cruz Island. I desire 
to pay my humble tribute of sorrow and admiration to the memory 
of this man, with whom I am happy in having held a private friend- 
ship for twenty-five years. I do not speak of the loss his friends 
sustain in him ; of the generous nature, full of large kindness 
and the power of sympathy ; of the sound, helpful judgment that 
was ever ready for any call that could be made on it, for this is 
sacred ground ; — I s|ffeak of him only as a public man, and would 
say that, though I have warmly appreciated him all through, as 
he rose in our service, I never knew his full professional worth 
till I had the honor of serving under him in Australia. 

" Then, his grasp of mind in dealing with a subject, his self- 
reliance and readiness to take responsibility, his happy way of 
taking his captains into his confidence, whilst always holding the 
reins himself, of giving praise liberally where praise was due, and 
cordial support or advice where either was needed, produced an 
impression on my mind of greatness in store for him in the future 
which can now never, alas ! be made good. His fine scientific 



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16 AITNIYERBABY ADDBEB8. 

and sailorlike qualities, his promptitude, his iron nerve, combine ' 
with his other gifts to make his loss a national one, and as such 
it will be doubtless be regarded, and this will be some consolation 
to his friends ; but their best will lie in the knowledge that his 
pure and devout spirit was ever ready to enter the presence of 
its Maker." 

The death of the Commodore was felt bs a serious loss at Home 
and by the Admiralty and the Naval Service at large, as evidenced 
by a prospectus of a " Goodenough Memorial Fund," a copy of 
which lately received from England I lay upon the table, inviting 
any of our members to subscribe to it who may feel that, in so 
doing, they are acknowledging the services of one who deserved a 
memorial such as Plato (MeTiexenus) tells us heathen Greece 
accorded to the survivors of all who fell in the service of their 
country; for, as was held by Pericles (Thucyd. II. 34), "they who 
by their acts had sho\Mi true courage should by corresponding 
acts of gratitude be honored." 

There are some interesting circumstances relating to the scene 
of the late Commodore's martyrdom which may, I trust, not be 
considered impertinent to mention at this meeting. 

Scarcely four years had elapsed since Bishop Patteson, who 
was well known to the natives of Santa Cruz, and had often been 
among them, was, with two of his companions, also stricken and 
slain. " Suddenly, without any previous warning (it is related 
by one of his biographers) a man rose, and saying, " Have you 
got anything like this ? " let fly an arrow, which was quickly fol- 
lowed by a volley from his seven companions. Mr. Atkin was 
shot in the left shoulder, whilst of the three Melanesians one of 
them was wounded slightly, and the other was pierced by no 
fewer than six arrows. Every arrow had thus taken effect." 

Seven years before this, two youths belonging to the Melan- 
esian Mission were slain also at Nupuku, close to Santa Cruz ;* 
and, if I mistake not, since then other victims perished in the 

* Sketches of the life of Bishop Patteson in Melanesia, p. 185. 



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AHKIYEBSABY ABBBE8S. 17 

same way. Histoiy records also other calamities of like kind in 
the same group of islands. 

Captain Carteret, in August, 1767, more than a century before 
the visit of the " Pearl," experienced the rery same hostility and 
treachery which distinguished the fate of Bishop Patteson and 
Commodore Goodenough. In the 4th chapter of his Voyage, he 
gives an " Account of the Discovery of Queen Charlotte Islands, 
with a description of them, their Inhabitants, and of what 
happened at Egmont Island," The latter " certainly is," he says, 
" the same to which the Spaniards have given the name of Santa 
Cruz, as appears by the accounts which the writers have given of it." 

If we compare the statements published respecting the deaths 
of the Bishop and the Commodore with Carteret's statements, we 
shall find the same circumstances in each, — too great confidence in 
the natives, and the greatest jealousy and treacherous conduct on 
the part of the latter. Bishop Patteson laid great stress, in his 
" Memorial on the South Sea Labour Traffic," on the cause of evil 
and death in the Pacific, and quotes the testimony of the com- 
mander of a whaling ship to the same effect. 

The latter says what the Bishop confirms : — " The natives of 
these islands would come off in former years, bringing such articles 
of trade as their islands afford, for which we paid them with 
hatchets, tobacco, fish-hooks, &c. They trusted us and we trusted 
them. At times our decks were crowded. This, when slavery 
commenced, was all to the slaver's advantage, for the natives were 
easily enticed below, the hatches put on, and the vessel was off. 
Now no natives come on board the whale-ship, and we in our turn 
dare not land. Again, we used to carry people from one island^ 
to another when they wished it, and they would give us hogs 
lAid other articles. This also has been taken advantage of, and 
the natives carried into slavery instead of home. Should we be 
wrecked our lives must go for those that have been stolen, and 
the natives will be condemned and called blood-thirsty, &c., and 
yet what have the natives done? Not certainly right, but no 
more than civilized people have done in many cases. I hear they 
use your name" (i.e., the Bishop's) *'to decoy natives from their 

B 



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18 AmnrxBSABT abbbbsb. 

islands ; and I also hear, from good authority, that thej inquire 
veiy particularly of the whereabouts of the Southern Cross." 
— Memorial^ p. 201. 

Doubtless, this testimony to the consequences of a recent nefiEi- 
rious traffic is not the whole explanation of the conduct of natiyes 
of certain islands, Santa Cruz in particular. For, more than a 
century ago. Captain Carteret found the same characteristics 
in the inhabitants of Santa Cruz as were exhibited towards the 
Bishop and the Commodore when there were no slave-dealers and 
kidnappers on whom to lay the blame. 

But few persons, comparatively, have ever read the narrative of 
Captain Carteret. At the risk of occupying too much of our 
time, I cannot resist, with your permission, the reading of a por- 
tion of his statement, which has been copied for me at my request. 

Extract from Captain Carteret's account of the discovery of 
Queen Charlotte's Islands, with a description of them, their 
inhabitants, and of what happened at Egmont Island — [August 

1767.] 

" The next morning, therefore, as soon as it was light, I dis- 
patched the master, with fifteen men, in the cutter, well armed 
and provided, to examine the coast to the westward, our. present 
situation being on the lee of the island, for a place where we 
might more conveniently be supplied with wood and water, and, 
at the same time, procure some refreshments for the sick and lay 
the ship by the stern to examine and stop the leak. I gave him 
some beads, ribbons, and other trifles, which by chance I happ^Died 
to have on board, to conciliate the good-will of the natives, if he 
should happen to meet with any of them ; but at the same time 
enjoined him to run no risk, and gave him particular orders im- 
mediately to return to the ship if any number of canoes should 
approach him which might bring on hostilities ; and if he should 
meet the Indians in small parties, either at sea or upon shore, to 
treat them with all possible kindness, so as to establish a friendly 
intercourse with them ; charging him on no account to leave ihe 
boat himself nor to suffer more than two men to go on shore at 



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AinrmBBSASr adbbess. 19 

a time, while the rest stood ready for their defence ; recommend- 
ing to him, in the strongest terms, an application to his duty, 
without regarding any other object, as the finding a proper place 
for the ship was of the utmost importance to us all ; and conjur- 
ing him to return aa soon as this service should be performed, 
with all possible speed. 

« Soon after I had dispatched the cutter on this expedition, I 
sent the long boat with ten men on boavd well armed to the 
shore, who before 8 o'clock brought off a tun of water. About 9 
I sent her off again, but soon after seeing some of the natiyes 
adyancing along the shore towards the place where the men 
landed, I made the signal for them to return, not knowing to 
what number they would be exposed, and having no boat to send 
off with assistance if they should be attacked. 

" Our men had not long returned on board, when we saw three 
of the natives sit down under the trees abreast of the ship. As 
they continued there gazing at us till the afternoon, as soon as 
the cutter came in sight, not caring that both the boats should 
be absent at the same time, I sent my lieutenant in the longboat 
with a few beads, ribbons, and trinkets, to endeavour to establish 
some kind of intercourse with them, and by their means with the 
rest of the inhabitants ; these men, however, before the boat 
could reach the shore, quitted their station, and proceeded along 
the beach. As the trees would soon prevent their being seen by 
our people, who were making towards the land, we kept our eyes 
fixed upon them from the ship, and very soon perceived that they 
were met by three others. After some conversation, the first 
three went on, and those who met them proceeded towards the 
boat with a hasty pace. Upon this I made the signal to the 
lieutenant to be upon his guard, and as soon as he saw the 
Indians, observing that they were more than three, he backed the 
boat in to the shore, and making signs of friendship, held up to 
them the beads and ribbons which I had given him as presents, 
our people at the same time carefully concealing their arms. The 
Indians, however, taking no notice of the beads and ribbons. 



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20 AKHITEBBABT ADDBESS. 

resolutely advanced within bow-shot, and then suddenly dis- 
charged their arrows, which happily went over the boat without 
doing any mischief; they did not prepare for a second discharge 
but instantly ran away into the woods, and our people discharged 
some muskets after them, but none of them were wounded by 
the shot. Soon after this happened the cutter came under the 
ship's side, and the first person that I particularly noticed was the 
master, with three arrows sticking in his body. No other evidence 
was necessary to con^ct him of having acted contrary to my 
orders, which appeared more fully from his own account of the 
matter, which it is reasonable to suppose was as favourable to 
himself as he could make it. He said that, having seen some 
Indian houses with only five or six of the inhabitants, at a place 
about fourteen or fifteen miles to the westward of the ship's 
station, where he had soimded some bays, he came to a grappling, 
and veered the boat to the beach, where he landed with four men^ 
armed with muskets and pistols ; that the Indians at first were 
afraid of him, and retired, but that soon after they came down to 
him, and he gave them some beads and other trifles with which they 
seemed to bo much pleased ; that he then made signs to them for 
some cocoa-nuts, which they brought him, and with great appearance 
of friendship and hospitality gave him a broiled fish and some boiled 
yams ; that he then proceeded with his party to the houses, which, 
he said, were not more than fifteen or twenty yards from the water- 
side, and soon after saw a great number of canoes coming round 
the western point of the bay, and many Indians among the 
trees ; that, being alarmed at these appearances, he hastily left 
the house where they had been received, and with the men, 
made the best of his way towards the boat ; but that, before he 
could get on board, the Indians attacked, as well those that 
were with him as those that were in the boat, both from the 
canoes and the shore. Their number, he said, was between 300 
and 400 ; their weapons were bows and arrows — the bows were 
6 feet 5 inches long, and the arrows 4 feet, which they discharged 
in platoons as regularly as the best disciplined troops in Europe. 
That it being necessary to defend himself and his people when 



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AlOaTEBSABT ADDBE8S. 21 

they were tbus attacked, they fired among the Indians to favour 
their getting into their boat, and did great execution, killing 
many and wounding more. That they were not however dis- 
couraged, but continued to press forward, still discharging their 
arrows by platoons in almost one continued flight; that the 
grappling being foul occasioned a delay in hauling off the boat, 
during which time he and half of the boat's crew were dcsper* 
ately wounded ; that at last they cut the rope, and ran under 
their foresail, still keeping up their fire with blunderbusses, each 
loaded with 8 or 10 pistol balls, which the Indians returned with 
their arrows, those on shore wading after them breast-high into 
the sea. When they had got clear of these the canoes pursued 
them with great fortitude and vigour till one of them was sunk 
and the numbers on board the rest greatly reduced by the fire, 
and tiien they returned to the shore. Such was the story of the 
master, who, with three of my best seamen, died some time 
afterwards of the wounds they had received ; but, culpable as he 
appears to have been by his own account, he appears to have 
been still more so by the testimony of those who survived him. 
They said that the Indians behaved with the greatest confidence 
and friendship till he gave them just cause of offence by ordering 
the people that were with him, who had been regaled in one of 
their houses, to cut down a cocoa-nut tree, and insisting upon 
the execution of his order notwithstanding the displeasure which 
the Indians strongly expressed upon the occasion ; as soon as the 
tree fell all of them except one, who seemed to be a person of 
authority, went away, and in a short time a great number of 
them were observed to draw together in a body among the trees 
by a midshipman who was one of the party that were on shore, 
and who immediately acquainted the master with what he had 
seen, and told him that from the behaviour of the people he 
imagined an attack was intended ; that the master made light of 
the intelligence, and, instead of repairing immediately to the 
boat, as he waa urged to do, fired one of his pistols at a mark ; 
that the Indian, who had till that time continued with them, 
then left them abruptly and joined the body in the wood ; that 



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22 AITKITEBBABY ADDBESS. 

the master, eyen after tlus, by an infatuation that is altogether 
unaccountable, continued to trifle away his time on shore, and 
did not attempt to recover the boat till the attack was begun. 

• *••*** 

" The next morning, the weather being fine, we veered the ship 
close in shore with a spring upon our cable, so that we brought 
our broadside to bear upon the watering-place for the protection 
of the boats that were to be employed there. As there was 
reason to suppose that the natives, whom we had seen among 
the trees the night before, were not now far distant, I fired a 
couple of shots into the wood before I sent the waterers ashore ; 
I also sent the lieutenant in the cutter well manned and armed 
with the boat that carried them, and ordered him and his people 
to keep on board and be close to the beach to cover the watering 
boat while she was loading, and to keep discharging muskets into 
the wood on each side of the party that were filling the water. 
These orders were well executed. The beach was steep so that 
the boats could lie close to the people that were at work ; and 
the lieutenant from the cutter fired three or four volleys of small 
arms into the woods before any of the men went on shore, and 
none of the natives appearing, the waterers landed and went to 
work. But notwithstanding all these precautions, before they 
had been on shore a quarter of an hour, a flight of arrows was 
discharged among them, on^ of which dangerously wounded a 
man that was fillinpf water in the breast, and another stuck into 
a bareca on which Mr. Pitcaim was sitting. The people on board 
the cutter immediately fired several volleys of small arms into 
that part of the wood from which the arrows came, and I recalled 
the boats that I might effectually drive the Indians from their 
ambuscades with grape-shot from the ship's guns. When the 
boats and people were on board we began to fire, and soon after 
saw about two hundred men rush out of the woods and run along 
the beach with the utmost precipitation. We judged the coast 
to be now effectually cleared, but in a little time we perceived 
that a great number had got together on the westernmost point 
of the bay, where they probably thought themselves beyond our 



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AlOnmBBBABY ADDSBflS. 28 

reach. To conyince them, therefore of the contrary, I ordered a 
gun to be fired at them with round shot ; the ball just grazing 
the water rose again and fell into the middle of them, upon 
which they dispersed with great hurry and confusion, and we 
taw no more of them. After this we watered without any 
further molestation, but all the while our boats were on shore 
we had the precaution to keep firing the ship's guns into the 
wood on both sides of them, and the cutter — which lay close to 
the beach, as she did before — ^kept up a constant fire of small 
arms in platoons at the same time. As we saw none of the 
natiyes during aU this firing, we should have thought that none 
of them had Tentured back into the wood, if our people had not 
reported that they heard groans from seyeral parts of it, like 
those of dying men. 

^ The master was dying of the wounds he receiyed in his 
quarrel with the Tndians ; the lieutenant also was yery ill ; the 
gunner and thirty of my men incapable of duty, among whom 
were seyen of the most yigorous and healthy that had been 
wounded with the master, and three of them mortally, and there 
was no hope of obtaining such refreshments as we most needed 
in this place. These were discouraging circumstances, and not 
only put an end to my hopes of prosecuting the voyage farther 
to the southward but greatly dispirited the people. Except 
myself, the master, and the lieutenant, there was nobody on board 
capable of nayigating the ship home ; the master was known to 
be a dying man, and the recovery of myself and the lieutenant 
was yery doubtful. Not being in a condition to risk the loss of 
any more of the few men who were capable of doings duiy, I 
weighed anchor at daybreak on Monday the 17th, and stood 
along the shore for that part of the island to which I had sent 
the cutter. To the island I had given the name of Egmont 
Island, in honor of the Earl ; it certainly is the same to which 
the Spaniards have given the name of Santa Cruz, as appears by 
the accounts which the writers have given of it, and I called the 
place in which we had lain Swallow Bay. When we had pro- 
ceeded about three leagues from the harbour we opened the bay 



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24 AKNIYEBSAUY ADDBE6S. 

where the cutter had been attacked bj the Indians, to which, for 
that reason, we gave the name of Bloody Baj. In this bay is a 
small rivulet of fresh water, and here we saw many houses 
regularly built ; close to the waterside stood one much longer 
than any of the rest, which seemed to be a kind of common hall 
or council-house, and was neatly built and thatched. This was 
the building in which our people had been received who were on 
shore here with the master, and they told me both the sides and 
floor were lined with a kind of fine matting, and a great number 
of arrows, made up into bundles, were hung up in it ready 
for use. They told me also that at this place there were many 
gardens, or plantations, which were enclosed by a fence of stone, 
and planted with cocoa-nut trees, bananas, plantains, yams, and 
other vegetables; the cocoa-nut trees we saw from the ship, in great 
numbers, among the houses of the village. About three miles to 
the westward of this town we saw another of considerable extent, 
in the front of which, next to the waterside, there was a breast- 
work of stone, about 4 feet 6 inches high, not in a straight line, 
but in angles, like a fortification ; and there is great reason to 
suppose, from the weapons of these people, and their military 
courage, which must in great measure be the effect of habit, that 
they have frequent wars among themselves. As we proceeded 
westward from this place we found, at the distance of two or three 
miles, a small bight, forming a kind of bay, in which a river 
empties itself. Upon taking a view of this river from the mast- 
head, it appeared to run very far into the country, and at the 
entrance, at least, to be navigable for small vessels. This river 
we called G-ranville's Biver, and to the westward of it is a point, 
to which we gave the name of Ferrer's Point. From this point 
the land forms a large bay, and near it is a town of great extent, 
which seemed to swarm like a beehive : an incredible multitude 
came out of it as the ship passed by, holding something in their 
hands which looked like a wisp of green grass, with which they 
seemed to stroke each other, at the same time dancing or running 
in a ring. About seven miles to the westward of Point Ferrers 
is another, that was called Carteret Point, from which a reef of 



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AimiVEBSABY ABDBESS. 25 

rocks that appears above water runs out to a distance of about a 
cable's length. Upon this point we saw a large canoe, with an 
awning or shatle built over ifc; and a little to the westward, another 
large town, fronted, and probably surrounded, with a breastwork 
of stone like the last ; here also the people thronged to the beach 
as the ship was passing, and performed the same kind of circu- 
lar dance. After a little time they launched several canoes and 
made towards us, upon \xhich we lay to, that they might have 
time to come up, and we conceived great hopes that we should 
prevail upon them to come on board, but when they came near 
enough to have a more distinct view of us they lay upon their 
paddles and gazed at us, but seeme<l to have no design of advanc- 
ing further, and therefore we made sail and left them behind us. 
Having hauled round this cape, we found the land trend to the 
southward, and we continued to stand along the shore till we 
opened the western passage into the lagoon between Trevanion's 
Island and the main land. In this place, both the main and the 
island appeared to be one contintied town, and the inhabitants 
were innumerable. We sent a boat to examine this entrance or 
passage, and found the bottom to be coral and rock, with very 
irregular soundings over it. As soon as the natives saw the boat 
leave the ship they sent off several armed canoes to attack her ; 
the first that came within bow-shot discharged their arrows at 
the people on board, who, being ready, fired a volley, by which 
one of the Indians was killed and another wounded ; at the same 
time we fired a great gun from the ship, loaded with grape shot, 
among them, upon which they all pulled back to the shore with 
great precipitation, except the canoe which began the attack, and 
that being secured by the boat's crew, with the wounded man in 
her, was brought to the ship. I immediately ordered the Indian 
to be taken on board, and the surgeon to examine his wounds ; it 
appeared that one shot had gone through his head, and that his 
arm was broken by another. The surgeon was of opinion that 
the wound in his head was mortal, I therefore ordered him to be 
put again into his canoe, and, notwithstanding his condition, he 
paddled away towards the shore. He was a young man, with a 



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26 AirinyxBSABT addxbsb. 

woolly head like that of the negroes, and a small beard, but he 
was well-featured, and not so black as the natiyes of ti-uinea ; 
he was of the common stature, and, like all the rest of the people 
whom we had seen upon the island, quite naked. His canoe was 
very small, and of rude workmanship — being nothing more than 
part of the trunk of a tree made hollow ; it had, however, an out- 
rigger, but none of them had sails. 

" The inhabitants of Egmont Island, whose persons have been 
described already, are extremely nimble, vigorous, and active, and 
seem to be almost as well qualified to live in the water as upon 
the land, for they were in and out of their canoes almost every 
minute. The canoes that came out against us from the west end 
of the island were all like that which our people brought on 
board, and might probably, upon occasion, carry about a dozen 
men, though three or four managed them with amazing dexteriiy. 
We saw, however, others of a larger size upon the beach, with 
awnings or 8hade9 over them. 

" We got two of their bows, and a bundle of their arrows, from 
the canoe that was taken with the wounded man ; and with these 
weapons they do execution at an incredible distance. One of 
them went through the boat's washboard, and dangerously 
wounded a midshipman in the thigh. Their arrows were pointed 
with flint, and we saw among them no appearance of any metal." 

This, then, is what occurred in 1767. Nor is this all. In 
1568, two centuries before (within a year), Mend&na, who 
about that time discovered Santa Cruz, and all subsequent navi- 
gators, whether French or English, found the inhabitants of the 
great island groups and archipelagoes of that part of the Pacific; 
ferocious, treacherous, and bloodthirsty ; so that conjectures as 
to the immediate cause of any given catastrophe may be attributed 
in part to the sudden excitement of the natives or to some impru- 
dence on the part of visitors, as well as to the utu, or retaliation 
on past offenders. In Carteret's account this is distinctly stated ; 
and it is impossible to say in what way the Bishop and the Com- 
modore might have infracted some rule unknown to them. That 



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AKKIVSSSABY ADBBSflS. 27 

tiie people of Santa Cruz have understanding of the art of defence 
as well as of attack is shown also by Carteret, who describes their 
breast-works, and the mode of delivery of their arrow shots in 
true military style. Captain Moresby, B.N., who visited Santa 
Cruz in H.M.S. " Basilisk," before the visit of the " Pearl " and 
after the death of the Bishop, incidently confirms much that was 
noticed by Carteret respecting these breast-works and the 
weapons of oflFence. He says : — " The village " (in Byron's Bay, 
mentioned by Carteret) " is fortified by low coral walls, breast- 
high, the openings in which are overlapped by other walls, cal- 
culated to throw an attacking party into some confusion.** 

One thing has puzzled many persons in reference to the treat- 
ment of Bishop Patteson after his death. Instead of disposing 
of the body as cannibals might have done, they wrapped it in 
native matting, tied at the neck and ankles, thrust a palm frond 
into the breast, with five knots tied in it — and then placed it in 
a canoe which was floated away. [See " Sketches, <Sx;.," p. 186.] 
Mr. Atkin who was wounded at the same time with the Bishop 
and afterwards died, is recorded to have heard one of the natives 
say, the Bishop was tc^. If this word means the same as tabu 
in Tonga, then it would appear they knew who in some degree 
the Bishop was, and though they slew him respected his charac- 
ter. They even " put a small kit of yams into the boat upon 
which they fired." (p. 192.) 

It is certain that the visit of the " Basilisk " was of a peaceful 
character, for Captain Moresby says : — " The friendliness of these 
natives to us was remarkable, and I have deeply regretted to 
learn that some di£Bculty has since arisen between them and 
H.M. schooner, * Sandfly,' during her late visit to this place, re- 
salting in the loss of numerous native lives." " An event of this 
kind," he adds, " is to be regretted, not so much for the present 
effect, as for the misunderstanding, the want of confidence, and 
the revengeful feeling it produces in the future." 

As Captain Moresby thus alludes to H.M.S. " Sandfly," I have 
been induced to look up the accounts respecting her adventure, 
and the following particulars have been met with : — 



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28 ANNIVEESABT ADDRESS. 

" The * Sandfly,' on 14th September, 1874, was at Tapoua, or 
Edgcombe Island of Carteret, which was surveyed by Captain 
Moresby, and in which he discovered a very fine harbour, and 
named it after the * Basilisk.' The natives appeared friendly but 
were not armed. On the 17th about thirty canoes came ofl^, 
well provided with bows and poisoned arrows. The people in 
them were friendly till dinner-time, when the deck of the 
* Sandfly ' was nearly cleared ; the savages then commenced 
firing with the arrows in some of the canoes ahead of the ship, 
which was stopped by a discharge of rifles. The commander of 
the * Sandfly' then left the ship to give chase in his gig, and was 
again fired at with arrows, and after a few rounds from the rifles 
to clear the bush, the gig went in to the shore, and towed out 
nine canoes : boats were manned and two villages were burned, 
and all the canoes destroyed. On the 19th, a man who could 
speak English, and was a survivor of a vessel that had had an 
affray at Vanikoro, where the captain was attacked and wounded 
as well as himself, came off to the 'Sandfly' stating that their 
boat had drifted on shore owing to the tide at Tapoua, where 
the captain died and was buried. 

" On 20th September, the * Sandfly' anchored at Santa Cruz. 
The natives here came off in great numbers, well armed with 
bows and poisoned arrowH, and made an attack on the vessel. 
This was repulsed, and two villages and several canoes were 
destroyed by the ship." 

This account was first stated in the Sjdnej Herald o£ llth 
December, 1874, but in that journal of 31st October, 1874, 
there is a memorandum of the reported massacre of the crew of 
the " Lapwing," of Auckland, which had been attacked at the 
island of Tafosia, one of the Santa Cruz group, stating that 
the whole of the crew, save one Tanna man, had been killed, 
and that the vessel had been destroyed by fire. It seems the 
" Lapwing" (according to the captain of the " Bruce" ) ran 
short of provisions, and the mate and boat's crew proceeded to 
the shore to obtain some, when the natives attacked the boat, 



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AlOriYEBSABY ADDRESS. 29 

killed the men in her, seized the vessel and murdered the master 
and rest of the crew, the latter being Kanakas. This looks 
certainly like another version of the statement made by the 
native man at Tapoua just related, especially as the same memo- 
randum mentions that H.M.S. "Sandfly" had been attacked, 
and a smart engagement had taken place, by which the natives 
had suffered loss. 

Ttvo things seem to point out that, if these accounts relate to 
the same vessel, she bore two names ; for in the " Sandfly's" 
report the vessel that the Vanikoro man belonged to was the 
"Tortue," which sailed under French colours, and the " Lapwing" 
is stated to have been reported from Noumea, in New Caledonia, 
to Messrs. Montefiore, of Sydney. Whatever happened, it is 
quite certain that the Santa Cruz people had committed an 
aggression on an English ship of war, and had been punished 
severely between the visit of the " Basilisk " in August, 1872, 
and that of the " Pearl " in August, 1875. 

The death of Commodore Ooodenough was probably a revenge 
on the "Sandfly"; the attack on the latter, and the death of 
the fiishop, perhaps the result of feelings excited by the labour 
traffic; but the reception of Captain Morseby was friendly^ 
whilst the fact is that "kill-kill" vessels, as certain labour 
crafts are called by the natives, were objects of aversion, and 
that if we are to trust an eye-witness (see Brooke's Journal, 
" Mission Life, 1872, p. 7 "), very properly so. Mr. Brooke 
says, " natives in the island of Florida were captured merely for 
the sake of their skulls, with which payment was made to the 
chiefs of neighbouring islands ; and canoes on coming alongside 
a vessel were upset, and their occupants dispatched whilst vainly 
striving to escape to shore. The victims were first belaboured 
with oars, then fallen upon with tomahawks and finally beheaded, 
their heads being taken on board, and their bodies thrown to 
the sharks." 

Mr. Brooke, whose words are thus quoted, says that in the 
course of two or three months in that one island alone he had 



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30 umiVEBSABT ABDBXSS. 

Been eighteen persons murdered in cold blood, and fifty taken 
away either by force or under false pretences. 

If any one think such references too discursive for an Address 
to the members of a Society belonging to a country on the shores 
of the ocean on which such atrocities as have been mentioned 
have been committed, let me explain that I have considered them 
not altogether intrusive in a discourse to Christian gentlemen ; 
and with one further remark I will conclude. 

It is said that Prance intends to take possession of Santa Cruz. 
If it be so, and the intention be to civilize and christianise its 
population, well and good : but it would, I think, be a more 
suitable occupation if England (putting aside all political or 
territorial considerations) undertook the task of carrying her 
enterprise in colonization into effect by endeavouring to reclaim 
the savages of the Archipelagoes which have, by martyrdoms and 
massacres innumerable of British subjects, given her the respon- 
sibility as well as the prestige of furthering the cause of peace 
and evangelization ; and I doubt not that those deaths which we 
have deplored will eventually lead as it were to the opening of a 
new vista in the dark prospects of Melanesian heathendom. It 
cannot be beyond the good wishes of ouAelves, who belong to a 
Society which derives its title, by permission, from the Sovereign, 
who is again by the will of the nation styled '* Defender of the 
Faith," to desire that Her Majesty may enrol among her subjects 
thousands snatched from slavery and emancipated from the 
dominion of rites and customs that have no other support than 
ignorance, brutality, and the worst passions of mankind. 

Socibtt's Work. 

The work done by the Society during the last year is repre- 
sented by the following list of contributions : — 

Hay 12. — Annivenaiy Address, on Deep Sea Soondingi, and the G^ologj of 
New Caledonia. By Ber. W. B. Clarke, M.A., F.G^.S. 

June 2. — IVusts in American Mining. By S. L. Bensusan, Etq. 

Julj^7. — On the Stanniferous Deposits of Tasmania. By S. H. Wintle, 
Esq. [Commnnioatad bj Bet. W. B. Oln^.] 



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AKiriTXBBABT ADDUI88. 81 

Aiigost 7.~0n Sydnej Water Sapplj by GhwYitation. Bj Junef Manning, 

September 1. — ^Appendix to the preceding. 

October 6. — Second p«per on Sapplj bj GnTitation. By Jamee Manning, 

Eeq. 
NoTcmber 3. — Scientifio Notes in America and Bnrope. Bj H. C. BosBell, 

B8q.,F.B^S. 
December 1. — Supplementary Notice on Deep Sea Soundings. By Ber. W. 

B. Clarke, M.A., F.a.S. 

In the instance of our last yolume, the delay that has unaToid- 
ablj occurred in its publication is to be regretted, as it is an 
improvement on former volumes, containing the Proceedings of 
our monthly meetings, and two additional papers — one by our 
active Secretary, Professor Liversidge, on New South Wales 
Minerals, of which the title was read 9th December, 1874 ; and 
another, by Mr. Bussell, our Treasurer, being a summary of the 
Meteorological Observations of the year. These will supply many 
extra pages to the work. The cause of delay in the completion 
of the volume is the accumulation of work in the Printing 
Office, BO that others who share with us the good services of that 
Office have to wait as well as ourselves. 

There is an evil in delays of the kind, which is unintended and 
unavoidable. In the present day, first publication of any new 
fact gives the right of priority as a discovery. By the kindness 
of the proprietors of the Kerald we have been able to prevent 
any ill effect of the kind arising from irregularity of issue of our 
Transactions, so far as the authors of papers are concerned ; but 
the members generally have to wait very long for the volumes 
after they are ready for the Press, owing altogether to the 
increased amount of business. This is one of many grounds for 
the desire expressed by numerous persons that a Copyright Act 
should be passed through Parliament. As the law now is, there 
is nothing to prevent any tmscrupulous person from pirating the 
opinions or discoveries of living authors, and by skilful use of 
their words, whilst omUting aU marks of qmMion or reference to 
names, appropriating what is not their own, and altering 



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32 AJSmVERQABY ADDRESS. 

materials so purloined. I speak on this point with some authority, 
as I have myself suffered in this way ; and were not our time too 
short, I could point out some cases where this species of "picking 
and stealing" has been a bar to the imparting of further infor- 
mation on matters interesting to the community. 

Conclusion. 
I have now completed my intention with respect to the 
materials of this Address. At first, I had proposed to introduce 
several notices of subjects which though of great interest I have 
seen fit to leave for other occasions. Allow me, however, to 
repeat that the^ chief points which require the Society's 
attention have reference to our progress. 

There are those who have predicted that this Society will die 
out. At present it is not moribund but alive and active, and if 
those who ought to join us as working members would only lend 
us a helping hand I do not fear that we shall not realize the 
hopes of the most sanguine of us. Why should any of our mem- 
bers refuse to tell us, as briefly as they like, what may be useful 
to be known ? In the arrangement proposed all kinds of infor- 
mation could be employed by the Sectional Committees without 
disturbing the modesty of the most retiring contributor; and 
why a mechanic, or a manufacturer, or a traveller, or mere 
observer, should keep back under some delicacy of feeling which 
hinders a common object I know not. We are called, no doubt, 
by a somewhat lofty designation, but we do not presume to con- 
sider ourselves of such renown as to make it presumption in any 
one to do what he can to help on the common work. We do not 
boast at present of taking a lead in Science or Literature, and if 
such were the aim of our Association I for one would retire from 
it at once. Our true position is that of pioneers, sowers, foun- 
dation-layers ; and in that respect we have assuredly an 
honorable occupation ; and as such, and such only, I have aspired 
to take a part, somewhat, perchance, too prominent, in occa- 
sionally " going-a-head," sometimes scattering a seed/or thought 
here and there^-and sometimes adding a pebble to what here- 



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AKNIYEBSABT ADDHESS. 33 

after will, I hope, see itself surmounted by a superstructure of 
enduring reputation, when you and I shall have long passed 
away beyond the heats of controversy or the coldness of criticism. 
Let us do what we can to serve honestly our day and generation ; 
and then we may be assured, that though posterity cannot benefit 
or hurt us now, in its own time it will do us justice. What more 
do we need ? 

May I be permitted to add that to myself it has been a great 
satisfaction to have contributed in what I know to be a humble 
way to the Society's work ; and if I have done anything whatever 
to keep it on the move, such care as I have been enabled to 
bestow upon it has been amply rewarded by the kind co-operation 
of my friends in the Council during the many long years in which 
you have been pleased to place and keep me in a responsible 
position, and by an unexpected and general act of attention and 
regard not long since, which I should be wanting in duty and 
respect towards you if I did not thus publicly acknowledge. 

Tear by year, as I have occupied my accustomed place at your 
meetings, I have felt that I am less and less able to keep up with 
my own wishes for the advancement of the Society ; and with 
frequent remindings that this is not my final resting-place, with a 
certainty also that I ought soon to make way for one younger and 
stronger than myself, I would now make what may be a final appeal 
as to the necessity of giving earnest consideration to the sugges- 
tions made at the beginning of this Address. 

If all that remains of me at any future Anniversary be the 
painted canvas which does so much credit to the artist whom you 
▼oluntarily employed to do me honor, I still hope that that 
representation of me may look down upon a flourishing Association 
of men, whose appearance at your meetings will not be the mere 
inducement to spend a pleasant evening, but who will find that 
even such a gathering is to be a pledge that they have at 
heart a better aim and a more useful and noble; object for the 
employment of their leisure. I say not this in a presuming or in 
a doubting spirit ; but I honestly desire to see the Boyal Society 



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84 AKVITZBBABT ABBBESS. 

proBperous and happy in keeping up some show of great actual 
usefulness to the community to which we belong. And after I 
shall haye ceased to weary some of you with these dissertations, 
it will, I hope, be your pririlege to listen to a higher order of 
comment, and one better suited to command the attention of a 
scientific audience. 



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35 



NOTES ON SOME REMARKABLE ERRORS SHOWN BY 
THERMOMETERS. 

By H. C. BirssELL, B.A., F.E.A.S., Government Astronomer. 



l^ead before the Ito^ Societtf of N.8,W.j 7 Jime, 1876.] 



IiT the present day, when so much reliance is placed on ther- 
mometers both by scientific and medical men, probably no apology 
is necessary for mringing before the members of the Eoyal Society 
the faults of one or two instruments, when, as in the present 
case, those &nlt8 seem to be qidte inexplicable by known con- 
ditions affecting the accuracy of thermometers, and to depend 
upon some unknown relation existing between the mercury and 
the glass. 

I therefore put the following facts on record, in the hope 
Aat they may yet be found to be connected with the explana- 
tion of some of the extraordinary temperatures that have been 
published. 

For more than five years we have had a first-class dr^ and 
wet bulb hygrometer in use at the Observatory ; by the side of 
the dry bulb a standard thermometer has been kept, and always 
read at the same time as the dry bulb. The difference between them 
varied very little, two or three tenths of a degree usuaUy, and in 
some rare cases as much as one degree. Up to the 26th February, 
this year, we never had reason to suspect the dry bulb of imcertam 
indications ; on that day the maximum temperature rose to 96*4 
at or about noon ; at 3 p.m., the dry bulb and standard had both 
fiillen to 83*7, and at 9 p.m. to 68*9 and 69*0 ; ndxt morning they 
read 69*6 and 698, but the following morning the readings were— 
standard, 64;9 ; dry bulb, 87-3 ; showing a difference of 22-4. It 
was at once inferred that the glass had cracked and let in the air, 
but as no crack could be seen on careful examination, and it was 
determined to continue observing it for a time. He observations 
will be found in Appendix A. 

If a glass thermometer cracks, the mercury steadily rises till 
the tube is full, and it was expected that such would be the case 
here ; but no, the difference steadily decreased^ and in 36 days 
it had almost recovered its original condition, being sometimes 
less than half a degree ; between the 7th and 17th of April the 



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36 NOT£S ON SOME KKMAHKABLB EBBOBS 

difference increased to 13*3 degrees, and then fell again. On the 
8rd May, and again on the 7th of May, two sudden jumps occurred, 
and the difference rose to 13*7. Since then it has gradually fallen, 
except a slight rise May 21, 22. (^See diagram^ 

In the first instance the barometer was steady at about 80 
inches, with some minor oscillations, and there has been no1)aro- 
metric oscillation during the whole iime which mi£;ht be supposed 
equal to produce such effects, and even if there had been, it snould 
have affected all the thermometers alike. At present I can see 
no satisfactory clue to the explanation of tnese thermometer 
excursions. Once before when using a standard, in April 1872, 
to test another thermometer, the temperature of the water was 
rabed to 210^, and it was found that subsequently, for four days, 
the standard itself read too low by seyeral tenths of a degree 
(see Appendix B), and then recovered its normal condition. 
Here the cause was evident ; the glass had expanded, and did not 
contract as fast as it cooled. We often find differences also in the 
readings given by thermometers of known good quality, but these 
are attributed to difference in sensitiveness arising from thick- 
ness of glass, or other causes ; where the changes are sudden, as 
in thermometers on the grass exposed to the effects of radiation, 
the differences sometimes amount to several degrees. (See 
Appendix C.) That common thermometers give results differing 
by several, and in some cases as much as ten degrees, is well 
known to all who have had much to do with them, and that 
the glass continues to contract for years after it has been 
melt^ is beyond question ; for the makers keep thermometers 
two or three years before graduating them, and even then in 
many cases they go on contracting. But all the thermometers 
about which I have made these notes are of the best description, 
and the comparisons made in England before they were sent out 
have not been taken without re-examination. All the ther- 
mometers we use are compared in air with the standard here. 

On examination with the microscope, the dry bulb in question 
presents two features which must be mentioned ; one is a small 
piece of coloured glass as if lead had been reduced in melting the 
bulb ; the other is a little patch that looks like water inside the 
bulb. As the bulb is blown by the workman's lungs, this maybe 
condensed water in the bulb, from that source. Whether this 
can have anything to do with its uncertain readings I do not 
know, but it is possible that some action may take place between 
mercury and water under a vacuum. 

One other point must be mentioned. Fine glass, such as 
that used for lenses, if kept untouched for some months and then 
examined with a microscope, will be found covered with oily- 
looking specks, which eviaently ooze out of the glass, or are 
formed by the action of moisture on some of its constituents. 



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BHOlirK BT THSXLMOMETEBS. 87 

With regard to these thermometer cliangeBy there have been 
found some Tery remarkable coincidences which should also be 
placed on recora. The first jump in the thermometer was during 
the 27th of February. On tnat day at 2*80 p.m., we were visited 
by a small tidal wave, the result, it would seem, of earthquakes 
in New Zealand. 

From 7th to 17th April we have the next remarkable part of 
the thermometer curve, and we have also many small tidal waves 
recorded about the same time. 

On the 3rd of May we have the next conspicuous point in 
the curve, and on that day at 11*80 p.m., another tidal wave is 
recorded in Sydney and Newcastle, with many minor disturbances 
about the same time ; and on the 7th of May we have the second 
in magnitude. On that day, at 6*45 p.m., another tidal wave 
reach^ Sydney, the result of earthquakes in New Zealand. 

Again, on 21st of May, we have another feature in the 
thermometer curve, and another tidal wave recorded in Sydney 
harbour at 11*30 p.m. Are these coincidences accidental, or are 
they consequences of some impulse affecting all alike ? 

In the digram the straight line represents the readings of the 
standard thermometer, reduced to a straight line. The curved line 
shows the difference between the dry hvlh and the standard. At 
9 a.m. on each day the gradual decrease in the difference shown 
day after day in so marked a manner is evident in all the 
readings, the differences being less at night than in the morning ; 
showing a steadj decrease in the ^ or other substance in the 
thermometer which produced the difference. 

Sydney Observatory, 7th June, 1876. 



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KOTEB ON SOME BEMATHTABLE ERBOBS 



Eeadikos of Standard and Dry Bulb Thermometers, Sydney 
Observatory, 1876. 



Fab. 



liaroh 



23 


9 a.m. 


677 


67-9 


0-2 


t» 


3pm. 


701 


70*2 


O'l 


a 


9 » 


648 


648 


O'O 


H 


9 a.in. 


721 


72-1 


00 


>t 


3p.in. 


74-3 


74*3 


O'O 


» 


9 ». 


697 


700 


03 


25 


9a.n1. 


77*3 


77-5 


0*2 


»» 


3p.in. 


840 


84-0 


O'O 


>» 


9 >» 


750 


75-0 


O'O 


26 


9 a.in. 


79*4 


79*5 


O'l 


1) 


3P.m. 


^P 


837 


00 


» 


9 »> 


68-9 


690 


O'l 


27 


9a.Bi. 


696 


698 


0'2 


>» 


3P.m. 


»i 


" 


tt 


i> 


9 >» 


>t 


»> 


It 


28 


9 a.m. 


64-9 


873 


22'4 


» 


3p.in. 


69'a 


903 


2X*I 


« 


9 » 


63-6 


84-1 


20'5 


29 


9 a.m. 


66-3 


85-5 


19-2 


»i 


3P.m. 


699 


88-3 


i8'4 


» 


9 ». 


ti'2 


!3' 


i8-2 


I 


9 a.m. 


68-6 


85-9 


17-3 


>» 


3p.m. 


7i'6 


88-0 


i6-4 


}t 


9 » 


679 


843 


i6'4 


2 


9 a.m. 


70-0 


85-8 


158 


>i 


3P.1B. 


72-5 


879 


15-4 


i» 


9 » 


70-0 


8S-2 


15-2 


3 


9 a.m. 


75-2 


897 


H'S 


» 


3p.m- 


74*5 


88*6 


i4'i 


» 


9 »» 


71-2 


85-2 


140 


4 


9 a-m. 


74-0 


87-3 


13-3 


»> 


3p.m. 


747 


879 


13*2 


» 


9 »» 


680 


810 


130 


5 


9 a.m. 


710 


83a 


12*2 


tt 


3P.m. 


tt 


>l 


tt 


)> 


9 » 


It 


M 


tt 


6 


9 a.m. 


71-1 


829 


ii'8 


11 


3P.m. 


753 


86-6 


"•3 


tt 


9 ,» 


70-0 


811 


ii-i 


7 


9 a.m. 


740 


84-4 


io'4 


tt 


3pm. 


75-8 


85-9 


lO'I 


tt 


9 „ 


717 


820 


IO-3 


8 


9a.n1. 


750 


M 


97 


»t 


3P.m. 


762 


85-6 


94 


tt 


9 tt 


720 


81-3 


9*3 



March 9 



13 
tt 
tt 

14 
» 
It 

15 
» 
tt 

16 
tt 
It 

17 
» 
It 

18 

II 

It 

19 



23 



9 a.m. 


73-8 


827 


3p.m. 


768 


85-4 


9 » 


723 


8i'o 


9 a.m. 


74'6 


82'8 


3p.m. 


77-8 


85-6 


9 »> 


73'o 


8i'o 


9 a.m. 


75*6 


83-2 


3p.m. 


783 


854 


9 » 


730 


804 


9 a.m. 


76*5 


838 


3p.in. 


11 


II 


9 1, 


}> 


It 


9 a.m. 


77'6 


83-8 


3 p.m. 


78-5 


84-3 


9 ». 


72-9 


78-8 


9 a.m. 


76'9 


82-0 


3P.m. 


76-1 


81-3 


9 » 


73-8 


79'o 


9 a.m. 


788 


83-4 


3P.m. 


777 


82'4 


9 » 


73*3 


l^'l 


9 a.in. 


770 


8r6 


3P.m. 


784 


824 


9 » 


71-4 


75-8 


9 a.m. 


65*0 


692 


3p.m. 


69-0 


729 


9 » 


660 


70-0 


9 a.m. 


660 


694 


3p.m. 


72'2 


757 


9 »» 


66'3 


698 


9 a.iD. 


70'o 


73-1 


3P-ni. 


11 


>i 


9 »» 


II 


It 


9 a.m. 


72-8 


75-6 


3 p.m. 


73* 


76'© 


9 »» 


68-5 


71-4 


9 a.m. 


74a 


767 


3P™- 


77-6 


79'6 


9 », 


70-6 


730 


9 a.m. 


680 


7o'o 


3P.m. 


694 


712 


9 »i 


67'© 


69'o 


9a.m, 


677 


69-0 


3P.m. 


731 


74-8 


9 » 


7o'i 


7i'8 



8'9 
8'6 

87 
8-3 
7-8 
80 
7-6 
7*1 
7*4 
73 



6'2 

5-8 
5*9 
51 
5*2 
5'2 
4-6 

tl 
46 
40 

4*4 
4-2 

39 
40 

3'4 
3-5 
3-5 
31 



2'8 

3*2 

2'9 

2*5 

2'0 

2*4 
2'2 

1-8 

2'0 

I 3 
17 
17 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



mows BT THZBKOMJnL'JUKI. 

BKASHTQfl — e(mHnueiL 



M 









. 


^ 


g 








^ 


^ 


i 


D»te. 


Time. 


1 


1 


i 


Date. 


Time. 


1 


1 


1 








1 


^ 


1 








1 


1 


i 


MmrokH 


pajn. 


730 


«3*« 


«'5 


April 


9 


9a.in. 


60-8 


617 


09 


f» 


It 


3P»- 


81-9 


1*3 


99 


99 


3 p.m. 


99 


99 


99 


n 


f 


9 99 


77'8 


79*3 


1-5 


99 


99 


9 9, 


^99 


99 


99 


n 


•5 


gmjOL 


77-8 


78*9 


I'l 


99 


10 


9a.in. 


d4a 


65-3 


I'l 


yi 


M 


3PJB1. 


5^*5 


IH 


09 


99 


99 


3p.m. 


%\ 


66-8 


I-O 


» 


>» 


9 99 


812 


826 


1-4 


99 


99 


9 99 


59*o 


0-5 


f» 


36 


9 a.m. 


8^-3 


83-1 


08 


99 


IZ 


9 a.m. 


57*3 


59-1 


1-8 


M 


M 


3PJn. 


99 


99 


» 


»9 


99 


3p.m. 


66-4 


68-0 


1-6 


M 


w 


9 99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


9 99 


63-8 


65-3 


1-5 


M 


»7 


9a.in. 


694 


70-I 


07 


99 


12 


9 a.m. 


612 


63-2 


8-0 


»> 


ft 


3pjn. 


707 


IV^ 


06 


99 


99 


3p.in. 


65-0 


66-6 


1-6 


»» 


n 


9 99 


672 


68-0 


08 


99 


99 


9 99 


62-1 


640 


1-9 


ft 


38 


9 a.m. 


677 


68-8 


i-i 


19 


«3 


9 a.m. 


$3-9 


67-0 


3*i 


ft 


»» 


3pjn. 


721 


72-9 


0-8 


99 


99 


3P.m. 


650 


6r6 


2-6 


M 


» 


9 99 


68-2 


^A 


1*1 


99 


99 


9 99 


630 


66-3 


3'3 


H 


«9 


9a.iu. 


657 


66-6 


""'2 


99 


14 


9ajn. 


67-4 


70-4 


30 


!• 


t» 


3pjn- 


717 


72-5 


08 


99 


99 


3p.m. 


99 


H 


99 


» 


» 


9 tt 


693 


70*3 
70-8 


x-o 


99 


99 


9 99 


99 


99 


99 


» 


30 


9 a.m. 


70*0 


08 


99 


15 


9 a.m. 


647 


667 


2*0 


» 


M 


3P.m- 


77-0 


77-8 


08 


99 


99 


3p.Jn. 


71-0 


73*o 


2-0 


» 


»» 


9 99 


630 


63-9 


09 


99 


99 


9 99 


650 


670 


20 


ly 


31 


9a.iiL 


608 


612 


04 


99 


16 


9 a.m. 


62-2 


64-9 


27 


tf 


» 


3 p.™. 


74'3 


75-0 


^'l 


99 


99 


3p.m. 


99 


99 


99 


».. 


»» 


9 99 


64-8 


656 


08 


99 


99 


9 99 


99 


99 


99 


A^nril 


z 


9a.iD. 


65-2 


^57 


05 


99 


17 


9 a.m. 


63-2 


650 


r8 


»t 


tt 


3P.m. 


71*0 


71-5 


0-5 


99 


99 


3p.m. 


657 


676 


i'9 


» 


tt 


9 9, 


635 


^M 


07 


99 


9> 


9 99 


597 


61 -o 


1*3 


» 


3 


gtkJOk. 


65a 


65-8 


0-6 


99 


18 


9 a.m. 


57-3 


58-5 


I '2 


w 


9) 


3pjaa. 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


3p.m. 


687 


70*0 


1*3 


»» 


>l 


9 9, 


^"^ 


99 


99 


9) 


99 


9 99 


647 


66-3 


v6 


fl 


3 


9 a.m. 


63-8 


642 


04 


99 


19 


9 a.m. 


6o*o 


61 'O 


i-o 


» 


w 


3pjn. 


718 


7»*5 


07 


99 


99 


3p.m. 


697 


717 


2'0 


t» 


M 


9 t9 


66-0 


672 


1*2 


99 


99 


9 99 


6v6 


626 


10 


tt 


4 


9 a.m. 


67-0 


68-0 


i-o 


99 


20 


9a.ui. 


600 


6i*o 


I'O 


tf 


>f 


3p.m. 


75-8 


76-5 


07 


99 


99 


3p.m. 


li'^ 


765 


X'O 


» 


tt 


9 99 


707 


7**1 


^7 


99 


99 


9 tt 


68-0 


69*0 


X'O 


*l 


5 


9a.in. 


77-0 


77-8 


08 


9) 


21 


9 a.m. 


679 


68*8 


09 


» 


f> 


3P.ni. 


850 


856 


06 


99 


99 


3p.m. 


?5'5 


76-4 


09 


>* 


» 


9 99 


71*6 


722 


06 


99 


99 


9 99 


680 


69*0 


X'O 


»f 


6 


9ajn. 


67-5 


68-0 


0-5 


99 


22 


9 a.m. 


64-3 


65-6 


1*3 


»> 


tt 


3 p.m. 


73-8 


74*3 


05 


99 


99 


3pm. 


77-2 


2!'^ 


17 


t9 


ft 


9 99 


66-2 


67*0 


08 


99 


99 


9 ,9 


67-0 


68-2 


1*2 


it 


7 


9a.in. 


676 


68-5 


09 


99 


^3 


9 a.m. 


6i*9 


628 


o'9 


tf 


91 


3P-m. 


740 


750 


xo 


99 


99 


3p.m. 


99 


99 


99 


tt 


99 


9 99 


652 


66-2 


X'O 


99 


99 


9 19 


99 


99 


99 


It 


8 


9 a.m. 


64-8 


65-2 


04 


99 


H 


9 a.m. 


615 


62-4 


o'9 


M 


91 


3P.m- 


660 


669 


09 


99 


tt 


3P.in. 


69*0 


70*0 


X'O 


It 


99 


9 91 


56*0 


568 


0-8 


M 


99 


9 99 


64-1 


652 


i-x 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



40 



NOTES Oir SOME BE1CABKA.BLE EBB0B8 

Seadings — continued. 



April 25 

II II 

II II 

II 26 

i> II 

19 II 

.1 27 

II II 

II II 

II 28 

II II 

II II 

II 29 

II II 

II II 

II 30 

II II 

II II 

May I 



9 a.Tn. 


608 


3pm. 


74*2 


9 II 


67-8 


9 a.m. 


637 


3p.m. 


66-5 


9 II 


641 


9 a.m. 


622 


3p.m. 


69-5 


9 » 


658 


9 a.in. 


630 


3p.m. 


77-6 


9 I. 


67*3 


9 a.m. 


58*9 


3pm. 


68'o 


9 II 


61-2 


9 a.m. 


580 


3 p.m. 


II 


9 11 


II 


9 a.m. 


57*3 


3P.m. 


602 


9 II 


59*5 


9 a.m. 


569 


3P.m. 


670 


9 1. 


62*0 


9 a.ni. 


564 


3 p.m. 


68-2 


9 II 


637 


9 a.m. 


SS'o 


3Pin. 


64-5 


9 II 


626 


9 a.m. 


588 


3p.in. 


648 


9 II 


611 


9a.in. 


6ro 


3P.ni. 


625 


9 II 


61-5 


9 a.m. 


61 '9 


3P.m- 


II 


9 I. 


II 


9 a.m. 


S 


3p.m. 


9 I. 


587 


9 a.m. 


§Z'^ 


3p.m. 


680 


9 II 


602 


9a.in. 


565 


3p.ni. 


679 


9 » 


63-0 



62*0 
09*0 

64-8 
676 
65-6 

63-0 
70*5 

66'9 
646 
790 
684 
59*8 
69*0 
62-3 
589 



58a 

61 '2 
60-9 

57*9 
680 
630 
57*5 
^•3 
647 
638 
70*2 
68-2 

637 
697 

^5*9 
650 
66*8 
658 
664 



71*0 
729 
677 
658 
764 
683 
64*0 
70-2 
704 



I '2 


May II 


9 tL.m. 


6o-5 


67-2 


I"0 


II II 


3pm. 


690 


757 


1*2 


II II 


9 II 


66-5 


73'2 


I'l 


II 12 


9 a.m. 


680 


74'S 


I-I 


II II 


3p.m. 


737 


79'9 


i'5 


II II 


9 II 


660 


72*0 


08 


II '3 


9 a.m. 


59'o 


646 


i*o 


II II 


3Pm. 


66'S 


727 


1*1 


II II 


9 II 


597 


65-5 


r6 


II 14 


9 a.m. 


530 


585 


1-4 


II 11 


3P.m. 


II 


II 


1*1 


II }> 


9 II 


II 


II 


09 


II 15 


9 a.m. 


53-8 


590 


10 


II II 


3P.m. 


57*^ 


628 


I'l 


II II 


9 II 


55-8 


60-9 


09 


II 16 


9 a.in. 


53*2 


58*5 


II 


II II 


3 p.m. 


61 '2 


66*o 


II 


II II 


9 II 


547 


59*4 


09 


II 17 


9 a.m. 


53'5 


58*0 


i*o 


II II 


3p.m. 


590 


635 


i'4 


II i» 


9 II 


563 


6ro 


10 


.1 18 


9 a.m. 


55'^ 


59-8 


I'O 


II II 


3p.m. 


61 -o 


652 


I'O 


II II 


9 II 


57*2 


61-2 


11 


1. 19 


9 a.m. 


55*9 


59*9 


I'l 


II II 


3P-m. 




63-0 


I'O 


II II 


9 II 


58*0 


620 


5-8 


II 30 


9 a.m. 


570 


6o'9 


57 


II »i 


3 p.m. 


59*2 


63-3 


S'6 


II II 


9 II 


601 


64-0 


4-9 


II 21 


9 a.m. 


590 


632 


49 


II II 


3p.m. 


II 


II 


4-8 


II II 


9 II 


II 


II 


40 


II 22 


9aja[L 


604 


650 


4'3 


II II 


3p.m. 


64-0 


683 


43 


II II 


9 II 


606 


64-8 


45 


II 23 


9 a.m. 


58-4 


62*9 


II 


II II 


3p.m. 


669 


71-2 


II 


II »» 


9 II 


57*9 


61 "9 


«37 


II 24 


9 a.m. 


563 


6o'o 


9*3 


II II 


3Pm. 


647 


68;3 


90 


II II 


9 II 


592 


sfri 


8-6 


II 25 


9 a.m. 


536 


8-4 


II II 


3p.m. 


64*0 


67-3 


8-1 


II »i 


9 II 


5^'5 


5?-4 


7'5 


II 26 


9 a.m. 


53*5 


564 


2'3 


II II 


3 p.m. 


622 


65-0 


7*4 


II ir 


9 1. 


614 


64-0 



67 

&7 
6-5 
6-2 
60 
5-6 
5*9 
5-8 
5*5 



5*2 
5-2 
51 
53 
52 
47 
4*5 
4*5 
5'3 
42 
4*2 
40 
40 
3-8 
40 
39 
4» 
39 
42 



4-6 

4*3 
4*2 
45 
43 
40 

37 
3-6 
3*3 
3*2 
3*3 
2*9 
2*9 
2-8 
2-6 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



SHOWH BT THEBMOMSTIBS. 

BEABnres — continued. 



41 



Maj 27 



38 



29 



30 

n 
31 



Jane 



9 a.m. 


602 


627 


2'5 


3p.m. 


60Z 


623 


2-2 


9 » 


62-3 


648 


a'5 


9 a.m. 


63*2 


644 


2'2 


3P.m. 


yi 


»* 


» 


9 » 


»» 


It 


>» 


9 a.m. 


566 


584 


r8 


3pm. 


62*0 


640 


2*0 


9 »> 


631 


65» 


2*1 


9 a.m. 


615 


635 


20 1 


3P.ni. 


610 


6a-6 


1-6 


9 >» 


604 


6a-3 


1*9 


9 a.m. 


547 


56a 


1*5 


3p.m. 


59^ 


607 


1-6 


9 » 


52-« 


54-4 


1-6 


9 a.m. 


530 


54*5 


1*5 


3p.ni. 


604 


62*0 


1-6 


9 » 


54« 


56-2 


1*4 i 


9 a.m. 


560 


57'4 


1*4 


3p.m. 


630 


644 


1*4 


9 » 


53*2 


54-6 


1*4 


9 a.m. 


489 


50-0 


I'l 


3P-™- 


5«-3 


59*9 


1-6 


9 >» 


504 


517 


'■^ 



June 



4 


9a.in. 


48-0 


49-0 


it 


3p.m. 


» 


i> 


tt 


9 .» 


»t 


»» 


5 


9 a.m. 


48-8 


499 


» 


3p.m. 


6o-o 


61-3 


tt 


9 » 


547 


56*0 


6 


9 a.ui. 


51*3 


525 


1) 


3P.m. 


539 


55'3 


>» 


9 » 






7 


9 a.m. 






»» 


3p.m. 






»» 


9 f» 






8 


9 a.m. 






tt 


3p.m. 






tt 


9 »» 






9 


9a.in. 






tt 


3P.m- 






tt 


9 » 






10 


9 a.m. 






tt 


3p.m. 






tt 


9 »» 






XI 


9a.in. 






)) 


3pm. 






tt 


9 ff 







I'O 



I'l 

13 

1*3 

1*2 

i'4 



B. 

Eeadikgs of Standard and Dry Bulb Thermometers, Sydney 

Observatory, 1872. 



Date. 


Time. 


StaDdMd. 


nryBulb. 


nurerenoe. 


April 18 


9awm. 
3pni- 

9 M 

9 a.m. 
3p.m. 

9 » 
9 a.m. 
3pjn. 

9 » 
9 a.m. 
3p.m. 

9 ». 
9a.iii. 
3p.n1. 
9 *. 


S'5 
670 

624 

6o-i 

661 

6ri 

62! 

63-5 

>» 

» 

64-0 
550 


626 
671 
627 
60-3 
67*2 
62-0 

f' 

630 
642 

M 
>» 

64-0 

55'i 


O'Z 




O'l 




03 

0*2 


10 




1*1 




tt 


„ ao 




07 
04 
07 




II az ......... 








„ 22 


04 

0*0 






O'Z 







Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



^ BEMABKABLB EBBOB0 SHOWN BT THSBK0HETEB8. 



Beabikchs of Minimnin Thermometers on the grass corrected foi 
index errors.* 



Dikie, 


1 


Diflerenoe 

1-a. 


2 


S 


8-S. f 

m 


l£aj26 

: 3:;:::: 

II 29 

»» 30 

June i 

II a 

1. 3 

.1 4 

:: 1 :::::: 

>» 7 


42'0 

557 
54'5 
510 
52-0 
465 
37*5 
395 
373 
375 
399 
44*5 
45-0 


0-3 
3*2 
3*5 
33 
3*1 
34 
3*4 
29 

3-5 
32 

n 

39 


423 
525 
5x;o 

489 

43-1 

fei 

33-8 
34-3 
3<5-5 
419 
411 


469 
533 
S5'» 
S»-9 

454 


4-2 
4'* 
43 
45 
4-6 
41 
49 

ji 

44 

4*3 


Means 


44-8 


30 


41-8 


460 


4-2 



* Index errors in each case determined by comparison with the standard in air. 
Na 1— Glass Thennometer on wooden stand. 
No. 2— Olass Tliermometer on sine stand. 
No. 8— Do. da 



ts 



?: 



4~. 



s 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



3, 



" A 



:^, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



43 



ON THE ORIGIN AND MIGRATIONS OF THE 
POLYNESIAN NATION ; 

DEMOKSTRATINO THEIR ORIGINAL DISCOVERT AND PROGRESSIVE 
SETTLEMENT OF THE CONTINENT OF AMERICA. 

By THE Eev. Dr. Lang. 



[Sead he/ore the Uoyal Society o/N.S.W., 5 July, 1876.] 



In the outset of a series of lectures delivered before this Society 
seven or eight years since, I observed that the singular phenome- 
non which the South Sea Islands present to the eye of a philo- 
sophical observer is perhaps one of l^e most difficult to account 
for that has ever en^fi^ed the efforts or the ingenuity of man. 
Prom the Sandwich Islands in the Northern, to New Zealand in 
the Southern, Hemisphere ; from the Indian Archipelago to 
Easter Island, adjoining the continent of America — an extent of 
ocean comprising sixty degrees of latitude and a hundred and 
twenty of longitude, that is exactly twice the extent of the 
Soman Empire in its greatest glory — the same primitive language 
is spoken, the same singular customs prevail, the same semi- 
barbarous nation inhabits the multitude of the isles. 

In using this language, however, I would not be understood to 
include the numerous islands and groups of islands of the West- 
em Pacific ; the inhabitants of which are all remarkably different 
from the other South Sea Islanders, and would seem to be derived 
from the same primitive stock as the aborigines of Australia and 
the Papuans of New G-uinea. These islanders of the "Western 
Pacific are all of a much darker hue than those of Polynesia 
Proper, or the Eastern Islanders, many of them being jet black ; 
and there is this remarkable distinction between the two races, 
that while the languages of Eastern Polynesia are all mere 
dialects of the same primitive tongue, there is an infinity of lan- 
guages in the islands of Western Polynesia, and all remarkably 
different from each other, every island of any size having on© 
of its own, and the larger islands three or four. 

My attention was strongly directed to this very interesting sub- 
ject at an early period after my arrival in this Colony for the first 
time in the vear 1823 ; and as there was a more frecment inter- 
course at that period than in later years, between New South 

E 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



44 ON THE OEIGHT AND MIGBATI(flrg Of TflB POLYNESIAN NATION. 

Wales and certain groups of islands in the Pacific, I employed 
myself as I could from time to time in investigating the 
manners and customs of the islanders geuerally and the modes and 
causes of their migrations from island to island, and in endeavour- 
ing, if possible, to ascertain from what part of the surrounding 
world they originally came. 

The Polynesians, like all other islanders, are a maritime people, 
very frequently if not constantly at sea, and ever and anon making 
short voyages from island to island in their respective groups. Now 
although the trade winds in the Pacific are remarkably regular, they 
are not so uniformly. Sudden and violent westerly gales arise from 
time to time, and when these are contrary to the course of the 
unfortunate islander, passing perhaps from one well-known island 
to another, he may be driven out to sea, notwithstanding all his 
efforts to the contrary, and may never regain his native isle. In 
such cases, unless he happens to be cast on some previously un- 
known island, he will at length be engulphed in the waves. This 
then is the first of the ways in which the numberless islands of 
the Pacific Ocean have been successively peopled, in the courso 
of ages past, at a cost of human life and sufiering; absolutely- 
appalling to think of. The second of the modes in which thef 
numberless groups of the Pacific Ocean have been successively 
peopled in past ages is from the event of war. In all past time» 
the islands of the Pacific have been the scene of almosi; 
perpetual and savage warfare ; and it has often happened that the 
vanquished party have been obliged to trust themselves in their 
canoes to the mercy of the winds and waves, and the chance of 
being cast upon some unknown island, rather than remain in their 
native island to be butchered wholesale by their victors. This 
has in all likelihood been the origin of cannibalism in the South 
Sea Islands, the wretched survivors in these uncertain and peril- 
ous voyages being compelled from sheer necessity to kill and prey 
upon one another ere they could reach, if they ever did, any land. 
Tne state of things I have thus pourtrayed accounts for another 
and remarkable fact in Polynesian history, viz., the absence of any 
•distinction of caste among the natives of the Nefw Zealand group 
•of islands, while in the Tonga or Friendly Islands, which the 
vicinity and the resemblance of language in these groups would 
indicate as the original home of the New Zealand race, there is a 
full development of caste. Por in whatever manner the original 
forefathers of New Zealand had left Tonga, their supposed native 
isle, all of the lower castes would be mercilessly butchered one by 
one for the subsistence of the rest, and the whole of the original 
inhabitants of their new found land would thus be Eangatiras or 
gentlemen. The spirit of adventure, which in many cases has been 
remarkably developed among the South Sea Islanders, must also* 
ihave tended strongly to the spread of mankind over Uie numbw* 



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OK THE OBienr akd MieRA<rioire of the poltkesiah k atiov. 46 

less isles of the Pacific. At all events, since the islands of the 
Pacific were first known to civilized men, there have been numer- 
ous instances of all these modes — by accident, by the event of 
war, and by the spirit of adventure — of carrying popidation to 
the most distant islands. The captain of the vesselin which I 
made my first voyage from Syoney to England, in the year 
1824, having previoiuly been the master of a whaler in the 
Pacific, told me that on one occasion he happened to fall in with 
a canoe with a number of natives on board who had accidentally 
been driven to sea by a sudden gale, and having nearly expended 
all their provisions, were utterly unable to find their way back to 
their native isle. The benevolent shipmaster took them all on board 
his vessel and supplied them with the necessary food for their 
subsistence. But as it would have taken him about three hun- 
dred miles oat of his proper course to carry them to their native 
island, he merely gave them a compass, and showing them how to 
use it he left them to pursue their homeward voyage themselves. 
In due time the summits of the mountains of Tahiti, their native 
isle, hove in sight, and the natives leaped and danced for joy at 
sight of them in their canoe. Then looking first at the land and then 
at the compass, their mysterious guide, which they supposed alive, 
they exclaimed, " The cunning little thing — it saw it all the time!" 

The next questiom before us is from what portion of the habit- 
able globe has the Polynesian race been derived, and with what 
other family or tribe of the earth's inhabitants does it exhibit any 
aflSnityP 

Before attempting to answer this question, I would observe 
that there are certain writers who maintain that the Polynesians 
could not possibly have come from the westward or the continent 
of Asia, ^m the prevalence of the easterly or trade winds of 
both hemispheres. De Zuniga, a Spanish writer of some celebrity , 
and the author of a history of the Philippine Islands, in which he 
held office under the Spanish G-ovemment, maintains that the 
Polynesians could never nave made their way across the Pacific 
from the westward, in conseauence of the umform prevalence of 
the easterly trade winds in that ocean. He therefore advances 
the singular hypothesis that the South Sea Islands were originally 
peopled from Ajnerica, and alleges in proof of it the remarkable 
resemblance of the language of the American Indians of Chili, of 
which certain specimens were contained in the history of that 
country by the Spanish historian Er9illa, to that of Tagala in 
the Philippine Islands; forgetting that the natives of continents are 
never maritime people like those of islands, and not taking into 
consideration the obvious fact that even if the American Indians 
had been disposed to maritime adventure, they might have made thou- 
sands of voyages from the west coast of America ere ever they could 
hit upon any one of the Islands of the Pacific, the nearest of 



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46 OTK THE OmaiN and MIGEATIONS of the POLYNESIAN NATION. 

which is at least 2,000 miles from the American land. But this 
testimony of that eminent navigator La Perouse is decisive 
against the hypothesis of De Zuniga. " Westerly winds,*' says 
that distinguished navigator, " are at least as prevalent as those 
from the eastward in the vicinitv of the equator, in a zone of 
7 or 8 degrees north and south ; and they*' (that is the winds 
in the equatorial regions^ " are so variable tnat it is very little 
more difficult to male a voyage to the eastward than to the west- 
ward." To the same effect'Captain (afterwards Admiral) Hunter, 
R.N., the second Governor of^New South Wales, observes in the 
narrative of his voyage from Fort Jackson to Batavia, in the year 
1791, " It was very clear to me, from the winds we had expari- 
enced since we came to the northward of the line, that at this 
time of the year (the end of July), and generally during the 
height of the north-west monsoon in the China seas, these 
(westerly) winds do sometimes extend far to the eastward of the 
Philippine Islands, and frequently blow in very heavy gales.** 

Having thus disposed of the preliminary objection as to the 
alleged impossibility of getting to the eastward in the Pacific 
Ocean, I observe that the Polynesian race exhibits the clearest 
evidence of an Asiatic origin. 

First, — In the distinction of caste, which, as I have already 
observed, although not existing in New Zealand, for the reason I 
have mentioned, was as clearly developed in the Priendly Islands 
as it ever was in India. 

Secondly, — In the singular institution of Taboo, which obtains 
universally in the South Sea Islands, and is evidently also of 
Asiatic origin. The word Taboo corresponds pretty nearly with 
the Latin sacer or the Greek ava^c/ia, the person, place, or thing 
under taboo, being what the Latins would call sacer diis ccelestibus^ 
holy or sacred to the celestial gods, or sacer diis injhmis, accursed 
or devoted to the infernal gods. It may be difficult indeed to 
account for so singular an institution as the Polynesian taboo ; 
but its Asiatic origin is evident and unquestionable. Its influence 
and operation may be traced from the Straits of Malacca, across 
the whole Continent of Asia, to the Sea of Tiberias and the Isles 
of Greece. In Ionia, in Hindostan, and in Tahiti, the person, the 
place, or the thing that was subjected to the influence of the 
mysterious taboo was, in the words of the Latin historian, augurm 
patrum, et miscaformidine sacrum, abstracted from the common 
usages of life, by a superstitious dread, tiie result of ancient 
religious observances. 

Thirdly, — Numerous Asiatic customs and observances are 
practised in the South Sea Islands, as well as in the Indian 
Archipelago, which closely adjoins the Continent of Asia, and 
must therefore have been originally peopled from that continent. 
Of these, however, our time will only allow me to mention one, 



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ON THE OBianr AITD MIOBATIONS of the POLTKESIIN KATION. 47 

but a very remarkable one — I mean the filthy practice of chew- 
ing the areca nut or piper hetel^ so prevalent m the East Indies — 
a practice which makes the mouth unnaturally red and the teeth 
black. This Asiatic practice was observed by Captain Hunter 
amoDg the natives of the Duke of York's Island to the eastward 
of New Ireland ; and by Captain Hovell, of the " Young Austra- 
lian," among the inhabitants of Banks' Island, still further east, 
or in 170° west longitude. 

Fourthly, — ^The evidence of language in regard to the origin of 
the South Sea Islands is still stronger and less open to objection. 
" Language," says the celebrated Home Tooke, " cannot lie, and 
from the language of every nation we may with certainty collect 
its origin." 

" One original language," observes Sir Stamford Raffles, "seems 
in a very remote period to have pervaded the whole Indian Archi- 
pelago, and to have spread (perhaps with the population) 
towards Madagascar on one side and the islands in the South 
Seas on the other." And in confirmation of this idea, Mr. 
Marsden, the author of a .history of Sumatra, and an eminent 
authority in all matters connected with the Indian Archipelago, 
informs us that " upon analysing a list of thirty-five Malayan 
words, of the simplest and most genuine character, twenty will be 
found to correspond with the Polynesian generally, seven with a 
small portion of the dialects of the South Seas, and seven, as far 
as our present knowledge extends with the Malayan itself." 

There is another veir remarkable fact, under the head of 
language, which I shall merely mention for the present, as I 
shall have to refer to it more particularly in the sequel, and 
which proves incontestibly the original identity of the Polynesian 
race with the Indo-Chinese nations of Soutn-eastern Asia and 
the inhabitants of the Indian Archipelago ; for in common with 
these nations the Polynesians, in the islands in which their social 
system was more fully developed, as in the Tonga or Eriendly 
Islands, as compared with New Zealand, there was a language of 
ceremony or deference distinct altogether from the language of 
common life. My idea therefore is, that the forefathers of the 
Polynesian race were somehow struck off from the other or 
Malayan tribes of the Indian Archipelago at so early a period in 
the history of mankind as within five hundred years after the 
deluge, according to the Hebrew chronology, and that in the 
course of many successive generations, and under the influence of 
those occasional westerly gales that prevail in the Pacific, they 
had crossed that ocean to the eastward, within the Equatorial belt 
of La Perouse if not rather considerably to the northward, 
according to our very able Member, Mr. Edward Hill, from their 
supposed starting point in the Philippine Islands, to Pasquas or 
Easter Island, in latitude 2T in the Southern Pacific, within 



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48 ON THE OBIGIK AND MI0BATI0N8 OF THE POLYNESIAN NATION. 

2,000 miles of the American land. There, at all erents, 
our own great navigator, Captain Cook, actually found not only 
a people of the real Polynesian type but the colossal remains of 
their long extinct civilization. 

And this extreme antiquity which I assign to the Polynesian 
race is not merely a matter of conjecture. There are two 
remarkable notes of time in the case that throw us back irre- 
sistibly to the very cunabula gentis^ the actual cradle of the 
Polynesian race. The distinguished scholars of the Indian 
Archipelago— Sir Thomas EaflSies, Dr. Leyden, Mr. Crawford, 
Mr. Marsden, and others — inform us that there have been two 
distinct foreign infusions into the ancient Malayan tongue, viz., 
an Arabic infusion co-eval with the era of Mjahomet and the 
Mahometan invasion of the East. Now, of this copious Arabic 
infusion in the Malayan language, which may be dated as high as 
the seventh century of our era, there is no trace in the Polynesian 
tongue — a circumstance which proves incontestibly that the 
Polynesian race had been struck off from the Malayan tribes of 
the Indian Archipelago before the era of Mahomet. But there 
is another and much more ancient foreign infusion in the Malayan 
language, of which also there is no trace in the Polynesian dialect, 
I mean the Sanscrit infusion. This, therefore, throws back into 
the very highest antiouity the origin of the Polynesian race as a 
distinct family of manldnd. 

To retrace our steps for a moment, we have now established the 
important fact, that under the influence of causes that are still in 
operation throughout the South Sea Islands, the Polynesian race 
has spread itself in the course of long ages past over the whole 
extent of the Pacific Ocean— from the Sandwich Islands in 
the northern to New Zealand in the southern hemisphere, and 
from the western shores of the Pacific, to Easter Island, within 
1,800 or at the utmost 2,000 miles of the American land. 

At the time when I was eamestlv pursuing my investigations 
into the origin and migrations of the Polynesian race, I was 
myself crossing the Pacific, on my second voyage from Sydney to 
London, in the year 1830, having carried with me to sea for the 
express purpose, such works bearing on the subject as I could 
then procure in the Colony. We had encountered on that 
occasion a strong southerly gale of seven days continuance 
after rounding the North Cape of New Zealand ; and for 
part of that time we had the mountains of that island 
clearly in sight. We then got a strong westerly gale that 
carried us the whole way right across the Pacific to Cape Horn, 
with dose-reefed topsails, at the rate of ten or eleven knots an 
hour. In these circumstances, when reading De Zuniga's work, in 
which he tells us that the aboriginal languages of Tagala, in the 
Philippines, and of Araucania, in Chili, were remarkably similar 



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OK THE OBIGIir Ain> MIGRATIONS OF THX POLTlTEBIlir KATIOK. 49 

(hastante eowforfnes)^ and alleges the fact as a reason for his strange 
hypothesis, that the South Sea Islands were peopled from 
America ; it struck me all at once and with prodigious force, when 
glancing, as I could not help doing at the moment, at the possible 
results to which the suggestion might lead, that the converse of 
the Spaniard's hypothesis might perhaps be the true idea in the 
case, and that instead of Easter Island having been colonized and 
settled from America, some unfortunate canoe suddenly blown off 
from that island by some such violent westerly gale as the one 
before which we were then careering over the great waters of the 
Pacific, might have landed the first cargo of human beings on the 
continent of America. 

It would seem indeed as if Easter Island had been placed in 
its actual position by the all wise and beneficent Creator for the 
express purpose which in all likelihood no other island in the 
Pacific could have served — of ensuring the discovery and settle- 
ment of that great continent by the Polynesian race — of proving, 
so to speak, a stepping stone between Polynesia and America. 
Situated, as that island is, in 27 degrees south latitude, that is, 
well up in the south temperate zone, and very nearly in the 
latitude of the city of Brisbane, on this coast, it is equally 
beyond the influence of the south-easterly trade winds of the 
intertropical regions, and within the full sweep of the strong 
westerly gales of the southern Pacific. Such gales as the one 1 
experience in the year 1830 — and I have experienced various 
others of the same kind in subsequent vovages across the Pacific — 
such a gale as I have referred to wotild certainly extend as far 
north as Easter Island ; and, once caught within its resistless 
sweep, the hapless Polynesian craft would be driven before it, in 
all likelihood m less tlian ten days, to the American land. And 
where k it supposable that a Polynesian vessel would in such 
circumstances reach the American continent ? Why, the westerly 
gale I have supposed would admit of no deviation from a due 
easterly course, either northward or southward, in the case of any 
bi^less vessel accidentally brought within its power. Such a 
vessel would therefore reach the unknown land to the eastward, 
as nearly as possible in the latitude of Easter Island — that is, 
somewhere near the present seaport town of Copiapo, in the 
Bepublic of Chili That, I am confident, was the place where the 
American continent was first trodden by the foot of man. 

I am happy to be able to state in this stage of our inquiir that 
an able and scientific member of this Society, Mr. Edward Hill — 
who is eminently qualified for offering a reliable opinion on the 
subject of our present investigations, from having himself spent 
not less than four years in traversing the Pacific Ocean in all 
directions, and especially from having made the origin and 
migrations of the Polynesian nation his particular study for 



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50 OK THE OfilGUr AND MIOSATIOKS OF THE P0LTNE8IAK KATIOK. 

many years past — ^has assured me that he coincides entirely with 
me m the views I have stated both in regard to the origin of 
the Polynesian nation in the Indian Archipelago and to the conrses 
which the indi\idnals of that nation must have taken in crossing 
the Pacific in the regions of its greatest breadth from their start- 
ing point in the Philippine Islands to Pasquas or Easter Island, 
which he reckons is situated 2,200 miles from the American land. 
There he leaves me, however, not from any doubt as to my being 
then on the right track for ascertaining how both North and 
South America were originally peopled, but because he had 
never entertained the thought of following the Polynesians across 
the intervening tract of ocean that separates Easter Island from 
the mainland of America. 

Taking it for granted, therefore, for the sake of argument, that 
that continent was originally reached by a canoe full of Poly- 
nesians, who had been accidentallj blown off thie laud from Easter 
Island by one of those sudden, violent, and protracted westerly 
gales that prevail at certain seasons in the southern Pacific, and 
had crossed the intervening breadth of ocean to the American 
land, somewhere near Copiapo, in the Bepublic of Chib', what 
would be the result of these unfortunates finding themselves in 
their new-found-land? "Why, like all emigrants from the old 
world to some colonial field beyond seas, they would just repro- 
duce in their new settlement the whole framework of society on 
the model on which it was constructed in their native isle. 
They would practice the same mannera and customs as had 
obtained in their fatherland, and they would construct both their 
private habitations and their public building^ on the same plan 
or model to which they had been accustomed in the land of their 
nativity. 

Now, this is precisely what we find to have been the result of 
the supposed original discovery of America by a handful of 
fiimished Polynesians at a very early period in the history of 
mankind, we find the whole framework of society among the 
abori^es of America constructed on precisely the same model 
as in Polynesia ; we find the same singular maimers and customs 
prevalent in both cases ; and we find those wonderful remains of 
an extinct civilization in America that excite the astonishment of 
modem civilization, of precisely the same character and aspect 
as if they had been erected by a Polynesian architect. 

Beserving the proof of this for the present, I would now 
present the Society with a brief statement of the theories put 
forth by a great variety of authorities in regard to the origin of 
the Indians of America, in the recent work of an eminent 
American historian, Mr. Bancroft, entitled " The Native Baces 
of the Pacific States of North America." Before doing so, how- 
ever, I would lay down as a test for judging and decidmg on all 



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OK THE OBIOUr ASD MIOBATIOITS OF THE P0LT5ESIAK ITATIOK. 51 

such theories tbe principle established by the great philosopher 
and traveller, Humboldt, and confirmed and strengthened by 
other two very eminent authorities on tiiis subject — Dr. Morton, 
of Philadelpma, and Dr. Yon Martins, of Bavaria. 

What then is the testimony of that eminent philosopher and 
keen observer, Baron Humboldt, on the subject of the aborigines 
of America? "Why, it is as follows : — ^** The nations of America, 
except those which border on the Polar circle, form a tingle race, 
characterised by the form of the skull, the colour of the skin, the 
extreme thinness of the beard, and straight, glossy hair."* 

And again, " I think I discover, in the mythology of the 
Americans, in the style of their paintings, in their languages, 
and especially in their external conformation, the descendants of 
a race of men, which, early separated from the rest of mankind, 
has followed for a lengthened series of ages a peculiar road in 
the unfolding of its intellectual faculties, and in its tendency 
towards ciyihzation."t 

Dr. Morton, of Philadelphia, with whom I spent an evening in 
his own house in that city, in the year 1840, was the author of a 
scientific work of the highest character,:^ entitled '' Crania Ameri- 
eana," containing accurate drawings of the crania of all the 
aboriginal races of that continent, from the Esquimaux region 
in the far north to Cape Horn. Having heard very shortly 
before of a Professor in the German University of Freiburg 
maintaining verjr dogmatically that the Azteck conquerors 
and the comparatively civilized builders of the pyramids and the 
other wonderful ruins in America were a totally different race 
from the wild Indians of the forest of the present day, Dr. Mor- 
ton assured me that there was no difference in the skidls of the 
aborigines, that they were all one people, the descendants of one 
common stock, one nation, and on asking him to what section of 
the human family the Indo- Americans bore the greatest resem- 
blance in their craniological development, he replied at once — the 
Polynesian. 

I shall be reminded, however, that the Indo- American nations 
of Peru and Mexico were in a comparatively high state of civiliza- 
tion at the period of the Spanish conquest, when America was 
first discovered and colonized by Europeans, the western equa- 
torial regions of that continent were the seat of extensive, flour- 
ishing, and powerful empires, the inhabitants of which were 
well acquainted with the science of government, and had made 
no inconsiderable progress in the arts of civilization. At the 
time when the institution of posts was unknown in Europe it 

* Humboldt's Researches, voL i, p. 15. 
flbid.,^. 200. 

X "Dr. Morton had quoted in his great work a work of mine published in 
Lcmdon in 1834, on the suhject of this paper. 



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52 ON THE oBianr akd MiOBiiTioirs ov thv POLTirBSiAV irxTioir. 

was in full op^*ation in the Empire of Mexico ; at a time when a 
public highway was either a relic of Eomau greatness or a sort 
of nonentity in England, there were roads of 1,500 miles 
in length in the Empire of Peru. The feudal system was 
as firmly established in these transatlantic kingdoms as in France, 
and the system of etiquette that regulated the intercourse of the 
different ranks of socieir, was as complete and as much respected 
as in the Court of Philip the Second. The Peruvians were 
ignorant of the art of forming an arch, but they had constructed 
suspension bridges across frightful ravines ; they had no imple- 
ments of iron ; but their forefathers could move blocks of stone as 
huge as the Sphinxes and the Memnons of Egypt. The Mexicans 
were unacquainted with the art of forming cast metal pipes, but 
they had constructed dykes or causeways as compact as those of 
Holland ; and their capital, which was situated in the centre of a 
salt water lake, was supplied with a copious stream of fresh water, 
brought from beyond the lake in an aqueduct of baked clay. 
They had had no Cadmus to give them an alphabet, but their pic- 
ture writing enabled them to preserve the memory of past events 
and to transmit it to posterity. 

" The Indigenous race of the New World," observes Dr. Von 
Martins, an eminent Bavarian philosopher, who travelled in the 
Brazils during the earlier portion of the present century, " is 
distinguished from all the other nations of the earth, externally 
by peculiarities of make, but still more internally by their state 
of mind and intellect. The aboriginal American is at once in 
the incapacity of infancy and unpliancy of old age ; he unites the 
opposite poles of intellectual life." And again, "The first 
germs of development of the human race in America can be 
sought nowhere except in that quarter of the globe.* In short, 
Humboldt, Dr. Morton, of Philadelphia, a^id Dr. Von Martins, 
all give it as their deliberate opinion that the aborigines of 
America are all, with the exception of the Esquimaux of the 
Polar circle, one people, amd unlike every other people on the 
face of the earth. But while both Humboldt and Dr. Morton 
modestly decline pronouncing any judgment as to their origin, 
Dr. Von Martins, in the true spirit of modern scepticism, tells 
us at once that they had sprung into existence on the spot. 

To return now to Mr. Bancroft, although that writer lays 
down no theory of his own as to the original peopling of 
America, he evidently inclines to the opinion of those wno derive 
the Indo-Americans from Eastom Asia by Behring's Straits. 
" The theory that America was peopled," says Mr. Bancroft, " or 
at least, partly peopled, from Eastern Asia, is certainly more 
widely advocated than any other, and in my opinion is moreover 

* Von dem RechtEustande onter der Ureinwohnem Braziliens. A paper 
by Dr. Von Martins, in the Boyal Geographical Society's Journal, vol li. 



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OK THl OBIGIF AKD MIOBATIOKS OT THB POLTKESIAK KXTIOF. 53 

baaed opoD a more reasonable and logical foundation than any 
other."* But in so far as the emigration from Eastern Asia is 
supposed to have taken place by Behring's Straits or the Alieutian 
Islands, the objection taken to such a theory by the Quarterly 
Beview (vol. xn., pp. 334-6), is unanswerable : "We can hardly 
suppose that any of the pastoral hordes of Tartars would emi- 
grate across the strait of Behring or the Alieutian Islands with* 
out carrying with them a supply of those cattle on which their 
whole subsistence depended." To suppose indeed that a people 
like the Tartars of North-eastern Asia, who live, so to speak, on 
horseback, and subsist almost entirely on the flesh and milk of 
their flocks and herds, would cross tliat narrow strait, either by 
water or on the ice when frozen, without carrying with them a 
single horse, a single sheep, or a single head of cattle, is quite 
incredible. And to talk of an extensive emigration of the Tar- 
tar nations of North-eastern Asia flying to America from before 
the warlike hosts of Zenghis Khan, how could a non-maritime 
people have crossed the intervening tract of ocean between Asia 
and America ? or if they did, how did they come to leave all their 
sheep, cattle, and horses behind ? But if America was first peo- 
pled, as I have supposed, by a handful of famished Polynesians, 
who had been suddenly dnven to sea from Easter Island, and 
carried across the int^ening ocean to America, somewhere near 
Copiapo in the State of Chili, in South America, the entire 
absence of all our domestic animals at the era of the Spanish 
conquest was the necessary consequence of the manner in which 
they had originally reached their new-found-land. 

" Analogies," says Mr. Bancroft, " have been found, or thought 
to exist between the languages of several of the American trioes 
and that of the Chinese ; but it lb to Mexico, Central America, 
and Peru, and not to the north-western coast, where we should 
naturally expect to find them most evidont."t Besides, in the im- 
portant item of architecture, in which we should have expected 
some proofe of identity between the Chinese and the Polynesians, 
if there had been any original aflBnity between these nations, 
there is none whatever. Speaking of the ruins of Central 
America, Stephens says : " If their (the Chinese) ancient archi- 
tecture is the same with their modem, it bears no resemblance 
whatever to these unknown ruins." Central America, vol. ii. 
p. 438. 

It would be a mere waste of time to take into serious consider- 
ation thejclaims which Mr. Bancroft shows us have been put forth 
by various writors to the discovery and settlement of America on 
behalf of the Egyptians, the Phoenicians or Tynans, and the Car- 
thaginians. It would be inexcusable, however, to omit all men- 

• The native races of the Pacific States o! North America, vol. i, p. 30. 
t Bancroft Ihid, 



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54 OK THE OBIOUr AND MI0BATI0K8 OF THE POLYKESIAK NATION. 

tion of those that have been preferred for the Jews in general or 
the Ten Lost Tribes in particular. There are fourprincipal writers 
on this subject, viz., G-arcia, a Spaniard ; Lord Kingsborough, an 
enthusiastic Englishman ; and a Dr. Boudinot, an American divine, 
of Husuenot descent ; but none of these writers give us any 
rationiu idea as to how the Jews could ever have crossed the 
Pacific, or any proof of the identity of the Indo- Americans with 
the Jewish people, while the far-fetched and strained analogies 
on which they base their theory are evidently the mere offspring 
of a warm imagination. If my theory as to the origin of the 
Pol^esian nation is well founded (as I am confident it is), that 
nation must in all likelihood have taken its departure from the 
Indian Archipelngo as early as the age of Abraham himself, and 
long before the Jews became a nation at all, and in this opinion 
I am not singular. 

" Much," says Mr. Bancroft, " has been written to prove that 
the north-western parts of America were discovered and peopled 
by Scandinavians long before the time of Columbus. Altnough a 
great part of the evidence upon which this belief rests is unsatisfac- 
tory, and mixed up with much that is vague and undoubtedly fabu- 
lous, yet it seems to be not entirely destitute of historical proof." 

Again, " "We come now," says Mr. Bancroft, " to the theory 
that the Americans, or at least part of them, are of Celtic 
origin," and then he gives us the legend of Madoc, a prince of 
WSes, having crossed over to America, as also the opinion of Lord 
Monboddo that America was colonized and settled by Scotch High- 
landers who had left their language in the country in proof of it. 

Mr. Bancroft then alludes to the story of Atlantis, " as old as 
Plato," that is, of a submerged lost land that once lay " to the west 
of Europe," by which it has been alleged emigrants from the old 
world had originally crossed over by c&y land to America. But 
there are two things fatal to all these theories. 1st. That there 
is no reliable evidence whatever of either a Scandinavian, or a 
Welsh, or of any other emigration westward from the old world 
to America. The emigrants of all these countries died and left 
no sign, no progeny. But even if there had been any consider- 
able emigration ^om Europe to America, the three eminent 
authorities I have quoted — Humboldt, Dr. Morton, and Dr. Von 
Martins — assure us that the Indo- Americans could never have 
descended from any people of the old world, there being no other 
nation upon earth with which they have the slightest affinity. 

" Hence it is," says Mr. Bancroft, ** many not unreasonably 
assume that the Americans are autochthones (or created on the 
spot) until there is some good ground given for believing them 
to bis of exotic origin."* Now this is the very desideratum I 

• Ibid, 131. 



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OK THE OBIOnr AJSn> MIQBATIOKS OF THE POLYNESIAK Ni.TIOK. 55 

propose to supply, by giving the best possible grounds for believ- 
ing that the Indo- Americans are not autoehthmes or indigenous, 
but are intimateljr related, in the way of natural descent, to one 
of the most ancient sections of the family of man. I shall 
reserve the proof of this, however, for another paper. 



Pabt II. 



The points I have established in the previous part of my paper 
are: — 

1. That the Polynesian nation, scattered as it is over the num- 
berless islands of the vast Pacific Ocean, is of Asiatic origin and 
of Malayan race, and was separated from the rest of mankind at 
a period of the earliest antiquity in the history of man. 

2. That under the operation of causes that are still in active 
operation in the Pacific Ocean, the forefathers of the Polynesian 
nation proceeded to the eastward from their original point of 
departure in the Indian Archipelago, and that their descendants 
in many successive ages and generations crossed the Pacific 
Ocean— discovering and occupying the numerous islands and 
groups of islands in their course, as well as others at great dis- 
tances both north and south, till they reached their farthest east 
in Pasquas or Easter Island, within 2,000 miles of the American 
land. 

3. That the same causes that had operated in carrying them to 
the eastward as far as Easter Island — a distance of not less than 
7,000 or 8,000 miles — must have operated in carrying them 
still farther east, across the remaining tract of ocean from that 
island to somewhere near Copiapo, in the same latitude, in 
the Bepublic of Chili, in South America, where our own great 
navigator. Captain Cook, found them a hundred years since. 
And my theory is — 

4. That from that landing-place they gradually proceeded 
northwards and eastwards during the numberless ages that have 
since elapsed ; occupying and forming settlements in all eligible 
localities in their course, first in the southern and afterwards 
in the northern continent of America, as far as the Lakes of 
Canada and the coast of Labrador. 

With this view I shall show you in the first place that the 
civilization of the more civilized Indo-American nations was 
exclusively Polynesian, and cast entirely in a Polynesian mould 



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56 OK THB OBIODT AHD laGBATIOKB OF THS POLTITESIAK XTAXION. 

I shall then show that the phenomena of language in America 
point directly to a Polynesian origin ; and I shali conclude by 
showing that the same singular manners and customs prevail 
among the wild and uncivilized tribes of both nations. 

I. The peculiar type of the civilization of the Indo- American 
nations is exhibited in some measure at least in the very remark- 
able architectural remains that are scattered in great profusion 
over both the American continents. These consist of pyramidal 
erections, of temples, of tumuli, and of fortifications. I have 
already observed that the pyramidal and colossal style of the 
architecture of the earlier postdiluvian nations was in all likelihood 
a relic of the civilization of the antediluvian world. There can be 
no doubt, however, of its universal prevalence in that early period 
of the history of our race ; and wherever we can trace its exist- 
ence we may rest assured that the civilization of which it is the 
sign was derived from the ages immediately succeeding the deluge. 
Now there is nothing more remarkable than the prevalence of 
this peculiar type of civilization, this pyramidal and colossal 
style of architecture, in the ruined cities of America. Humboldt, 
as I have already shown, compares those of Mexico with the 
pyramids of Egy^t ; and in all the recently-discovered ruins of 
Indo- American cities in Guatimala and Yucatan — in Copan, in 
Quirigua, in Palenque, and in IJxmal — pyramidal buildings are 
uniformly found, sometimes in great numbers, together with 
monolith statues, in some instances upwards of 20 feet high. 
"The pyramid of Papantla," says Humboldt, "is built entirely 
with hewn stones of an extraorcunary size, and very beautifully 
and regularly shaped ; three staircases lead to the top."* Stephens 
also, in his "Incidents of Travel in Central America," thus 
describes a ruin he had seen in the ancient Indo- American city 
of Copan in Q-uatimala : " This temple is an oblong enclosure. 
The front or river wall extends on a right line north and south 
624 feet, and is from 60 to 90 feet in height. It is made of cut 
stones, from 3 to 6 feet in length, and a foot and a half in 
breadth. • • • The other twee sides consist of ranges of 
steps and pyramidal structures, rising from 80 to 140 ^t in 
height on the slope. "t Now each of these remarkable buildings, 
to which there is nothing at all similar either in ancient or modem 
Europe, or even in Asia, consists of a pyramid with steps up to 
its top on three of its sides, while the fourth forms the wall for 
a temple enclosure. But the structure described, on ihe 
authority of Mr. Ellis — the temple and pyramid of Atehuru in 
Tahiti — is precisely of the same character, and might have been 
erected by the same architect from the same plan ; while in 
Easter Island, the supposed point of departure from Polynesia to 

* Hamboldfs Besearohes, i., 89. 

t Stophens* Incidento ot Travel in Oentanl Axnerioa, page 87. 



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on TSM OBIGCT AJn> MIGBilTIOKS OF THB POLTKBSIAK KATIOK. 57 

America, there are monolith statues quite as large as those of 
Copan or Quiri^ua. Can we doubt then that the Polynesians 
ana Indo- Americans are the same people, and that their fore- 
fathers carried with them across the vast Pacific and to both of 
the American continents, the neculiar type of civilization, photo- 
graphed as it had been upon tneir minds, that characterised the 
ages immediately after the deluge ? 

Here were, properly speaking, no such buildings as temples 
either in Polynesia or Indo- America — what we should call tneir 
temples being merely square or rather oblong spaces, enclosed 
with massiye walls, but without roofs. It is observed by Mitford, 
in his History of Q-reece, that the antiquity of the writings of 
Homer may ne inferred from his silence on the subject of temples 
and image-worship. They were both, it would seem, equally 
unknown to the ancient South Sea Islanders and Indo-Amencans ; 
although in later times, and in particular localities, idolatry 
obtained a footing and became prevalent among them. ''The 
Indians of the forest," says Humboldt, " when they visit 
occasionally the missions, conceive with diflBculty the idea of a 
temple or an image. * These good people,* said the missionary, 
* like only processions in the open air. When I last celebrated 
the patron festival of my village, that of San Antonio, the 
Indians of Inirida were present at mass. * Tour God,* said they 
to me, ' keeps himself shut up in a house as if he were old and 
infirm ; ours is in the forest, m the fields, and on the mountains 
of Sipapu, whence the rains come.' **• The same magnificent 
idea of a great Spirit pervading the world is, as is well known, 
prevalent among the wild Indians of North America, who have 
neither temples nor im^es — a fact that would seem to indicate 
that the forefathers of their race in the Indian Archipelago had 
been separated from the rest of mankind, before the monstrous 
idolatries of the East had been devised, and when the purer 
theology of the age immediately succeeding the deluge still 
prevailed among men. 

There is another indication of the hoary antiquiir, as well aa 
of the identity, of the Polynesian and Indo-Amencan races in 
the want of mortar or cement of any kind in their more ancient 
buildings. This, it seems, was one of the characteristics of that 
pyramidal and colossal style of architecture that obtained in the 
ages immediately succeeding the deluge. The Bev. Dr. Porter, 
for some time a missionary in the East, and now a professor in the 
General Assembly's Coflege in Belfast, Ireland, who, when 
stationed in Syria and Damascus, had visited and described the 
colossal remains of the giant cities of Bashan, to which he assigns 
an antiquity of not less than four thousand years, thus describes 

• Hmnboldt't lS$m.tire, voL t.» pag» 178. 



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58 OK THE OBIGIK AND MIORA.TI0K8 07 THE P0LTKB8IAH KATIOK. 

one of the houses wliich he entered in one of these cities. 
'* The house seemed to have undergone little change from the 
time its old master had left it ; and yet the thick nitrous crust 
on the floor showed that it had been deserted for long ages. 
The walls were perfect, nearly 5 feet thick, built of lar^e 
blocks of hewn stones, without lime or cement of any kind. The 
roof was formed of large slabs of the same black basalt, lying as 
regularly, and jointed as closely, as if the workmen had only 
just completed them. They measured 12 feet in length, 
18 inches in breadth, and 6 inches in thickness."* Pre- 
cisely similar is the account which the American, Herman 
Melville, gives of the colossal remains in the Marquesas Islands. 
" A series of vast terraces of stone rises step by step for a con- 
siderable distance up the hill side. These terraces cannot be less 
than 100 yards in length and 20 in width. Their magni- 
tude, however, is less striking than the immense size of the 
blocks composing them. Some of the stones, of an oblong 
shape, are from 10 to 15 feet in length, and 5 or 6 feet thick. 
Their sides are quite smooth ; but though square, and of pretty 
regular formation, they bear no mark of the chisel. They are 
laid together without cement.'* f And in the account of the 
remarkable colossal remains in Easter Island, the same very 
singular circumstance is observable. '* These monuments consist 
in a number of terraces or platforms built with stone, cut and 
fixed with great exactness and skill, forming, though destitute of 
cement, a strong durable pile. On these terraces are fixed colossal 
figures or busts. They appear to be monuments erected in 
memory of ancient kings or chiefs.^J Although many of the 
South Sea Islands consist of vast masses of coral, and are sur- 
rounded with coral reefs, the natives never had in any instance 
learned the art of burning the coral into lime ; and when taught 
the process by the missionaries, they testified alike their astonish- 
ment and delight. The colossal terraces, I may add, are exactly 
similar to those described and figured by Stephens in his account 
of the ruined Indo-American cities of Copan, Palenque, and 
TTxmal. I quite agree, however, with Mr. Stephens in regarding 
these cities as of a comparatively modem date, and as having 
been inhabited in all likelihood down to the era of the Spanish 
conquest ; first, because there are wooden lintels still remaining 
in some of the ruinous buildings ; and, secondly, because the 
walls are cemented with mortar, and covered with stucco. For 
in the more ancient buildings of that continent, as on the shores 
of the Lake Titicaca, in Peru, there is no cement used. Spanish 
writers describe the remains of an ancient Peruvian temple, con- 



* The GHant Cities of Bashftii ; London, 18G7, page 26. 

t Tvpee, page 178. 

X Bllis's Polynesian Besearohes, iii., 326. 



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OK THE OBI0nr AinO MIOBATIOirS OF THE P0LTNE8IAN KXTIOK. 69 

sifiting of an enclosed space, open at the top, of which the walls 
are about 12 feet in height, and consist of stones of an 
immense size, some of them being 80 feet long, 18 broad, 
and 6 feet thick. The9e 9tane^ are not cemented with 
mortar; neither have the^jr been squared to join closely to each 
other, like hewn stones in a European building, although the 
stones of ancient Peruvian buildings are sometimes found hewn 
into regular forms ; but cavities have been wrought with the 
utmost exactness, and with incredible labour, in one stone to 
receive the natural or accidental protuberances of another. 

Tumuli, constructed, in some instances, of immense stones, 
and in others, as on the banks of the Ohio, of mounds of earth, 
are also found among the remains of ancient civilisation, both in 
the South Sea Islands and in America. I have already mentioned 
the tomb of Toobo Tooi, in the island of Tonga, constructed of 
immense stones that must have been rafted across the sea from 
some other island, as Tonga is a mere mass of coral, and per- 
fectly flat. 

Bemains of ancient and regular fortifications have also been 
discovered in both continents of America ; and the circumstance 
has repeatedly awakened much curiosity respecting the origin, 
the history, and the fate of the nation that has left behind it 
these memorials of its ancient civilisation. But regular fortifica- 
tions of a similar kind are still met with in all parts of the South 
Sea Islands. In some islands they are constructed of walls of 
loose stones piled on each other on the tops of hills, as in New 
Zealand; in others, as in Ascension Island, in the Northern 
Pacific, of a wall of 80 feet high, enclosing a harbour, and 
formed of large blocks of dressed stone, buut up with great 
architectural skill, but without cement of any kind ; in others 
thej are formed of strong palisades, like the Burman Stockades, 
as in the level island of Tonga ; and in others still they consist 
of some artificial addition to a pl&ce of great natural strength, 
as in the district of Atehuru, in Tahiti. In short, the South Sea 
Islanders have evidently been in a sufficiently advanced state of 
civilisation to enable them to construct fortifications, and to 
adapt these fortifications, in regard to the materials employed in 
their construction, to the nature of the country in which they 
were required. This part of our subject is so very interesting 
that I snail willingly avail myself of the following passage from 
Mr. Ellis:— 

" The fortress at Maeva, in Huahine," one of the Society 
Islands, *' bordering on & lake of the same name, is probably the 
best artificial fortification in the islands. Being a square of 
about half a mile on each side, it encloses many acres of ground 
well stocked with breadfruit, containing several springs, and 
having within its precincts the principal temple of tneir tutelar 



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60 OV THE OBIQIV AND laGUATIOFS OF THE POLTNESIAH ITATIOir. 

deity. The walls are of solid stonework, in height 12 feet. 
They are even and regularly paved at the top. On the top of 
the walls (which in some places were 10 or 12 feet thick) 
the warriors kept watch and slept. Their honses were built 
within, and it was considered sufficiently large to contain the 
whole of the population. There were four principal openings 
in the wall, at regular distances from each other, that in tne west 
being called the King's road. They were designed for ingress 
and egress ; but during a siege were built up with loose stones, 
when it was considered a/mrt haabuea, an impregnable fortress."* 

Considering that the normal state of the South Sea Islands 
has from time immemorial been that of civil or rather inter- 
necine war, there is no point of comparison between the 
Polynesians generally and the Indo- Americans more interesting 
than that of their fcHrtifications. Those of the Indo- Americans 
appear to have been generally formed of mounds of earth — a 
mode of formation well adapted for such localities as the alluvial 
banks of the Ohio, the dead levels near the lakes of Canada, or 
the elevated plains of Central America, but not at all adapted 
for the South Sea Islands. My talented townsman, the late 
John Ghdt, Esq., of Greenock, Scotland, the author of a whole 
series of popular works of fiction about half a century ago, and 
father of the late Premier in Canada, has told me that he 
had seen the remains of an Indian fort on the summit of a preci- 
pitous ridge near Lake Simcoe, in Upper Canada. It consisted 
of a mound of earth, enclosing a considerable extent of ground ; 
but on the banks of the Miamis Eiver, much farther to the 
southward, the Indian forts had been constructed of stone. 

Nay, the march of ancient civilisation among the Indo- 
Americans may even be traced, in some measure, by those most 
interesting remains. In South America I have not heard of their 
being found to the eastward of the Andes. The gloomy forests 
of Guiana and the Brazils were evidently unfavorable for the pres- 
ervation of Indo- American civilisation ; and the portion or the 
race that wandered into these vast solitudes was necessarily 
broken up, at an early period, into an infinity of insignificant 
tribes that could hold little or no communication with eadi other, 
and that, consequently, very soon sunk irrecoverably beneath the 
level of the rest of their nation. But the regions of Central 
America, the elevated plains of Bogota and Cundinamarca, the 
open valleys of Peru, and the lofty and secluded but highly fertile 
tracts of Chili, were much more favorable for the formation of 
powerful states and empires ; and it is, accordingly in these por- 
tions of the continent of South America that the ruins of ancient 
cities and of extensive fortifications are found. In the North 
American continent, the course of the Mississippi and its tribu- 

* £Uis : Polynesian Researches iv, 450. 



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oir mns oxionr and kigbatioks of ths voutkebus katiok. 61 

taiy Btreams would, doubfdess, guide the Indmn in his progrees to 
the northward ; and it is, accordingly, on the banks oi the Ohio, 
in the Western prairies, and along the lakes of Canada, that we 
find the monuments of his ancient power. 

There is therefore a remarkable similarity in the developments 
of ciyilisation in the article of national defences or fortifications, 
on the part of the Indo- American nations and the Polynesians 
respectiyely. One is constrained to regard them as tne same 
people, exhibiting, as they do, in circumstances remarkably 
different, the same amount of intellectual power and mechanical 
abili^. There are certainly no such palatial residences to be 
found in the South Sea Iskuids as those of which we find the 
ruins in the Indo-American cities of Central America and Yucatan. 
But the reason is obvious — ^tte South Sea Islands afibrded no 
such fields for the establishment of mighty empires, the exercise 
of kingly power, and the other developments of luxury, as there 
were in Mexico and Peru and Central America. But I maintain, 
without fear of contradiction, that there is nothing in the civilisa- 
tion of these Indo-American empires of the past that is not fairly 
traceable to a Polynesian source. 

n. I now proceed to the second branch of our subject — to show 
that the phenomena of language, and of what may be called 
literature amon^ the aborigines of America, point dnrectly to a 
Pohnesian origm. 

Ta.king it for granted, therefore, that the theory I have been 
endeavoring to establish, is well founded, and that America had 
been origiimlly discovered by a handful of Polynesians from Easter 
Island, who had been caught suddenly, when perhaps fishing off 
the coast of that island in one of those violent westerly gales that 
are so prevalent in the Southern Pacific, and had been driven 
before tbe wind to the American land, what are the phenomena 
in regard to language which this theory would lead us to antici- 
pate — supposing as I have done that the forefathers of the Indo- 
American race m both continents had landed on the west coast 
of South America, somewhere near Copiapo, in the Bepublic of 
Chili, and that the future migrations of their descendants, north, 
east, and south, had commenced from that point ? Why, we 
should expect, as a matter of course, that the Polynesian character 
of the language or languages spoken by the Indo-American 
people woiud be retained the most strongly in the region in which 
the forefathers of the race had first landed. Now this is precisely 
what we find to be the actual fact. De Zuniga, the historian of 
the Philippine Islands, a most unexceptionable witness in such 
a case, informs us that the words of the language of the Arauca- 
nian Indians of Chili, contained in the work of Er9illa, the his- 
torian of that people, are strikingly conformable, hastante conformea, 
to those of the language of Tagala, one of tiie districts of the 



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62 OK THE OBiaiK AJSCD MiaBATIOKS OF THB POLTKSSIAK KATIOK. 

Philippines. I may add, in passing, that one of our own respected 
members, Mr. Edward Hill, who spent four years of his life in 
sailing among the South Sea Islwds, and who knows, perhaps, 
more about ^eir inhabitants than any other person in this Colony, 
while he coincides with me entirely in regarding these islanders 
as Malays from the Indian Archipelago, conceives that the Philip- 
pine Islands were their starting point from that Archipelago, 
and that, to use the nautical language, they made their easting in 
the Northern hemisphere, but in that Equatorial belt, in which 
Ija Perouse and Admiral Hunter inform us that at certain 
seasons of the year westerly winds are as prevalent as easterly. 

We should also expect if my theory is well founded, that the 
Indiim languages of South America generallT, down to the Equa- 
tor, would exhibit much more of the Polynesian and vocalic 
character than those of the northern continent, the latter being 
so much farther from the orijrinal point of departure. And this 
is precisely what we find in met. Whole strings of words in the 
language of the Indians of the British province of Guiana, whole 
strmgs of words in the language of the Cuna Indians of the Isth- 
mus of Darien; are in their form and character precisely like so 
maay words in the Polynesian dialects of New Zealand and 
Tahiti. 

A scholar, accustomed to trace the affinities, or to detect the 
radical dissimilarity of different languages, would at once unhesi- 
tatingly assert that the following woras of the dialect of the 
Warows, of British Guiana, were just so many words of the 
Polynesian tongue : — 



Head 


Magaah 


Water 


Ho 


Eyes 
Mouth 


Maamu 


Earth 


Hotah 


Maroho 


Sun 


Yah 


Hair 


Maaheo 


Moon 


Waanehah 


Ears 


Mahohoko 


Stars 


Keorah 


Arms 




Thunder 


Nahaa 


Skin 


Mahoro 


Bain 


Naahaa 


Blood 


Hotuh 


Paddle 


Haahah 



The following words are from the dialect of New Zealand : — 
M a h a n a Day Madino Smooth 

Marama The moon Maha Much 

Maripi A sword Matapo BHnd 

N.B. — ^The syllable Ma, in both lists, is in all likelihood a 
prefix. 

The following Indian names of localities on the Demerara 
Biver, supplied me by a friend returned to England from Deme- 
rara, have also quite a Polynesian aspect : — Arigaraboe, Hiagua, 
Haboe, Boera-boera-wa, Warawarau, Maraka, Mamaa, Moenetari, 
Mari Mari, Winipio, Mamikoeroa, Toematamatia, Motolca, Aky- 
ma, Eaiwalia, Eamakaiaha, Dalawila, Wai, or Yai, is the Polyne- 



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OH THE OBIOnr AVB MieBATIOKS OF THE FOLTHESIAK KATIOK. 63 

nan word for water; and Waridu, Waratili, Walaba, are the 
names of three creeks that empty themselves into the Demerara 
Eiyer. 

The following specimens of the language of the Cunas, one of 
the tribes of Indians inhabiting the Isthmus of Darien, have also 
very much of a Polynesian aspect. I extract it from "The 
Journal of the Soyal Goograpmcal Society for the year 1868,** 
page 100. 



Pather 


Tata 


Mother 


Nana 




Nusatileli Nana, Nusatileli*8 mother 


Brother 


Urpa 


Sister 


Ome 


Son « 


Hflu 


Man, or men 


Tule 


Water 


Ti 


Canoe 


XJlu. Look to the canoes — Ulutaque 


Paddle 


Canie. Take care of the paddles — Canie 




pehue taki. 


Black 


Bati 


Bed 


Kiniti 


High 


Tumati 


111, evil 


Chuli 


I, me 


Anu 


Tou, thou 


Pe 


Day 


Yppa 


Evening 


Sueto 


Bice 


Aro 


Flesh 


Sana 


Needle 


Ico, yco 


Bench, seat 


C^na 


Dish, plate 


Niiala 


CaUbash 


Noga 


Yes 


Ee (nasal) 


No, nothing 


Chule 


Who 


Ipi 


Where, when 


Pia mai 


To t4ike 


Kte 


To see 


Take 


To have 


Nica 


What have you ? 


Ipi pe nica 

Shogue. Tell him — Pe shogue. 


To tell 


To know 


Huishi 


Togo 


Nae. Go (imper.), Pe nae. 


Pain 


Nun make 


One 


Kuasak 


Two 


Pagua 



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64 ON THE OBianr and MIGBATIOKS of the POLYNSilAK NATIOK. 

Three Pa 

Four Pake 

Pive Atal 

Six Nerkua 

Seven Kugule 

Eight Payaga 

Nine Pakewake 

De Zuni|;a also observes, in the passage of his work which I 
have alrea<i^ quoted, that *' the proper names of places, about the 
middle of the continent of South America, are very similar to 
those of the Philippines." 

The following are a few of these names of places in South 
America haviDg a Polynesian aspect: — Peru, Quito (Kito), 
Guatimala (Eittimaia^, Arica, Loa, Titicaca, Panama, Huajna, 
Chili, Caicara, (Kaikara), Alahualpa, Tiahuanacu, Arequipa 
(Arekipa), Q-uarohiri (Karohiri), Huanuco, Lima, Tarapaca, 
G-uana !Kato (Kanahato), <&c. The same Polynesian character 
of the language also holds in regard to persons even in Mexico. 
For example, the Mexican reverential aflSx tzin or arm, which 
was always added to the names of princes, is in all likelihood 
the Indo-Chinese a£Ebc, asvane, si^ifymg lord, if not rather the 
Chinese word tHn. In the list of Mexican kings who reigned 
previous to the era of the Spanish conquest we find the names of 
Nopal-tzin, Ho-tzin, Quina-tzin (Kina-tzin), Cacoma-tzin, 
Cuicuitzca-tzin, Coanaco-tzin, Montezuma-tzin, Ghiatimozin (Ejt- 
Tima-tzin). Several of these proper names have a remarkable 
resemblance to modem Polynesian names; the last especially — the 
name of the unfortunate prince whom the Spaniards extended 
over a fire of coals to compel him to inform them where he had 
hidden his treasures — that name is,' when stripped of its Spanish 
doublet and its reverential affix, a pure New Zealand name. 

When we reach the northern continent, however, in which 
the movement of nations, wars, and conquests would seem to have 
been much more frequent than in the South, the Polynesian or 
vocalic character of the language disappears, and we meet with 
combinations of consonant of a really formidable character, 
altogether unlike the speech of Polynesia. The Aztecks, or 
modem Mexicans, who had overrun the Mexican territory from 
the northward, and whose tenth king, Montezuma, was the 
reigning monarch at the era of the Spanish invasion, ascribed the 
erection of the famous pyramid of Teotihuacan to the Toltecks, 
a tribe of kindred origm and language, who had abo overrun 
Mexico, five hundred years before the Azteck conc^uest; but 
they did so simply because their chronology, which, like that of 
many other conquering tribes, overlooked the records and tradi- 
tions of the van(juished people, did not extend any higher than 
the era of the migrfction and conquests of the northern tribes. 



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OK THB OBiem AlTD MI0BATI0K8 OF TEE POLYKEBIAK KliTIOV. 65 

But the probability is that the pyramid of Teotihuacan was 
erected long before the Toltecks haa emerged from the forests of 
the North, and that that warlike but less polished race retained 
the ancient Polynesian name of the stupendous edifice, while they 
worshipped their own national divinities within its saoced 
precincts, under their own northern appellations. At all eyents 
there is a wonderful difference in character and aspect between 
the Polynesian name Teotihuacan and those of the Azteck and 
Tolteck divinities Huitzilopochtli^ the god of war, and Miction- 
eihuatl, the goddess of hell. 

I have almtdy ouoted the strongly expressed opinion both of 
Humboldt and of £>r. Yon Martins, that the Indo-Americans are 
all one and the same people, irom north to south, with no inter- 
mixture with any other portion of the fSsunily of man. Baron 
Humboldt also apprises Us of the very interesting fact that not- 
withstanding the wonderful diversity of language among the 
aborigines of America there is a common principle of mechanism 
exhibited in the structure of all the aboriginal languages of that 
great continent which entitles us to refer them all to one common 
origin. "Languages," says that illustrious writer, "are much 
more strongly characterized by their structure and grammatical 
forms than by the analogy of their sounds and of their roots ; and 
this analogy of sounds is sometimes so disfigured in the dif- 
ferent dialects of the same tongue as not to be distinguishable ; 
for the tribes into which a nation is divided often designate the 
same object by words altogether heterogeneous. Hence it follows 
that we are easily mistaken, if, negleding the study of the infiec- 
HonSy and consulting only the roots — ^for instance, the words 
which designate the moon, sky, water, and earth — ^we decide on 
the absolute difference of two idioms from the simple want o 
resemblance in sounds.*'* " From the country of the Esquimaux 
to the banks of the Oroonoko, and again from these torrid banks 
to the frozen climate of the Straits of Magellan, mother-tongues, 
entirely different with regard to their roots, have, if we may use 
the expression, the same physiognomy. Striking analogies of 
grammatical construction are acknowledged, not only in the more 
perfect languages, as that of the Incas, the Tymara, the Guarani, 
the Mexican, and the Cora, but also in languages extremely rude. 
Idioms, the roots of which do not resemble ea^ other more than 
the roots of the Sclavonian and the Biscayan, have those resem- 
blances of internal mechanism which are found in the Sanscrit, 
the Persian, the Greek, and the German languages. It is on 
account of this genei^ analogy of structure — ^it is because Amer- 
ican languages, which have no word in common (the Mexican, 
for instance, and the Quichua), resemble each other by their 
organization, and form complete contrasts with the languages of 

* Humboldt, tibi supra. 



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(}6 ON THE OBIOnr AND MIQBATIONS OF THE POLYNESIAN NATION. 

Latin Europe, that the Indians of the missions familiarise them- 
sehes more easily with an American idiom than with that of the 
metropolis. In the forests of the Oroonoko I have heard the 
wildest Indians speak two or three tongues. Savages of different 
nations often commimicate their ideas to each other by an idiom 
which is not their own.'** 

Another extraordinary coincidence in the civilisation of the 
Indo-Americans with that of Polynesia presents itself in the fact 
of there having been in both a language of ceremony, distinct 
from the language of common life. I have shown in my first 
lecture that there was such a language, not only among the 
Indo-Chinese nations of Eastern Asia, but in Polynesia also, 
especially in the larger islands and among the more advanced 
tribes, as in Samoa and Tahiti ; as, for instance, when inferiors 
addressed their superiors, when a plebeian addressed a chief, or 
when the latter addressed his prince. This language of ceremony 
did not consist in the use of a few phrases of deference and 
respect, such as those in use in European languages, in addressing 
royalty or nobility. It constituted, so to speak, a separate 
language, and pervaded the whole economy of speech. '' The 
Mexicans," says Dr. Bobertson, when aUuiling to the singular 
circumstance, which he had no idea of its havmg ever obtained 
or been observed among any other people, — " The Mexicans had 
not only reverential nouns, but reverential verbs ;" and the use 
of any other than this reverential language in conversing with a 
kinc; or higher chief would, both in Mexico and in Tahiti^ have been 
held tantamount to high treason. This feature of resemblance 
between such vridely dissevered portions of the human family 
is surely of such a character as not to be mistaken for a mere 
accidental coincidence ; it constitutes rather an evidence of the 
absolute identity of the Indo-American and Polynesian nations 
that cannot be gainsaid. 

The right of property was recognised and established among 
the Indo-Amencan nations ; but the lower orders generally 
cultivated a considerable extent of ground in common, the 
produce of which was laid up in storehouses, called iambot, and 
distributed at certain periods, agreeably to some established 
custom. Now it is very remarkable that the practice of the New 
Zealanders was precisely similar. The kumaras, or sweet 
potatoes of that island, are always cultivated pro bono publico by 

Sersons set apart for the purpose ; the produce being afterwards 
istributed according to rule. The storehouses in New Zealand 
are always taboo, the violation of which by any person is death. 
I suspect the Spaniards have either reported the word inac- 
curately, or disguised it a little with their peculiar pronunciation ; 
for the Mexican iambo is unquestionably the same word as the 
Polynesian tabo o, as they both signify the same thing. 

* Humboldt, ubi supra. 



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OK THE OBIOnr AND HIOSAIIONS OF THE P0LTKE8IAN KATIOV. 67 

Perhaps, however, the most remarkable feature in the civilisation 
of the Indo-American nations was their picture writing and 
their hieroglyphics ; by which they were enabled to transmit to 
posterity a knowledge of the memorable events of successive 
ages. The progress made by the Mexicans in these arts of a 
higher civilisation was truly wonderful, and the long columns of 
hieroglyphics carved in stone on their colossal monuments, and 
resemblmg in some measure the hieroglyphics of ancient ^erpt, 
carrj us back, as almost everything else does in Indo- American 
civilisation, to the remotest period in the history of man. Unfor- 
tunately there has as yet been no Champollion, as in Egypt — no 
Kawlinson, as in Assyria — to interpret these wonderful remains of 
an extinct civilisation ; but although there are no such remains 
as the picture writing of the ancient Mexicans in the South Sea 
Islands, it is quite evident that the Polynesians were on the right 
track towards the much higher level of the chroniclers and the 
picture writers of Mexico, and that all that was wanting for the 
development of their idea was a suitable field, which the com- 
paratively narrow limits of the South Sea Islands and their 
small population did not present. " Along the southern coast of 
the Island of Hawaii," says Mr. Ellis in his Polynesian Eesearches, 
" both on the east and west sides, we frequently saw a number 
of straight Hues, semi-circles, or concentric rings, with some rude 
imitations of the human figure, cut or carved in the compact 
rocks of lava. They did not appear to have been cut with an 
iron instrument, but with a stone hatchet, or a stone less frangible 
than the rock on which they were pourtrayed. On inquiry, we 
found that they had been made by former travellers, from a motive 
similar to that which induces a person to carve bis initials on a 
stone or tree, or a traveller to record his name in an album — to 
inform his successors that he has been there. When there were 
a number of concentric circles with a dot or mark in the centre, 
the dot signified a man, and the number of rings the number of 
the party who had circumambulated the island. When there 
was a risK, and a number of marks it denoted the same, the 
number of marks showing of how many the party consisted, and 
the ring, that they had travelled completely round the island ; 
but when there was only a semicircle it denoted that they had 
returned after reaching the place where it was made." 

I km inclined to differ from Mr. Ellis when he regards these 
rude specimens of picture writing as the first efforts of an 
uncivilised people towards the construction of a language of 
symbols. I am inclined to regard them, in common with those 
colossal remains of the architecture of the earlier Polynesians, 
which their degenerate offspring of the present dajr can only 
behold with amazement, rather as the scanty but interesting 
relics of an ancient and primitive civilisation, of which both the 



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68 OK THE oBienr Ain> HiesATioirs of the poltnebiak nation, 

memory and the evidenceB have almost passed away. In short, it 
appears to me incontestible that the practice of picture writing 
was in general use among the earliest inhabitants of the South 
Sea Islands ; but that in the course of exterminating wars, or 
rather in consequence of that rust which gathers over the human 
mind when it is cooped up within a narrow sphere, and thereby 
loses the edge and the polish which it acquires by being 
firequently rubbed upon the whetstone of society, this and various 
other Asiatic arts were gradually lost. 

It is natural, however, to suppose that the impression which 
had once been made upon the Polynesian mind, but which had 
thus been well nigh emiced, from the causes I have enumerated, 
in the South Sea Islands would again be revived and deepened on 
the plains of Quito, and around the Lake of Mexico ; just as a 
writing in sympathetic ink becomes darker and more distinct 
when held close to the fire. 

The Indian nations of North America had carried this, as well 
as the other arts, and the general civilisation of its central 
regions, as high as the lakes of Canada. When that province 
was colonised by the French the most powerful Indian nation in 
North America was the Iroquois — a nation which it afber wards 
required many a fierce battle to exterminate. That warlike 
nation was sufficiently civilised at the period I refer to, to practise 
the Mexican art of picttire-writing ; for an Indian village, situated 
somewhere near the site of the present city of Montreal, having 
about that period been surprised and destroyed by the French, a 
painting or picture-writing, which afterwards fell into the hands 
of the French, containing a hieroglyphical representation of the 
event, was executed by some Indian artist, to transmit an account 
of it either to the distant tribes of the nation or to posterity. 
The village was indicated by a series of wigwams, and the state in 
which its inhabitants were surprised, by an Indian asleep. The 
rising sun indicated that the attack had taken place at the break 
of day ; and the moon in her first quarter on the back of a stag, 
afforded the additional information that it had taken place in the 
early part of that month in the Indian year of which the stag 
was the emblem. 

In a letter to the Secretary of the Antiquarian Society, 
published in the sixth volume of the ArchaDologia, "W. Bray, Esq., 
g^ives an account of an Indian picture-writing which had been 
intended to commemorate the exploits of "Wingenund, an Indian 
warrior of the Delaware nation, about the middle of last century. 
It consisted of a series of marks or characters inscribed within a 
square figure on a sugar-maple tree on the Muskingham Eiver, 
in the State of Delaware. The first line consisted of the figure 
of a turtle — the emblem of the tribe to which the warrior belonged 
— an arbitrary mark designating the particular chief Who had 



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OK IHS Oliiailf AKD MIORATIONB OP THE POLTKEBIUr KATIOIT. 69 

executed the writing, and a representation of the son. Ten hori- 
zontal lines on the right side of the figure denoted the number of 
expeditions in which the warrior had been engaged ; and opposite 
to each of these lines on the left there was a series of marks 
resembling the letter X, with a bar across the top of it, repre- 
senting the number of scales or of prisoners he had taken ; the 
sex of the victim being designated by a slight variation of the 
character, and the central part of the figure being occupied with 
a rude drawing of three different British forts which he had 
attacked on these occasions. At the bottom of the figure there 
were twenty-three vertical lines inclining a little to the left (the 
figure of the sun in the first line of the writing being at the right 
side of the painting) to denote that at the time the record was 
left the writer was marching on another expedition to the north- 
ward. 

So far north, even, as the Hudson's Bay Territory, this method 
of communication by picture-writing prevails among the wild 
Indians of that inhospitable region. Tne Bev. John West, one 
of the Hudson's Ba^ Company's chaplains, on travelling in the 
Bed Biver colony m the year 1820, came up with an Indian 
fiunily who proposed accompan^g him to the factory. ''The 
Indiui had Iwo sons, who, he said, were gone in the pursuit of a 
deer; and on quitting the encampment to travel with us he 
would leave some signs for them to follow us on their return. 
They were drawn upon a broad piece of wood which he prepared 
with an axe. They were — 1st. A tent struck to intimate that 
the party had gone forward in a particular direction ; 2nd. Four 
rude figures indicating the number of the party, and exhibiting 
by theur dress and accoutrements the rank or condition of each 
individual, viz., a European chief, a European servant, and Indian 
attendant, and the two Indians from the encampment. 3rd. A 
curvilinear figure with the two extremities of the curve pointing 
towards ihe hindermost of the figures, to intimate to the Indian's 
two sons that they were to follow the party." * 

The development of this rude method of communication into 
the famous picture-writing of Mexico was a natural process to be 
expected in the progress of society in the large wealthy capital of 
a great empire hke that of Montezuma. 

The same remark holds good also in regard to the astronomical 
knowledge exhibited in the remains of the ancient Mexicans. The 
germs of that knowledge existed in Polynesia, and only required 
a suitable field for its development ; for my friend Mr. Edward 
Hill informs me that the South Sea Islanders have, in certain 
islands, at least sufficient astronomical knowledge to steer their 
course by the stars. 

* The Buhetance of a joomal daring a residence at the Bed Biver Colony; 
by John West, M.A, London, 1824. 



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70 ON THE OBIGnr AND MIGBATIONS OP THE POLTKESIAN NATION. 



pabt in. 

I now proceed to the third and last department of our inquiry, 
viz., to Bhow that the same singular manners and customs, 
altogether unlike those of the rest of mankind, are observable 
alike among the wilder tribes, both of the Indo-Americans and 
the Polynesians. 

Before mentioning any of these, I would remark upon the great 
resemblance in bodily form that has been observed by intelligent 
travellers, in comparing one of these tribes of mankind with 
the other. Speaking of the Indians of Acapulco in Mexico, on 
the Pacific coast. Captain Basil Hall, RN., tnus writes : — " Their 
features and colour partake somewhat of the Malay character ; 
their foreheads are broad and square ; their eyes small, and not 
deep-seated; their cheek-bones prominent, and their heads covered 
with black straight hair ; their stature about the medium standard, 
their frame compact and well made."* 

One of the most remarkable peculiarities in the manners and 
customs of nations is their different modes of disposing of the 
dead. On one of my voyages to England, in the year 1839, our 
good ship having sprung a leak a few days after leaving this port, 
we had to run for repairs to the Bay of Islands, in New Zealand, 
where we lay about ten days, shortly before the colonization of 
the New Zealand group had commenced. During my stay I 
visited the cemetery of the Bay of Islands tribe, situated close to 
the native village of Kororarika. There were no graves, however, 
to be seen in the cemetery ; the dead bodies having each been 
wrapped up in mats, and laid n^on tresUes raised a few feet from 
the ground, and left to putrefy m the open air. During the fol- 
lowing year, before my return to the Colony, I happen^ to visit 
the exhibition of American Indian curiosities of a Mr. Catlin, an 
American gentleman, of a very enthusiastic and adventurous 
character, who had been travellmg for many years among the wild 
Indians of that country, and with whose family I had in the mean- 
time become accjuainted in New York ; his wife, whom he had 
left behind him in the United States, having been entrusted to 
my care on her passage across the Atlantic to rejoin her husband 
in London. On one of my visits to Mr. Catlings exhibition in the 
Egyptian Hall, London, I happened to see an interesting drawing, 
or rather painting, which he had made on the spot, of the native 
village of the Mandan tribe of Indians in Missoun,and I was greatly 
struck at observing that the cemetery of the village had precisely 
the same singular appearance as that of the New Zealand native 
cemetery I had seen a few months before at Kororarika, in the 

* Captain Basil HaU*s Voyage to South America, vol ii., page 175. 



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OT( THE OBIGIK AlTD HI0SATIOFS OF THE POLTNESIAK KATIOK. 71 

Bay of Islands ; tbe dead bodies in both cases baring been wrapped 
up in mats and laid on trestles raised a few feet above ground. 
I afterwards found, however, that this was the usual mode of 
disposing of the dead among the wild Indians of America, so far 
north even as the Bed Biver Colony in the Hudson's Bay Ter- 
ritory, as witness the following quotation firom the journal of the 
Bev. Mr. West, already quoted above : — 

" On the following morning I saw an Indian corpse staged, or 
put upon a few cross sticks, about 10 feet from the ground, at a 
short distance from the fort. The property of the dead, which 
may consist of a kettle, axe, and a few additional articles, is gen- 
erally put into the case, or wrapped in the bufTalo-skin with the 
body, under the idea that the deceased will want them, or that 
the spirit of these articles will accompany the departed spirit in 
travelling to another world."* 

On the occasion of my visit to the cemetery at Kororarika I 
observed two other customs or practices of the South Sea Islanders, 
indicating, together with that of keeping the dead above ground, 
an Egyptian or contemporary origin, as ancient at least as that of 
the sojourn of the children of Israel in Egypt. There happened 
during my visit to be one of those periodical mournings for the 
dead in progress which are symptomatic of a similar origin. A 
number of native men and women were assembled in the cemetery 
— the former for the most part strongly tattooed, while the latter 
were ever and anon cutting themselves with mussel-shells till the 
blood streamed down from their cheeks as they gazed intently at 
the remains of the deceased ; for one of the mummy-cases having 
in the meantime been taken down from the trestle and opened, 
the bones of the deceased — in all likelijiood those of a superior 
chief, long deceased — were spread upon a mat on the ground ; 
the ceremony being occasionally relieved with sudden bursts of 
dismal and unearthlv waib'ngs and bowlings in honor of the dead. 
Now, it is worthy of remark, as a confirmation of my theory as to 
the extreme antiquity of the Polynesian and Indo- American races, 
that both of these savage practices — tattooing and cutting for the 
dead — which were doubtless common in ancient Egypt and among 
the earlier post-diluvian nations, were expresslv forbidden in the 
laws of Moses to the children of Israel, as we nnd in the Book of 
Leviticus, chap. xix. 28 : " Ye shall not make any cuttings in 
your flesh for the dead, nor print ant maeks upon tou ; 1 am 
the Lord." The practice of tattooing has all along been a national 
practice among the South Sea Islanders, although long disused 
in some of the islands ; and the Bev. Mr. West informs us that 
it is still occasioniJly observed among the Indians of Hudson's 
Bay. 

* "Joomal of a Residence at the Red River Colony, British North 
America"; by John West, M.A 



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72 OK THE OBI0Ilf Aim MI0SATIOKB OF THX POIiYNXSIAlT KATION. 

There are Tarious other practices or obserranoes common to the 
Polynesians and Indo- Americans which I shall merely enumerate 
witnout dwelling upon them at any length. The necessity for 
utu, or satisfaction for any injury received, and the cherishing of 
feuds arising in this way for generations, is equally distinctive of 
the New Zealanders and the Indo- Americans, especially those of 
the northern continent. The manufiicture of an intoxicating 
beverage from a root, called in the South Sea Islands cava» and in 
the equatorial regional of America cassava, evidently the same 
word, IB equally common to both, as well as the very sinfi;ular and 
disgusting mode of its manu&cture ; the root being chewed in 
some instances by boys, in others by young women, and in others 
again, as among the Gunas at the isthmus of Darien, by old 
women ; the residuum being collected in a large vessel and water 
poured over it, thereby inducing fermentation. The mode of 
catching fish also by tlirowing an intoxicating herb or root into 
the water ; the separation of women, and prohibiting them from 
touching their food with their own hands tor a certain time after 
childbirth, and the caste of blood being transmissible through the 
female and not through the male, are also equally common te 
both of these very ancient races of the family of man. 

I have thus shown, I trust to the satisfaction of the Society, 
that fche forefathers of the Polynesian race were separated from 
the rest of mankind, in the very infancy of the post-diluvial 
world, in the remotest ages in the history of man. I have also 
shown that at the period at which this separation took place, the 
world must have been in a comparatively advanced state of civili- 
zation, implying at least very considerable skill in the arts of 
life, and great ability in the use and management of the mechani- 
cal powers. I have shown, moreover, that the impression of this 
primitive civilization must have been photographed, so te speak, 
on the Polynesian mind, te be reproduced wherever they went, in 
every suitable field. I have likewise shown that af^r having 
crossed over almost the whole extent of the broadest part of the 
Pacific, the amphibious islanders reached at length the farthest 
east of the inhabited islands of that ocean, viz. : — Easter Island, 
in latitude 27*6 S., and that from that island, which is only about 
2,000 miles from the west coast of America, a mere handful of 
unfortunates must have been caught suddenly in one of those 
violent westerly gales that are so frequent in the Southern 
Pacific, and been blown across the intervening tract of ocean to 
the American land — ^landing somewhere in the State of Chili 
near Copiapo, in the latitude of Easter Island. And I have 
expressed my own opinion very strongly that this arrival of a few 
famished Polynesians on the west coast of America must have 
taken place some time between twelve and fifteen hundred years 
before the birth of Christ ; that is some time between the aeaA 



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OV THS OBICKEN AJTD KI0AA.TI0ir8 OF THE BOLTHESIAN KATIOK. 78 

of the patriarch Jacob and the exodog of the children of Israel 
from the Iwid of Egypt. A later date than this would scarc^lj 
suffice to account for the dispersion of the Indo- American nations 
oyer both continents, originating as they all did, agreeably to the 
testimony of Baron Humboldt, in one common source, as well as 
for the multitude of languages that have sprung in the course of 
long ages from that one source. 

I maintain, further, that the original inhabitants of America, 
and their more immediate descendiuits, had brought alonff wi^ 
them, from beyond the Pacific, a comparatively advanced form 
of civilization, which they reproduced in those colossal works 
of which the wonderful remains in Peru and Mexico have aston- 
ished the whole civilized world ; but that this higher civilization 
had, from causes unknown to us, died out long before the era of 
the Spanish conquest. Dr. Yon Martins, who maintains that the 
Indo- Americans are indigenous, created on the spot as an inferior 
edition of the genus man, and having no connection or relation- 
ship with any other portion of the human fi^mily, nevertheless 
admits the fact of this higher civilization having characterized 
the earlier ages of Indo- American history. " Colossal works of 
architecture," he tells us, *' comparable in extent to the monu- 
ments of ancient EgTpt (as those of Tiahuanaca on the Lake 
Titicaca, which the Peruvians, as far back as the time of the 
Spanish conquest, beheld with wonder as the remains of a much 
more ancient people), bear witness that their inhabitants had in 
remote ages developed a moral power and mental cultivation 
which have now entirely vanished. A mere semblance of them — 
an attempt to bring back a period which had long passed by — 
seems perceptible in the kingdom and#nstitutions of the Incas." 

It would appear, therefore, that long ages, perhaps, before the 
era of the Spanish conquest, a blight had fallen on the earlier and 
higher civilization of the Indo- Americans, and that it had, in a 
great measure, died out, as it would seem to have done com- 
p>letely all over the Pacific. But if we only take into consider- 
tion the remarkably peculiar circumstances in which the Indo- 
American nations were placed, as compared with the nations of the 
West, we shall not be surprised at this seemingly mysterious 
consummation. What other division of the human race would, in 
similar circumstances have attained a higher level than the Indo- 
Americans appear to have reached ? Had Europe, for instance, 
, been inhabited exclusively either by the Celtic or the Teutonic 
race for the last three thousand years — had that race been shut 
out from all communication with the rest of mankind — ^had they 
been equally ignorant of letters and of the use of iron — and had 
their only doihestic animals been the dog, the turkey, the llama, 
and the auck,with no sheep or cattle ornorses, or swine, and had 
their only species of grain oeen maize or Indian com — I question 



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74 OK THE OBianr AJSTD HIOBJlTIOirB OF THB POLTKESIAN KATIOK. 

whether Europe itself would liave vied at this moment with 
ancient Mexico or Peru. The nations of the West have in all 
past ages heen jumbled together in the great political dice-boxes 
of Europe and w estem .^ia, each perpetually changing its rela- 
tive position to the rest, and entering from absolute necessity 
into new combinations. Now, just as quartz pebbles lose their 
angles and acquire a sort of polish by being subjected to the rush- 
ing of waters in the bed of a rapid nver, while they would doubt- 
less have retained their original conformation and their less 
pleasing exterior if they had been lying all the while at the bot- 
tom of a lake — and as malt liquor, when it has become stale, 
revives and becomes brisk again when emptied from vessel to 
vessel — ^it appears to me that the chances of circumstances that 
have been experienced in all past ages by the Western nations, 
have been highly favourable to the general progress of civili- 
zation in the West, and to the general development of the 
mental energies of man. In short, when we consider the very 
unfavourable circumstances in which the Indo- American nations 
had been placed for countless ages, and contrast them with the 
stately ruins of their palatial and other noble buildings that 
indicate their past glory, the wonder is not that the Indo- 
Americans achieved so little, but that they achieved so much. 

At all events, there is evidently a very wide field still open to 
the Australian literati of the future in tracing the developments 
of human society in such extraordinarjr circumstances as present 
themselves to the contemplative mind in the South Sea Islands, 
and among the Indo-American nations. 



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75 



ON THE DEEP OCEANIC DEPRESSION OFF 
MORETON BAY. 

Bt Bkt. W. B. Clasks, M.A., F.B.S., F.O.S., Ac. 



[Read before the Moyal Society, 20 J«/y, 1876.] 



DuBiirG the year 1875 I bad the honor of laying before this 
Society, in my Anniyersanr Address, an account of the Bcimitific 
reaearches carried on by Cfaptain Nares, B.N., and the officers of 
tbe Sdbntific staff on board H.M.S. " Challenger," supplemented 
afterwards by ** Notes " founded on reports of subsequent obser- 
▼atiena by Captain Thomson, B.N., who succeeded Captain 
Nares on the occasion of that officer's app<»ntment to the com- 
mand of the Expedition to the Arctic Ocean. 

the topics treated of in my Address had reference nrincipally 
to the Atlantic Ocean, with only scanty notices of toe Pacifia 
The supplementary notes had more special allusion to the Pacific 
and the seas connected with it, and discussed Dr. Carpenter's 
deductions from some of the observations and experiments made 
by Captain Belknap on board the United States steamer '* Tus- 
carora,*' in those parts of the Pacific with which we are more 
particularly interested. 

Since that paper was read, in December, 1875, the ** Tuscarora** 
arrived in Port Jackson, and I lost no tune in visiting her then 
commander, Captain Miller, who had been commissioned by the 
United States Government to make researches, not on the ex- 
tensive scale undertaken by the "Challenger," but chiefly for a safe 
submarine telegraph line to Fiji and New Zealand. 

I was received very kindly by Captain Miller, and having 
learned the interest I took in such researches, he gave me satis- 
factory information and showed me the results as placed upon 
the chart. On requesting to be furnished with an Abstract of 
soundings from Fin to Australia, it was courteously accorded by 
Captain Miller, who asked me to make no public announcement 
till after the middle of April, as he very properly wished his 
communication to be sent to the American Government. 

In reserving my notice of the "Tuscarora's" work till the month 
of July I have not transgressed the limits to which her com- 
mander's permission extended. The particulars to be mentioned 
do not, however, include that portion of the intended line which 
would have connected Fiji with New Zealand, because, on its 
being known that a cable had been laid between that country 



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76 ON THE DEEP OCEANIC DEPBEBSION 

and this, that part of the '' Tuscarora's" work was countermanded, 
and therefore no comparison can be instituted between the line 
now in operation and the one intended by the United States. 
After a brief stay in these waters, the " Tuacarora *' sfdled, as I 
understood, for San Francisco ; but I beUeve she had not reached 
that port at the date of late advices. 

I consider it only right to offer this explanation to tiie Society 
before I mention the contents of Captain Miller's communication, 
which is, though brief, of considerable importance, as pointing 
out some pecuUarities in the ocean bed off the southern part of 
the coast of Queensland. 

It is to be borne in mind that the inBtniments on board the 
" Tuscarora " were not of the elaborate character of those on board 
the " Challenger," some of which in operation I had the plaBsure of 
witnessing in a dredging excursion off this coast; but th^ 
appeared to me to be amply sufficient for the purpose intended, 
^or were there any means of obtaining the informatioii so 
dilig^itly sought for, as to the inhi^itants of the deep ocean, by 
Professor Thomson and his able assistants. Nevertheleas, Captain 
Miller had collected some inteiresting objects for future examina- 
tion. 



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on MKHilXOK S4X. 



7T 



Atwteict of Sotrndiags for Sabmarine Cable between Kandsru Island, Fiji 
Oroap, and Brisbane, Queensland, obtained by Commander Miller, in U.S. 
eteamer •* Tuscarora." 



OaUL 




Lat 


Lon. 


U 


Kfttimof boUoB. 


Itomarkii. 


187^ 














JWOL 




8. 


B. 








» 


76 


19-U 


177-41 


1647 


Yel-br. ooM 


Position takes from bear- 
ings in British Admiralty 
Chart, No. 2,691. 




77 


19-29 


176-53 


1915 


Yel-br. oom and 
coral. 




» 


78 


19-46 


176-10 


1788 


No0peoinen 


Stray line fooled eylinder. 




79 


20O4 


175-24 


1768 


Br. oose and blk. 
sand. 






80 


20-21 


174-42 


1625 


Br. ooze and sand. 




27 


81 


20-44 


17400 


1460 


Ditto. 






82 


21-08 


173-22 


1875 


Coral. 






88 


21-20 


172-35 


1950 


Br. ooze and sand. 




28 


84 


21-35 


171-48 


1372 


Coral 


Small specimen. 




85 


21-48 


170-56 


1398 


Br. ooze and sand. 


29 


86 


21-58 


170-13 


2165 


Ditto 


Small specimen. 




87 


22-11 


169-25 


1627 


White ooral and 
sand. 






88 


22-36 


168-52 


747 


Coral and laya ... 


Off Walpole Island. 


80 


89 


22-64 


168-11 


1009 


White ooraL 






90 


23-05 


167-40 


488 


Cond and shells... 


Isle of Pines in siffht. 




91 


28-16 


167-09 


460 


Haid coral 


No speoimen. ^linder 
came np flattened. 
















92 


23-22 


166-41 


1176 


White coraL 




81 


98 


23-33 


165-56 


1938 


Yel-br. ooze and 
white coral. 






94 


28*41 


166-04 


2065 


Yellowish oose. 




Feb. 














1 


95 


23-48 


164-19 


1400 


White ooraL 






96 


23-88 


163-26 


1575 


Coral and sand. 






97 


24-85 


162-53 


930 


No specimen 


Wire parted reeling in. 


2 


98 


24-58 


162-12 


615 


White coral and 
sand. 






99 


25-06 


161-27 


810 


Ditto. 




3 


100 


26-11 


160-41 


993 


White coral and 
sand. 






101 


25-18 


159-52 


715 


Ditto 


To Light-house, Cape 














Moreton,S.73«W.,855 














miles.* 




102 


25-80 


159-09 


1383 


White ooral 


S. 73'' W., 820 mUes. 


6 


108 


2612 


15604 


2634 


Brown mud 


S. 68° W., 149 miles. 




104 


26-31 


15507 


2682 


Ditto 


S. 72** W., 95 miles. 


9 


106 
106 
107 


26-03 
26-18 
2632 


164-23 
15408 
153-51 


2610 

2485 

562 


Ditto 


8. 42^ W., 76 miles. 




Ditto 


S. 42** W., 58 miles. 




Brown mud and 


S. 4Sr W., 36 miles. 












sand. 





* N.Bf— Th« bearings to the Ugbt-hoaee, Cape Moreton, were measorcd for me by 
Ci^talA Hlxson. 



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78 Oir THE DXEP OCBAKIO DIFBISSIOir 

On reference to my last year's Address it will be seen that the 
" Challenger/' when 30 miles from Kandavn, had a depth of 1^50 
fathoms over red ooze. In the "Abstract" we find that the " Tus- 
carora'* had yellow brown ooze, at a depth of 1,647 fathoms, in a 
position about 30 miles west from Kandayu. The obsenrations 
m>m the two ships are therefore so far connected. 

It is to be remarked, howerer, that in the "Tuscarora's" sound- 
ings between the Fiji G-roup and New Caledonia, coral and 
coral sand frequently occurred, and that the depths were very 
unequal, only one reaching below 2,000 fathoms, whilst on 3rd 
February, 1876, at a distance equivalent to 48 miles of latitude, 
the soundings between the Isle of Pines and Queensland deep- 
ened 668, from 715 to 1,888 fathoms, which would give a descend- 
ing slope much ste^)er than that on our Western Bailway line 
from its highest point to the sea. Moreover, the depression deepens 
again in a mean direction of N. 71 E. from Cape Moreton, in 
Queensland, and, in 225 miles of distance, to a depth of more 
than three vertical miles from the surface, and this within 05 
miles from the Cape ; rising wiin in less than 60 miles to less 
than three-quarters of a mile in depth in the same general 
direction. 

This proves the existence of a very deep channel, not 100 miles 
wide, commencing about 36 miles from Cape Moreton. Connect- 
ing with the above calculation the *' Challenger's" observations, 
we learn that it does not extend far to the northward, since the 
ridge from Sandy Cape to New Caledonia, &c., mentioned in my 
** Notes,** cuts it off at about 1^00 fathoms, which is nearly the 
depth of the north-east slope at about 200 miles distance. This 
deep channel would therefore appear to have a direction towards 
that point of the compass. The absence of red clay and ooze from 
the " Tuscarora's** soundings is curious, but it is in agreement 
with the general depth assigned to deposits of that colour in the 
" Challenger*s ** observations, which occurred below 2,500 fathoms, 
and there are but three " Tuscarora** soundings between Kandavu 
and Brisbane exceeding that depth, against which we read 
" brown mud,*' " brown,** and " yellow-brown,*' and " white,** being 
the only colours noted outside the Queensland coast de- 
pression. It is, however, possible that colours may be variously 
estimated by different observers, as one of the ** Tuscarora*s** bot- 
tles contained what, to my eyes, appeared to have a reddish tint. 

Soundings brought up by H.M.S. "Herald'* off Fiji, many 
years ago, and supplied to me on board by Dr. Macdonaldf, F.E.S., 
were filled with foraminifera. The colour of the deposit now is a 
light grey, after long drying in my cabinet. As white coral was 



'ii 



dredged by the "Tuscarora" only 320 miles N. 73 E. from Capo 



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OWr VOBBTOK BAT. 79 

Moreton, the reefs that stud the ocean around the New Caledonia 
Group extend much nearer to the Australian coast than many 
persons imagine, and betray the approach to the deep depression 
just mentioned, the north-eastern edge of which seems to be 
that of an imeven plateau or rid^ in one spot, about 355 miles 
from Gape Moreton, only 253 fathoms lower than the ocean bed 
at a distance (on nearly the same bearing) of 36 miles from Gape 
Moreton. The bottom of the depression is thus about 91 miles 
wide, on each side of which there is an equal rise and fall of 
about 41 feet to the mile, and this is about the mean general 
steepness of the Blue Mountain Bange in New South Wales 
along the railway line, from the summit to the waters of Port 
Jackson. These calculations are not, of course, given by Captain 
Miller; but I submit them merely to illustrate the probable 
slope of the coral reefs towards the west in the area referred to 
ana the contour of the depression. 

As the immediate coast of Queensland is comparatively low in 
the part indicated, this great depression appears contradictory to 
the usual idea of shoal water on a low coast ; but I would explain 
it, as I do the condition of the sea bottom off the Illawarra coast, 
as showing a double escarpment with an intervening compara- 
tively level plain or plateau from the mountain summit to the 
deepest sea bottom. One other inference is that our coast cur- 
rent streams along from the north-eastward over this deep 
depression and spreads its eddies under the impulse of winds. It 
would be very interesting to be able to state tae depth of water 
in this current as well as the temperature below it from actual 
experiments. Judging from what has been determined respecting 
the Oulf Stream of the Atlantic, which is only 100 fathoms thick, 
that off our own coast is probably still more superficial. Never- 
theless it must have a powerful influence in modifying the climate 
of the coast region, which is shown by the winter temperature of 
the water in Port Jackson.* 

The depression in question is greater than that between our 
southern line of coast and New Zealand, as determined by the 
" Challenger." 

* During many yean 1 have made comparative obeervatioiis (but at 
irregular intervab, and in various looalitiee, on the ocean in the line of the 
current) and have found the sea-water generally higher in temperature than 
the air. I prefer, however, to c^uote here from a " Comparative table of 
temperatures of sea-water and air" in Port Jackson, supplied at my request 
by my excellent and accomplished colleague, H. C. Russell, Esc^., Astron- 
omer, from whose data, giving the temp^atures for every month m the last 
six years (1870-1875 inclusive) I collect that the mean for water is 65*1, for 
air 62*85 ; and that the maximum for water was 73*6, and for air 73*2 ; and 
the minimum for water was 56*1, and for air 51*2-— all sI\owingthe influence 
€i the ocean water. 



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80 ON THJ5 DEIP OOEUriC DIFBBSSION 

The conformfttion of the part of tiie ocean-bed off Moreton Bay, 
aa thus explained, is due to purely geological causes, of which 
tiie existence is illustrated by the escarpments and rarines yet 
extant on the land — the oose and clay and coral sand brought'up 
by the sounding apparatus and dredge being mere submarine 
superficial deposits, covering and partly filling the bottom of the 
depression. This analogy of conformation between the depths of 
the sea and the heights of the land isparallelled by the distribution 
of life (as has been shown by Dr. Hooker) on the ocean ridges 
and depths, only in reverse order to that on the land. " The 
ocean,'* he says, ** thus mirrors one of the most striking features 
of the distribution of terrestrial life, and, mirror-like, it turns the 
picture upside down." 

If we travel inland from Cape Moreton on the same general 
bearing exhibited before, we shall find an almost equal slope from 
the high lands at the heads of the drainages to Moreton Bay as 
appears on the slope of the Blue Mountains towards Port Jackson; 
for in 1853 I made the elevation of the granite domes near Mary- 
land, by barometrical observations, 3,727 feet, and the dividing 
ran^ between the Condaroine and Dumaresq Sivers, at the head 
of the latter, 3,120 — ^Mount Melbourne being 3,829, and Mou- 
bullon, or Craig's Eange, 3,640 feet — Mount Cordeaux, according 
to Cunningham, being 4,100 feet, which is very near the height of 
the land above the tunnel on Mount Clarence, which itself is 
3,658 feet. The relations of land and sea appear then to be 
nearly exact ly equivalent to those in the southern coast region of 
New South Wales, since, though there are higher points in New 
England and in Maneroo, than those already mentioned, yet the 

feneral elevations are much the same in both districts, and as off 
f oreton Bay there is a deep depression, so there is another off 
Mount Dromedary and Twofold Bay. What relation these 
depressions have to each other is not yet fully ascertained : but it 
is nearly certain that the bases of New Holland and New Zealand 
meet somewhere about half way between them, and the stages of 
ascent are precipitous or with lone inclined slopes, the deepest 
depressions lying as it were on ea<m side of a submarine plateau. 
In my view, the combined phenomena as exhibited by the 
opposite coasts of these countries (which formerly extended Airther 
into the ocean) — by coral reefs and other conditions — induce the 
conclusion that great rents and denudation in the earliest periods 
of our geological history were the result of depression and siA- 
mergence, affording channels for ocean currents, deep receptacles 
for cold stagnant water, and passages for such sur&ce currents as 
that which bathes New South Wales with a stream warmed in 
latitudes nearer the Equator than that of Sydney or Brisbane. 
Much of the history of that stream has to be discovered, but the 
fact elicited respecting the submarine valley north-easterly from 



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OW9 HOBBIOH BAT. 61 

Cape Moreton i» an item in the acfoont. I hare thought i^, 
^tmiorey worthy of eBpeeial notice. 

If, for the sake of iUustration, we conld raise New Holland, 
New Zealand, New Caledonia, and New Guinea, to one uniform 
additional height of some 2,600 fathoms above the ocean, we would, 
I think, ]^erceive similar features on the surface, so formed, to 
those which are now exposed, and be able to show what can now 
be only surmised, that tne remark of Dr. Hooker before referred 
to 10 strictly true ; and also, that in examining critically the pre- 
sent surface of the land, we can reproduce what the ancient 
8urfiM;e was which is now buried beneath the waters. And from 
the examination of such portions of the ocean-bed as have been 
Bounded, we may gain valuable hints in the endeavour to account 
for many of the superficial phenomena of the still exposed and 
denuded dry land. 

In corroboration of this view of the subject, I will conclude 
with a quotation from a very important work of Mr. Alfred 
Bussell Wallace, just published, " On the Oeographical Distribu^ 
turn of AtUtnaU, with a study of the relations of limng and extinct 
I^aunas, as elucidating the vast changes of the eartVs surfaced 

" The well-known fact " (says that accomplished writer, vol. i, 
p. 85) *' that nearly three-fourths of the surface of the earth is 
occupied by water, and but little more than one-fourth by land, 
is important as indicating the vast extent of the ocean by which 
many of the continents and islands are separated from each other. 
But there is another fact which greatly increases its importance, 
namely, that the mean height of the land is very small com- 
pared with the mean depth of the sea. It has been estimated by 
Humboldt that the mean height of all the land surface does not 
exceed a thousand feet, owing to the comparative narrowness of 
mountain ranges, and the great extent of alluvial plains and val- 
leys ; the ocean-bed on the contrary, is not only deeper than the 
tops of the highest mountains which rise above its surface, but these 
profound depths are broad sunken plains, while the shallows 
correspond to the mountain ranges, so that its mean depth is, as 
nearly as can be estimated, 12,000 feet.*'* 

It being no part of the present subject to go further into the 
former connection of Australia with New Zealand, the remarks 
of Mr. Wallace, founded on the relationship established between 
certain portions of the Faun® of those countries, as evidenced by 
those of the intermediate islands, have not been alluded to on 
this occasion, but he offers sound reasons for the belief formerly 

* '* This estimate has been made for me by Mr. Stanford, from the materials 
used in delineating the contours of the ocean bed on our general map. It em- 
bodies the results of all the soundings of the " ChaUengor,** " Tutcarora** and 
other vessels, obtauoable up to Augiut, 1875." [The Abstract above given is, 
thOTofove, iMiditional to those mentioned by Mr. Wallace.] 



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82^ OK THE DSBP OCEANIC DEPlSSBIOir OFF M0BET05 BAT. 

ezpreBsed by me that such a former oonneotion is highly probable, 
notwithstanding the enormous depression now existing between 
New Zealand and Australia. 

Mr. Wallace diows that even now the land on the face of 
the globe " is nearly continuous, and that it is possible to go from 
Cape Horn to Sing^nof e and the Cape of Good Hope without 
ever being out of sisnt of land, and, owiuff to the interrention of 
the numerous islancw of the Malay Archipdago, the journey might 
be continued under the same conditions as far as Melbourne and 
Hobart Town." (p. 87.) 



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83 



SOME NOTES ON JUPITER DURING HIS OPPOSITION 

OF 1876- 

By G. D. Hibst. 



IJUad before the Jtoyal SoeieUf qf N.8,W., 2 Avguet, 1876.] 



I SUPPOSE that of all the members of our solar system, with the 
exception perhaps of our satellite, the Moon, there is no object 
that so soon engages the interest or more readily yields to the 
scrutiny of the amateur astronomer, when, with his newly-acquired 
telescope before him, he sets himself to investigate some of the 
wonders of the heavens of which he has been hitherto altogether 
heedless, or which at best have excited his idle curiosity as they 
have met his gaze, than the giant of our planet-neighbours, 
Jupiter ; and the reason of this a slight inquiry will, I thiuk, 
make obvious. 

Mercury, as far as we at present know the closest of our Sun's 
attendants, is an almost hopeless object for even the possessor of 
the finest telescope. His minute size, and in consequence of hio 
position his intense luminosity, prevent anything like details ever 
being seen. Moreover, when in his most favourable position for 
observation, which is when he is furthest from the Sun, we, from 
his orbit being interior to the Earth's, see but half his disk illu- 
minated. Therefore, to these unfavourable circumstances we 
must attribute the title Mr. Webb has given him in his " Celestial 
Objects" of a neglected subject. 

To Yenus much the same arguments apply. Being larger than 
Mercury, and also nearer to the Earth, we certainly do see some- 
what more of her ; but her brilliance baffles all satisfactory defi- 
nition, and I think no well-accredited markings or details of any 
sort have ever yet been accorded of this, to the eye most beautiful, 
but in the telescope most disappointing, planet. 

Passing now to Mars, the first exterior planet to the Earth, we 
see what neither of the interior two can ever show us — a full 
round disk illuminated by the solar light; and we have the 
further advantage of our object being brought at favourable oppo- 
sitions very near the Earth. Here we can see marks which no 
yerj great stretch of imagination or analogy may lead us to 
suppose as representing land and water, more especially as 
adequate optical means enable us to descry white spots at bis 



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84 SOME NOTES ON JTPITEB PlTfilNe HIS OFPOSITIOK OF 1876. 

poles, which, by their diminishing during the Martial summer 
and increasing in his winter, convince us to be ice. Still, with 
the possessors of small telescopes. Mars is not I think a prime 
favourite. The period during which we can advantageouslj 
observe him is short — a few weeks before and after opposition ; 
after which he rapidly recedes from us, and his orbit carries him 
so far off that his disk dwindles down to most uninteresting pro- 
portions, and his markings are lost to all small glasses. Besides, 
even at opposition it requires a really good and powerful telescope 
to do satisfactory work on Mars. In the best drawings that I 
have seen there is a strange haziness about details, and different 
observers appear to me to disagree most woefully in their 
delineations. 

Saturn has for many I must confess, including myself, a large 
number of attractions. I cannot well dwell at present on the 
subject, as it is foreign to the object of this paper ; and even a 
short account of his wondrous details would require a paper by 
itself. Still, confining myself to the premise that I am speaking 
almost exclusively of amateurs, and as such possessing only mode- 
rately powerful telescopes, Saturn, from his enormous distance, 
Presents difficulties which Jupiter does not ; his ring, with Ball's 
ivision, perhaps a belt, and three or four of his satellites, are as 
much as most small telescopes show ; what has been discovered 
besides are details of great delicacy, and some points connected 
with Saturn remain tests for the largest and most perfect tele- 
scopes of the present day. 

So there remain but Uranus and Neptune ; and I wonder, out 
of all that have ever lived on the earth, how many have ever seen 
these at all. Indeed, a very few. They might, I fancy, be 
counted on your fingers ; and, should an ordinary observer get 
one of these outside wanderers by accident into the field of his 
glass, he would probably pass them by as fixed stars. 

We return therefore to the subject which brings me before 
you — Jupiter. How readily his noble disk shows out in even the 
smallest glass, many of you — ^and I suppose that there are few 
here who at some time or other have not seen him through a 
telescope — are well aware. An aperture of even a couple of 
inches will show some signs of streaks on his disk, and his moons 
quite brilliantly. As we increase our aperture and power, more 
and more detail comes into view, the belts assume definite form, 
traces of colour are seen, and lus four satellites turn out verv 
respectable-sized disks of their own. Their shadows, their occul- 
tations, and their eclipses present a scene of ever-varying interest 
and beauty ; and this, with the extreme facility with which it can 
be seen in even what are now considered small telescopes, makes 
Jupiter, as I saidT before, a most interesting object for all 
amateur observers. 



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0OHX KOTIB OK JXrPITXB DUBINa HIB OPPOSITIOK OF 1876. 85 

About the beginning of M^ the following circular from the 
Bpyal Astronomical Society, £ondon, was handed to me : — 

" Boyal Astronomical Society, 

Burlington House, London, W., 

March, 1876. 
" The periodicity of changes in the colour and markings upon the planet 
Jupiter, and the connection that has heen suggested between them and the 
solar phenomena, render it most desirable that a general system of o'bserra- 
tion of the planet should be organized. To this end, Dr. Lohse, in the year 
1878, appealed to astronomers in the Northern hemisphere, and a response 
w«B made which has enabled him to collect and put on record many yaluable 
deeoriptionB and drawings of the planet's appearance since that time. 

" The Sojal Astronomical Society of London is deeply impressed with the 
importance of the question ; and to assist in carrying out the plan of inter- 
national observation suggested by Dr. Lohse, it has appointed us as a com- 
mittee to endeaTour to enlist the sympathies of obserrers generally, so as to 
obtain as extensire a series of observations as possible. 

** The Southern declination of the planet will for a few years prevent satis- 
f actoiy results being obtained in Europe, and we therefore desire to appeal to 
Southern observers to continue the work already begun. 

" Drawings of the planet's appearance should be made as frequently as 
poscible, giving in all cases the IoobX or Ghreenvrich meantime of the sketch, 
with pMTticulars of the instrument and power employed, and the state of 
atmospheric definition. 

*' Careful notes of the tints and colours of the belts are most important. 
" Particular attention is requested to the occurrence of the small bright 
spots, first observed by Mr. Lassell, and to the approximate Jovicentric lati- 
tudes in which these spots appear ; also to small black spots which are occa- 
sionally seen in the equatorial zone. 

" The phenomena presented by the satellites in transit, and their varying 
brightness considered virith respect to their orbital position, arc matters on 
which acciirate observations are much desired. 

** To ensure uniformity, we beg to send you some forms on which drawings 
can be made. These have a polar flattemng of one-sixteenth. In all cases 
the north and south poles of the planet shoiud be indicated in the drawing. 
*' All drawings and communications should be sent to * The Secretary of 
the Jupiter Committee,' Boyal Astronomical Society, Burlington House, 
London, W. 

" Your obedient servants, 

WILLIAM HTJGK3HNS. 

B. B. ENOBEL. 

LINDSAY. 

OSW. LOHSE. 

A. C. RANYAED. 

BOSSE. 

P. TEEBY. 

T. W. WEBB." 

Haying at the time the use of a fine lO^^-in^h silvered glass 
reflector, the property of Mr. J. TJ. C. Colyer, who has for fliese 
and other observations kindly placed it at my disposal, I determined 
immediately on receipt of this xnrcular, to commence and carry 
out, as far as lay in my power, a systematic course of observations, 
accompanying them by sketches made at the telescope, and the 
results up to the present are now before you. In making these 



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86 SOME NOTES OK JXTPITES DUBIKO HIS OFPOSITIOK OF 1876. 

drawings I have been aided by a most efficient driying-clock, 
which keeping the object in the centre of the field of the telescope 
leaves both the hands free for other work, the advantage of which 
can only be appreciated by those who, in their attempts to deli- 
neate the heavenly bodies, are obliged to have one hand constantly 
employed in screwing away at a handle, to follow the motion of 
the object as it rapidly flits through the field. 

The construction also of the Newtonian reflector is peculiarly 
adapted for drawing purposes, as the erect position of the observer 
is easv and natural ; and with your desk at your elbow, you can 
rapidly transfer your eyes from the telescope to the paper before 
you. 

On the whole I must say that the weather w^ have been 
favoured with since I commenced these observations has not been 
emmently adapted to telescope-work. We have had a rather 
more than fair allowance of cloudy evenings, and many of the 
most brilliant nights have been utterly worthless, from their 
blurred and tremulous definition ; moreover, there appears to be 
at all times present a considerable amount of vapour in the higher 
regions of the atmosphere, so that even when definition is most 
steady, you have a consciousness that you are looking at the 
object under a veil, the field of the telescope not appearing per- 
fectly dark as it should do. This is more especially tantdizing, 
as even on some of the most inferior nights ^ou get moments — 
they only last for a second — of most startbng definition, when 
the planet seems to be brought to within half its usual distance, 
and details start out before you so numerous, and so complex, 
that the eye in that evanescent moment totally fails to grasp 
them, and the next second they are gone, and you are left with a 
dazed impression that you have seen something that would tax 
the skill of a far more accomplished artist than yourself to do the 
slightest justice to. I have at times — but only, as I said before, 
for a second — seen the whole of the disk of Jupiter covered with 
fine lines ; even the white belts, which ordinarily present not a 
trace of marking, are scored by them all over ; and the darker 
equatorial zone appears a mass of flocculent, cloudy matter ; but 
to attempt to put this on paper during the fleeting moment it is 
visible is an impossibility. 

While on this part of my subject I may mention that one of 
the first things that attracted my attention, when looking up the 
observations recorded of Jupiter during the last ten or fifteen 
years, was the remarkable paucity, I might almost say the entire 
absence, of any reliable or well-executed drawing of the planet. 
I must, of course, confine this assertion to any published draw- 
ings for there may be, and probably are, many nne delineations 
in the hands of those who drew them, which will never see the 
light ; but speaking of those pictures which have been given to 



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SOia KOTES OF JXnPITEB BXTSUrG HIS OTFOSITIOF 07 1876. 87 

tiie scientific world tiirougli the medium of the papers of astro- 
nomical societies, periodicals, or books, I must confess it a matter 
of great surprise, that so few and such crude attempts have yet 
been made to give to the general astronomical reading public 
an idea of the telescopic appearance of this, the most magnificent 
of our planets ; and the reason I am at a loss to see ; for as I 
have before said, Jupiter is certainly, excepting our Moon, the 
easiest of all telescopic objects, and after a little practice, any one 
I am sure, with a decent notion of using his pencil or chalks, may 
give a far more accurate representation of the planet than he 
will find in the most elaborate and expensive astronomical work 
he can lay his hands on. Very few drawings ever represent 
colours at all ; in a very extensively got up work I have in my 
library the belts are represented as straight lines — as if, to save 
trouble, they had been drawn with a ruler ; in others there is an 
attempt at a ragged, cloudy appearance, but the artists who 
represented them evidently drew from what they had heard 
rather than from what they had seen. Messrs. De La Buo and 
Lassell have both furnished what have been said to be remarkably 
fine drawings, and probably the originals may be ; but if this is 
the case a lithograph copy of one of them that I have seen must 
be a most woeful libel. Mr. Browning, of London, has one or 
two coloured representations of Jupiter ; his most recent, I think, 
is that in the fifth volume of the " Student and Intellectual 
Observer." The volume is now before you, and I should be glad 
if any member present would tell me if it represents anything 
like what he nas ever seen of the planet. In making these 
remarks, be it understood, I am not claiming for my own attempts 
any superiority ; nobody can be more conscious than I am myself 
of their shortcomings, and much that I have seen has baffled all 
my endeavours to pourtray — as for instance, I have again and 
again, on favourable opportunities, seen a perfectly metallic 
appearance on some parts of the equatorial zone, which I cannot 
even describe, much less draw ; so what I have said is not so 
much to depreciate what has already been done, but to express a 
surprise that more has not been done in this class of astronomical 
work, by those who have the skilly the time, and the instrumental 
means. 

You will notice that the circular of the Boyal Astronomical 
Society expresses that a connection has been supposed to exist 
between some of the phenomena observed on Jupiter and the 
maximum and minimum of the solar spots. From the evidence 
as yet adduced it cannot be said at present to amount to more 
than a supposition ; still, as Mr. Russell very pertinently observed 
on the first meeting of our Astronomical Section, speaking on this 
subject — " We may not but believe that any disturbance affecting 
our ruler (the Sun), must pulsate through the whole retinue of 



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88 80MB NOTES ON JTJPITIB DUSIFG HIS OFPOSITIOK OV 1876. 

his dependents, bound together inseparably as they are by the law 
of gravitation." 

Whether these influences, as in the case of Jupiter, make them- 
selyes manifest to us by what our telescopes show us to be going 
on on his disk cannot yet however be placed among astrono- 
mical facts. It is to obtain evidence on this point that they are 
so anxious in the Northern hemisphere that Southern observers 
should fill the gap which, in consequence of the m?eat Southern 
declination of Jupiter, would otherwise exist in the records on 
which this theory is to be built. 

Turning our attention now to the minute white spots men- 
tioned in the circular, let us see what records we can find of their 
previous appearance, and what connection we can trace between 
their apparition and the maximum of the solar spots. I think 
we shall find there are some striking coincidences. 

The first account that I can lay my hand on is one by Gassini, 
in the " M6moires del' Academic" for 1692, where there is a paper 
in which he notices great changes and bright spots on Jupiter. 
I find there was a sun-spot maximum for the year 1693. 

There are some observations of Sir William Herschel of white 

r's and irregular ban^s in 1778, 1779, and 1780. He also 
rves what he calls a similar appearance in 1790. Two very 
considerable solar and magnetic maxima occurred — the one in 
1779, and the other in 1789. 

In the vear 1848 the Bev. W. E. Dawes perceived some very 
remarkable white spots in Jupiter, which he likened to the 
circular craters on the Moon, and on the 27th March of the 
following year, Mr. Lassell saw them in his 20-feet equatorial 
reflector. Again, in May of the same year. Professor Schumacker, 
of Altona, observed four or five of these features on one of the 
belts, which he thus describes : — " They are white spots, and are 
all perfectly round, distinct, and bright. The largest of them is 
as oifltinct and well-defined as the disk of a satelHte appears in 
a 9-feet reflector. They are striking phenomena, keeping their 
relative positions, as they are carried along by Jupiter's rotation, 
and there are no other similar spots on his disk." A sun-spot 
maximu m occurred just at this time. De La Eue, in 1856, very 
near a sun-spot minimum, with 13 inches of aperture, makes a 
drawing showing no traces of white spots, and another drawing 
made at the same time by Piazzi Smyth, on Tenneriffe, agrees 
almost entirely with his. Lassell again, in 1859, approaching a 
spK)t maximum, figures the white markings, and says he " had 
failed to see these spots for many years, but latterly thejr had 
appeared ajgain." In 1861, SirW. Keith Murray contributed 
some drawings with a 9-inch refractor showing tne spots, and 
other observers confirmed his observations with telescopes of 
5 inches and upwards. At the same time the report of the 



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SOKE K0TB8 OK JlTFFnCB BUBIVa HI8 OFPOSITIOHr OF 1876. 88 

Greenwich Observatory states that, with the great equatorial, 
Jupiter presented appearances not previously recorded, and 
drawings made from that telescope by Mr. Carpenter coincided 
entirely with Sir W. Keith Murray's. The next maximum of 
1871 1 find comparatively bare of records ; but there are accounts 
scattered here and there among the notices of the Boyal Astro- 
nomical Society, of bright spots and patches observed on the 
equatorial belt ; and if my own negative evidence goes for* any- 
thing, I may state that during this year, which is just after a spot 
minimum, though I have attentively watched for these phenomena, 
I cannot record a single sign of them. 

Testimony so far appears to point to a strong probability of 
the connection of these remarkable features with our eleven-year 
solar disturbances; but more is needed before we accept the 
theory as a fact. If the Earth were viewed from a distance, the 
auroras most prevalent about the maximum period might give a 
perceptible tint to parts, but they would be near the poles; 
there might be similar phenomena producing similar changes on 
Jumter. 

llie small black spots mentioned in the circular appear to be 
a class of objects of^ somewhat more recent observation, and, so 
&r as we can judge from the few observations recorded of them, 
they seem to coincide with the solar minimum of spots, as the 
bright spots do with the maximum. They are somewhat minute 
objects, and might be easily overlooked unless the observer 
possessed a good glass of large aperture, and an eye used to this 
particular work ; but granting these conditions — and they become 
on favourable nights very conspicuous and remarkable pheno- 
mena — I have at times seen these spots so intensely black that 
I could scarcely persuade myself that they were not the shadows 
of satellites crossing the disk of the planet ; but that this is not 
the truth becomes apparent if we watch them, for they retain 
their relative position with the other markings, and rotate with 
them, which of course the shadows of satellites do not do. ^ It 
is difficult not to believe that these spots have a different 
nature from the well-known shadings and belts : they are so hard 
in their outline, and so very much blacker than any of the other 
markings. It has been I believe suggested that they may be the 
tops of mountains protruding through the cloudy envelope sur- 
rounding Jupiter; but, if this is ^e case, they must possess 
extraordinarily feeble powers of reflection, to appear so dark by 
contrast with their surroundings. 

I have prepared a diagram on a lar^ scale of the disk of 
Jupfter, wnich I hope my astronomical friends present will not 
laugh at. It is not intended to present the appearance repre- 
sented by Jupiter at any one time, but rather as a map combining 
some of the mpre remarkable and persistent features I have 



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00 BOHX NOTES ON JTTPITSS BVJOSa HIS OPPOSITIOK OF 1876. 

observed on his disk. I hope by its aid to make some of my 
remarks more intelligible, and have purposely exaggerated both 
colours and markiugH, in order that tney may at a distance make 
themselves more readily seen. The black spots, you will observe, 
make their appearance principally on the darker bands ; in fact, 

1 have only recorded one occasion on which I noticed a black 
spot on the brighter portion of the planet, but that was a very 
remarkable one ; it was quite as black as the shadow of No. 1 
satellite, and was connected with the equatorial belt by a thin 
ligament. The next thing I would direct your attention to is 
the colour of the various portions of the disk ; and here we open 
Pandora's box of trouble ; for different eyes, different telescopes, 
and different states of our atmosphere, combine to give most 
conflicting statements. There is matter enough in this portion 
of my subject to form a treatise by itself, but time will not permit 
me to do more than give a brief statement of facts, and leave 
theorizing on the matter for some other occasion. I would, 
however, first give you a short account of what I have been able 
to find recorded of previous observations of the colours of Jupiter, 
in order that you may compare them with my own," as illustrated 
in the drawings before you. 

Sir William Herschel, in "The Philosophical Transactions, 
1 794," says — "I viewed Jupiter with a 40-feet reflector. There are 
two very dark, broad belts, divided by an equatorial zone or space, 
the colour of which is of a yellow cast." To take more recent 
observations, I note that on 7th November, 1869, Mr. T. Elger, 
of Bedford, says — " I noticed the space between the central belts 
was peculiarly ruddy." Mr. Salter, of Manchester, sajrs, on the 
same date — " The colour of the equatorial streak was rich tawny." 
Mr. Gledhill, F.R.S., same date, says — " Whenever the air was 
good the ruddy tinge of the equatorial belt was easily seen." A 
photograph of the planet taken in this year shows the equatorial 
Delt absolutely transparent, the light from the ruddy belt having 
failed to act upon the sensitive plate ; yet, speaking of this par- 
ticular photograph, Mr. Browning says, he has seen photographs 
taken at other times when this belt exerted the most action. In 
the year 1871 Mr. John Browning devoted some attention to the 
planet, and his drawings show the equatorial belt to be of a bright 
yellow colour. Towards the end of 1871 there appears from 
various records to have been a general diminution in tne intensity 
of the colours, and more especially in that of the equatorial belt, 
which had lost much of its yellowish hue. In 1872 Mr. Birmingham 
describes the equatorial belt as rose-coloured. In the same year 
Mr. Browning again draws the planet, and his views show a red- 
dish yellow. The colour generally of the planet in this year, from 
various records, seems to have been particularly vivid, and Mr. 
Lassell aopears especially struck with it. 1 will quote his 



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SOlflB KOTES 09 JITPITEB DUBIKa HIB OIPPOSITIOK 07 1876. 91 

remarks, for perhaps some maj thiak I maj in my draw- 
ing have been inclined somewhat to exaggerate the colours — 
a rault I have most carefully tried to avoid. On the 2nd June, 
1872, he sa^, using a 24-mch reflector — " I acknowledge that I 
have been hitherto inclined to think that there mieht be some 
exaggeration in the coloured views of the planet ; but this pro- 
perty of the disk on the occasion I speak of was so unmistakable 
that mj scepticism is at last beginning to yield. I have attempted 
in the accompanying drawing to represent the colours as faith- 
fully as I can, and to convey something like a general notion of 
the distribution and intensity of the various lights and shades 
scattered over the planet, but to give anything like a faithftil 
outline of the individual phenomena is far more than I can pre- 
tend to.*' These words of Lassell have come home forcibly to 
myself, again and again, when in moments of magnificent defini- 
tion, such a wealth of detail has been presented to my sight that 
my pencil has lain idly by, and I have been content to gaze in 
almost open-mouthed wonder. 

After 1872 the planet appears to have for some time shown no 
remarkable amount of colour — at least 1 have not been able to 
put my hand upon any observation in which the equatorial belt 
has been especially noticed as presenting anything particularly 
unusual in this respect. And Mr. Browning says, in June, 1878— 
" The colour of the equatorial belt of Jupiter was fading during 
the last weeks of the previous opposition ; during the present 
opposition the colour has been scarcelv, if at all, p^ceptible.'* 
In the same year Dr. Lohse, as you will have noticed in the cir- 
cular, made an appeal to astronomers generally in the Northern 
hemisphere, that (unawings should be systematically taken of the 

flanet. One of the results of this request, and the only one that 
am able to show you, was a series of drawings made by Dr. 
Copeland, using the great Lord Bosse telescope of 6-feet aperture. 
A lithographic reproduction of these is now on the table. I believe 
these drawings were thought a great deal of at the lime, and they 
were specially mentioned at a meeting of the Boyal Astronomical 
Society, as showing an immense amount of detail ; but I may 
mention that I have repeatedly observed more detail in the 
lOJ-inch reflector on an ordinary night than is shown in any one 
of them. You will observe moreover, that there is a reddish 
tinge in all of them, pervading the whole of the disk. This I 
cannot fancy really belongs to the planet, but is communicated 
by the metallic reflector ; for it is a known fact that these old 
metallic reflectors gave all objects a ruddy hue, and it is believed 
that this explains the appearance of so many red stars in the 
elder Herschers catalogue. 

The most noticeable feature in these drawings of Lord Bosse 
is the great loss of colour sustained by the equatorial belt. This 



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02 BOICE K0TE8 OK JUPITBB BTTBIKa HIS OPPOSITIOV Of 1876. 

belt, which in 1870 was bo red that, according to a naked eye 
observation of Dr. Copeland in September of that year, the general 
colour of the planet's light was affected by it, shows in nearly all 
these illustrations very little (if any) colour at all. 

In the year 1874 there appears to have been an increase of 
colour, for Mr. B. B. Knobel says — " The colours of Jupiter this 
year have been far more conspicuous than in 1878. A marked 
change in the tint of the equatorial zone has taken place. In 
May 1873 it was observed or a decided brick-red tint. On no 
occasion this year has that tint been remarked, but a bronze yellow 
or sienna has prevailed for the whole period of observation, though 
perhaps on one or two nights it approached more to a rich yellow." 

After remaining at a minimum of colour for two or three years, 
Jupiter seems now to be regaining his tints ; but in many cases 
I have noticed a marked difference between what I now observe 
and what has been previously recorded. On first directing the 
telescope to this planet, at the beginning of May last, I was 
immediately struct with the bright orange-yellow of the equato- 
rial zone. This was most conspicuous with all powers from 60 to 
500, and could still be traced with the aperture reduced to 
4 inches — ^the colour was of course much affected by bad defini- 
tion — when the air was unsteady it required almost the full aper- 
ture to show its existence, and the reduction then required to 
give a clear perception of the dark streaks would render it almost 
invisible ; but on a steady night, when a magnifying power of (say) 
200 could be used with the full aperture, the equatorial zone has 
appeared almost invariably, with one or two exceptions which I 
shall mention by-and-by, of a rich orange. Shortly after I com- 
menced the present series of drawings, I had occasion to show 
some of them to Mr. H. C. Russell, of the Observatory, who was 
himself engaged in similar observations. The first thing he said 
when he saw them was — " Why, you don't use the same colours 
that I do at all." A short time subsequently I went to the 
Observatory for the sake of comparing the telescopes, and to my 
utter surprise the equatorial belt that I had invariably observed 
with the reflector to be a tawny orange oryellow appeared in the 
lli-inch refractor of a bright rose-pink. That this was no sudden 
change in the planet has since been amply confirmed, for Mr. 
Busseirs drawings and my own on the same nights show each the 
different colour. Moreover, I have on other occasions compared 
the glasses, and the same distinction still exists : the reflector 
continues to show the equatorial belt yellow, and the refractor 
pink. The same pinkish tint has been observed by me, though in 
a less degree, on account of the smaller aperture, in a fine 4i-inch 
refractor, the property of Mr. Alfred Fairfax, of Double Bay. 
Mr. RuBBcll has recently erected an 11 -inch silvered glass reflector 
of his own manufacture at the Observatory, and he confirms my 



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BOiaC VOTES OF JFnTEB UiUBJSa HIB OVMSITIOV 09 1876. 93 

opinion as to the tawny yellow of the equatorial zone, as se^i in 
that description of telescope. 

Now I must confess I am at present totally at a loss for a 
theory to account for these contradictionB. The refractor showing, 
ae the best object-glasses do, a fringe of uncorrected purple or 
Tiolet light round a bright object such as Jupiter, ought according 
to theory, to giro the planet if an^rthing a yellow tint, that being 
the complementary colour ; but this is exactly what it does not 
do. The refractor, on the contrary, oup^ht to give a reddish cast, 
as the reflection from silyer is slightly tmged with that hue ; but 
this is just the colour that it refuses to show. There is some 
tmexplomed mystery here, which I cannot now stay to inquire 
into, but content myself with putting just the bare facts before you. 

The grei^ equatorial belt of Jupiter appears at times to be the 
seat of sudden and riolent disturoances, taking place on a scale 
of which we can scarcely form any conception. I have seen the 
whole appearance of this belt alter during the interval of from one 
night to another, so that though the same portion of the disk was 
presented to the eye, not a single feature in this part of the planet 
could be recognized in the drawing of the previous night. One 
notable example of this occurred on the lM<th May. The equa- 
torial belt had presented a particularly quiescent appearance for 
some time before, occupying not more tnan a third or a fourth of 
Jupiter's diameter. On the evening of the 24th of that month 
I noticed that it had suddenly sprei^ over fully one-half of the 
disk, and seemed to be the seat of the wildest commotion, being 
torn and twisted in the strangest manner. Curious to say, this 
only applied to one side of the planet, for the opposite side pre- 
served the calm appearance before referred to, the equatorial zone 
being exceedingly narrow. This outbreak lasted for some two 
weeks, and then gradually appeared to calm down. On the 2drd 
June there was another similar outbreak, accompanied as before 
by another extension of the equatorial belt, and also — and this is 
why I particularly mention it in this part of my notes — by an 
almost total loss of the yellow colour so remarkably predominant 
before in this part of the planet. This loss of colour seems to 
arise from the spreading over the yellow belt of the dark-gray or 
chocolate-coloured bands with which it is usually streaked ; during 
^ese out-breaks they appear to extend as it were laterally, and 
to colour almost completely the yellow, which is only then seen 
between them in thin streaks. A strange feature noticed by me 
on the 4th July was that one of these dusky bands was bordered 
by a narrow edge of crimson lake ; it could not have been more 
than a second or twp of arc in diameter, but was most vivid ; and 
it gave me almost the impression as if I were looking at a scarlet 
or crimson flame. 

The polar portions of Jupiter, to which I will next direct your 



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94 SOME KOTES OK JTJPITEB DTJBIKO HIS OPPOSITIOK OP 1876. 

attention, do not present the same ever-yarjing character of the 
equatorial belt ; the causes which produce such tremendous dis- 
turbances at the equator do not appear to affect in anything like 
the same degree the northern and southern latitudes. You will 
observe in the large diagram, that I have coloured the north pole 
a decidedly brownish green, and this is the almost uniform tint 
that it has presented to me. On evenings of bad definition the 
^een is scarcely visible : but when the air is sufficiently steady 
it is most conspicuous, and is a very beautiM feature : it requires 
a certain amount of magnifying power and considerable aperture 
to bring it out well ; it is scarcely apparent with anything under 
100, and a power of not less than 200 is by far the best, i£ the air 
will bear it. The reflector seems to possess a decided advantage 
over the refractor in showing the green tint ; in the large Obser- 
vatory achromatic it appears to me more of a smoky brown. The 
only record I can find of a. green tint being observed at the poles 
is one in the ** Transactions of the Koyal Astronomical Society," 
by Miss Hirst, a lady residing in Auckland, who observed Jupiter 
during his opposition in 1875 with an 8i-inch reflector. She 
says — "On February 20th I noticed a small oval patch of a 
decided sea-green at the south pole, which on the following 
morning was more elongated and a shade darker in the centre. 
It remained thus for three days, and has not since been seen." 
The south pole has on all occasions been tinted with a warm gray. 
The most remarkable feature on this portion of the planet has 
been the persistent appearance of a cloudy mottling, which I have 
attemptea to represent in the diagram. This was first noticed on 
the dm May, and it has continued to appear at intervals up to the 
present date. 

Of the markings generally on the planet there are one or two 
which I will mention as being particularly characteristic and per- 
sistent. The strangest-looking of them is the one Mr. Bussell 
and myself called the " Fish," on account of its presenting some- 
thing of that form. It first made its appearance during the great 
outbreak about the 24th May ; and it existed, though somewhat 
altered in shape, until the 4th July ; there were always one or 
two black spots on the southern edge of it. The next peculiar 
marking was one I called the " Tuning-fork." I have represented 
it here on the diagram. On the north rim of the equatorial belt 
there appeared from the beginning of May to the middle of June 
a succession of remarkable breaks, the dark band on the following 
side being as it were cut short off, and on the preceding side it is 
thrown suddenly up, and extends right across the disk in a thin 
streak. 

We have been accustomed to talk of the belts and clouds of 
Jupiter as if they were in their nature somewhat analogous to the 
clouds of watery vapour in our own atmosphere, or as perhaps 



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SOME K0TE8 ON JUPITEB DUBCBTG HIS OPPOSITION OF 1876. 95 

exhalations from molten matter constituting the body of the 
planet. But there is sometimes a strange persistency in these 
features, which seems incompatible with a yaporous nature only ; 
and I think that those who haye had the best opportunities for 
obeeryation in this particular subject will be the last to hazard an 
opinion as to their origin. Unfortunately, too, the spectroscope 
fftils to help us here : for Jupiter, shining as he does by reflected 
light, giyes back the solar spectrum, with the addition of a few 
lines somewhat similar to those added when the sun is low down, 
and, consequently, shining through a considerable extent of our 
atmosphere. The spectrum, too, of Jupiter is, contrary to what 
many would suppose, exceedingly faint, being only about equal 
to that of a tnird magnitude star ; the brilHant aspect that he 
presents to the eye being occasioned by the immense size of his 
disk, and not by its intrinsic luminosity. When I say that 
Jupiter shines only b^ reflected light I am aware that amongst 
some eminent authonties it is believed that he does emit somewhat 
more light than he receives ; and Proctor, writing on this subject, 
says — " If Jupiter does not shine somewhat by native light, his 
siirface must possess reflective powers neariy equal to white paper, 
which is scarcely credible." But this excess of brilliance, if it 
does exist, is too small to make any diflerence in the spectrum. 

I iSeel the limits that I can fairly allow myself for occupying 
your attention will not permit of my entering into half of the 
many features which this interesting planet has presented during 
the present opposition, and of which I am persuaded much is new, 
and has in consequence never been recorded before. I will not, 
therefore, dwell now on the phenomena connected with the 
satellites, their transits, their shadows, and many other details of 
which more than enough remain for another discussion. Still less 
would I detain you by any attempt of my own te theorize on these 
wonderful and complex operations taking place on such a mighty 
scale — a scale of wnich the inhabitants of our little globe, 8,000 
miles in diameter, can form no adequate idea. What, n)r instance, 
should we think if we saw, supposing that we could see, a black 
mass of vapour, or it may be of some far more solid substance,' 
22,000 miles in extent, suddenly break up and disappear in the 
course of a few minutes ; and yet this very phenomenon was 
recorded by Sir James South te have taken place on one occasion 
when he was observing Jupiter. 

There is, however, one tneory of Procter's in reference to the 
condition of Jupiter as affecting his colour which I will men- 
tion, as it seems te me to be one of the most reasonable yet 
broached, and moreover appears to accord well with observation. 
He thinks at a first view that nothing could appear more sur- 
prising than a change affecting the colour of a zone-shaped region 
whose Bur&ce is many times greater than the surfftce ox our earth. 



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96 801CS KOTES OK JTTPITEB DUBDI O HIB OFPOBITIOK 09 1876. 

A brief change miglit be readily explained as due to such cauBes 
as affect our own air. Large regions of the Earth are at one 
time cloud-covered, and at another time free from clouds ; such 
regions seen from Venus or Mercury would at one time appear 
white, and at another would show whatever colour the actual 
surface of the ground might possess when viewed as a whole. 
But it seems altogether impossible to explain in this way a 
change or series of changes occupying many years, as in the case 
of the colour changes of Jupiter's belt. It is one of the strongest 
arguments against the theory that solar action has to do vrith 
these changes, that any changes produced by solar influence 
would be so slight as to be in effect scarcelv perceptible. If, 
however, Jupiter's whole mass be in a state of intense heat, we 
can understand any changes, however amazing ; we can see that 
enormous quantities of vapour must be continually generated in 
the lower regions, to be condensed in the upper ; and although we 
may not be able to indicate the precise reason why at one time 
the mid-zone or any other belt on Jupiter's surface should 
exhibit the whiteness which would seem to indicate the presence 
of clouds, and at another should show a colouring; which appears 
to indicate that the glowing mass below is partly disdosed, we 
remember that the difficulty corresponds in character to that 
which is presented by the phenomena of solar spots. The most 
probablehypothesis appears to be that the ruddy glow of Jupiter's 
equatorial belt is due to the inherent light of glowing matter 
underneath his deep and cloud-ladenatmosphere. 

This seems, as I said before,, to be about the best theory yet 
advanced in this matter ; but the human mind craves for some- 
thing more substantial than mere supposition. And the questions 
that naturally arise when concluding a series of observations like 
the present are — Shall we ever in our present state know any 
more of the real nature and purpose of these magnificent orbs ; 
shall this opposition of 1876 ever furnish a link in the chain that 
is to lift the veil that hangs on all outside; or are we but 
accumulating a pile of facts, a mass of observations, which, like 
the scattered necklace-beads, want the connecting string to form 
them into one harmonious whole P Are we, like the benighted 
wanderer in the desert, travelling in a circle, to find oun^ves 
back at the point whence we started P Is it ever with the telescope 
and spectroscope to be " thus far and no farther" P 

No ! I cannot but believe that the time yrUi come, though it be 
generations hence, when the fruit of many years of patient watch- 
ing shall be, — the reversal of the complex pattern on the under 
side of which we have so lon^ toiled, tracing with anxious care its 
numberless perplexing threads, and then the design of the Creator 
in the sobr system will stand revealed in all its symmetry and 
beauty. 



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SOME irOTS8 ON JUPITIB D1XSIK& HIB OPPOSITIOK OF 1876. 97 



DISCTTSSION. 

Ms. H. C. EusBELL said, that Mr. Hirst had done a valuable 
work in watching so closely the changes which had taken place 
in the planet Jupiter during the present winter. A great manj 
curious things had appeared. 

Mr. Hirst had tried to collect the observations made upon the 
white spots, and to show that they had some connexion with the 
periods of the maximum sun-spots. If such a connexion could 
be shown satisfactorily, it would have much interest ; but in 1863 
he (Mr. Eussell) saw the white spots on Jupiter most distinctly. 
He had never seen them so well since, and 1860 was the maximum 
sun-spot period before 1870. 

The black spots were similar in form to the white spots. A 
theory had been hazarded that perhaps they were cyclones opening 
up the cloud envelope which is supposed to reflect the sun's light 
to us. If so, the persistence they maintain in their relative 
distances is very curious. He (Mr. Bussell) had not been able 
to detect any difference in their position for a considerable time. 
Jupiter is 1,300 or 1,400 times the size of the earth, yet his revo- 
lution only takes 10 hours. If these cloud accumulations are 
produced by the revolution of the planet, the velocity of the 
currents must, therefore, be something enormous. Some of the 
markings on the planet Jupiter have been seen to recur years 
after, and we cannot conceive of any peculiar cloud-form recurring 
after a number of vears. It seems probable that something solid 
has been seen on these occasions. We cannot expect cloud-forms 
to have that definite character and to retain it. His own opinion 
was that the great changes which had occurred within short 
intervals were simply changes in the state of definition, not 
changes on the planet, but changes in our power to see it. He 
had Tost si^ht of certain features one night, and seen them 
another night. 

In June, when we had a great change in the state of our 
atmosphere, the colour of the planet was altered. He thought 
the colour of the planet depended on the state of the air over 
our heads. The colours of the stars depend on something very 
mysterious. Being struck with the differences of colour observed 
through different telescopes,* he had put a graduated scale of 
colours, varying from green to red, through yellow and orange. 
Through the telescope there came to view a definite point at which 
the yeUow changed to pink — a point not visible to the naked eye 
at iJl. With a silver-glass reflecting telescope he observed the 
same phenomenon. He could only explain this by supposing that 
the pink had been put over the yellow. 



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98 BOMB KOTSS OK JI7PITIB BUSUrO HIS OPPOSITION OF 1876. 

Mb. HntST said that, as to the sudden disappearance of some 
of the markings, the remark of Mr. Bussell was hardly borne 
out bj some existing observations. Sir James South mentioned 
that a black patch on Jupiter, representing a space on the planet 
22,000 miles in diameter, totally disappeared in the course of a 
few minutes. Such a conspicuous marking could scarcely be 
blotted out in a moment by bad definition. 



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90 



Parti. 
ON THE GENUS CTENODUS, 

A FISH FOUND IN THE TRUE COAL MEASURES OF GREAT BRITAIN. 
By W. J. Babkas, M.R.C.S,E., L.E.C.P.L. 



IBead hefare the So^al Society of N.S.TF., 6 Sejtiember, 1876.] 



Rn^owtxg that very few persons are acquainted with the fossil 
ichthyology of the Carboniferous formations of Great Britain, 
even in Great Britain itself, it is perhaps necessary that I should 
state at once my reasons for introducing a paper before this 
Society upon a subject that is apparently foreign to this Colony 
and to all Australasia, for undoubtedly Ctenodtts is not found 
anywhere in this part of the world. Cfenodus is a fish that 
existed during the Carboniferous era of Great Britain's history 
in comparatively large numbers, but inhabiting, so far as our 
present knowledge extends, only a very small area of its waters. 
Fislies of the same genus, but of different species, are found in 
the Old Eed Sandstone, but they are very rare, and are even 
more limited in their habitat than the Carboniferous Ctenodi, 
judging, of course, from the scarcity of their remains that have 
been brought to light by geological research during a goodly 
number of y^ears. Mor to the Devonian period we have not any 
trace of this fish, nor have any remains been discovered in for- 
mations that have been formed since the Carboniferous epoch ; 
it was, therefore, considered to be a form of animal life that had 
become totally extinct at the close' of the Coal Measure era, not 
having any counterpart in the different stages of the world's 
formation after that time. Although there was not, at the time 
of the first discovery of the remains of this fish, any known 
living type by which its place in the order of Being could be 
verified, the great palseontologist Agassiz at once classified it 
among the Fishes, for all that he had only been able to examine 
a few dentjd plates. Since the time of the discovery of the 
dental plates seen by Agassiz, extensive researches have been 
made into the Natural History of the World as it exists at 
present, and among these inquiries were some that were directed 
to the ichthyology of Australian seas and rivers. It was not 
long before the Hon. "Wm. Forster obtained a fish from some 



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100 ON THE GENUS CTEXODUS. 

Australian river that was markedly different from all other known 
existing species,* and this fish was named Oeratodus Fortteri by 
Mr. Krefft, late Curator of the Sydney Museum, and I under- 
stand that he published an account of it in the Second Part of 
the Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1870, but I haTe 
not had the opportunity of seeing the paper. Dr. A. G-unther 
was the first, I believe, to give a full descriptioQ oiCeratodus; this 
he did in the Transactions of the Philosophical Society for 
1871. It was at once seen by pabeontologists and ichthyologists 
that the detached dental plates called Ctenodui by Agassiz 
closely reseml^led those of Ceratodus in their configuration, and 
they drew the inference that Ceratodus and Ctenodus probably 
belong to the same family. Further researches into the Coal 
Measure shales brought to light other remains of the fossil fish, 
and these mineralized portions of the endo- and exo-skeletons 
were also seen to resemble closely similar parts of the recent 
fish. The fact, therefore, that Ci&nodus is evidently the proto- 
type of a fish found only in Australian waters at the present day 
is my apology for introducing this paper ; which fact is rendered 
all the more worthy of attention wnen we think of the immense 
«Bons of ages that must have passed away since the Carboniferous 
period, during which time we have no trace of either Otenodus or 
Ceratodus, nor of any allied form. 

Ceratodus is, I suppose, tolerably well known to most of the 
ichthyologists of Australia, I shall therefore refer to it compa- 
ratively seldom, my principal object being to describe what, is 
known of CtenoduSy and incidentally only will I point out the 
resemblances between those fishes. 

Concerning the remains of Cfenodus, I am well able to speak ; 
for Mr. T. Atthey, Mr. T. P. Barkas, F.G.S., and myself, have 
probably the most complete collections of them in the world, in 
fact, I know of no other Coal Measure palaontologifts nor any 
Museum that have any other remains than the teeth, unless they 
have obtained them from the two first-mentioned gentlemen. I 
brought out specimem) of the remains with me from England, 
but unfortunately some of them have been irreparably injured 
by the severe knocking about my boxes received while being 
carried from Sydney to Bombala, my present residence. Sir 
Philip de Grey Egerton obtained numerous specimens from my 
father, Mr. T. P. Barkas, which he intended for our Sydney 
Museum, but on inquiry I find that they have not been received, 
from some cause or other. 

Otenodus was so named by Professor Agassiz from some dental 
plates discovered in the Old Bed Sandstone and Coal Measures ; 

• Since this paper wae written I hafe been informed that the Bev. W. B. 
Clarke and Mr. A. W. Scott were the first to discorer this fish's dose resem- 
blance to Agassiz's extinct genus, at least so far as the teeth are concerned. 



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OK THE eSNirS CTEKOBXrS. 101 

he classified it among the Fishes as a Placoid ; hut, beyond naming 
the genus and species, he did little more; what remarks he 
makes will be found in his ^* Poissons Fossiles" tome iii. The 
species he founded were C. alatug and C. attmiseus from the 
Deronian fotrmation, and O, erigtatui^ O. MttrehiiotU, O. BoberU 
wrti^ from the Carboniferous. Profoesor Owen &lls into the same 
error with regud to the classification of this fish. That Agassiz 
and Owen should haye erred in thus dassif^ng Otenodut is not 
to be wondered at, for they were only acquamted with the dental 
plates, and had no other fish presenting teeth of this type to refer 
to ; any ichthyologist haying only the teeth before nim would 
make me same mistake, for they are unmistakeably Ce^traeiont 
in character. Hugh MUler, while examining Dipterue, another 
Deronian fish, discoyered that it possessed teeth similar to those 
of CUnodiu; this discoyery tenoed to show that Agassiz and 
Owen were mistaken in considering Cienodui to be a Flaeaid, as 
Dipierus is, without doubt, either a member of the Otmoidei or 
the Dipnoi ; the majority of palsdontologists at present placing it 
as a Oanoid, Other nsh remains were obtained, and named 
Oeraicdus and (DHstychcpterus, with similar teeth. These four 
fossil genera, Zhpterw, TriHyohwpierus, Oeraiodus, and CHenodus, 
were arranged by F^fessor Huxley, in his synopsis of the 
Gkmoidei, in a family, which was named, OUnododipterim by 
Professor Pander, haying the foUowing characters : — ^Two dorsal 
fins placed &r back ; acutely lobate pectoral and yentral fins ; no 
branehiostegal rays; jugular plates; single anal fin; caudal 
extremity tapering to a point ; lower lobe of tail much larger 
than upper; scales cjrcloidal and smooth; bones of cranium 
anchylosed into a shield ; lower law of peculiar form ; dentition 
ctenodont. Eichwald, in the first yolume of his "Lethsea 
Bossica" further adds that Cftmodipterines haye solid and distinct 
bodies in their yertefarss, and thi^ their scales are rounded and 
imlnricated besides beins cycloidal. Dr. A. GHinther, in his 
jpvpest to which I haye abeady referred, seems clearly to proye 
that Ceratodus belongs to the Dipnoi ; if this be so, then Ctenodus 
must also do so, for these two fisnes in their internal skeleton are 
similar in eyery respect so far as we know as yet ; the complete 
tail oi Cftenodus has not been discoyered up to the present time, 
it may posfl^ibly difier from that of Oeratoduty but seeing that the 
fishes agree so far as their bony remains are concerned, it is not 
probable. Howeyer, while there is this uncertainty we will not 
dogmatize upon the matter, but will leaye it an open question to be 
decided by future discoyeries ; still, it may safely De predicated that 
Ctenodu9 is rdated to whateyer family Oeratodut may belong. From 
a private letter that I receiyed in May last 1 learn that l^fessor 
Hxixley has been lecturing during the past winter upon the relation- 
ship between Ceraiodus and DiptemSj but$ strange to say, he never 
spoko of Ctenodus, which is even more closely allied to Oeratodu^. 



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102 ON THE GENTS CTENODUS. 

The teeth are the parts of the fish Clenodus that are most 
frequently discoyered, and they have been obtained in places 
where no other remains of the f ndo- or exo-skeleton have been 
observed ; they are most common in the true Coal Meaaures of 
Northumberland ; occasional teeth are disinterred from the coal 
formations of South Yorkshire and Staffordshire ; a single tooth 
has been obtained from the carboniferous limestone of Derby- 
shire ; and there is a single specimen in the British Museum that 
is believed to have been found in the Coal Measures of Carluke, 
in Scotland ; if the latter be a fact, then Carluke is the outermost 
limit of this fish's geographical range to the north, and Derby- 
shire is known to be the southern boundary ; but even within this 
confined area the strata containing the remains are very small in 
extent ; for example, Northiunbenand is the most prolific in its 
supply, yet nearly all the specimens are obtained from a pit at 
Newsham, the remainder bein^ found at Cramlington ; the same 
thing is observed in Staffordshire. Besides the narrow range of 
this fish, we can also judge that its habitat was in the shiulow 
brackish waters of estuaries, and the mixed waters of the sea 
near the mouths of rivers ; for we find its remains fossilized in 
the shales, in which are also imbedded numerous Cestracianfs 
and Oanoids that certainly did not exist in fresh water, although 
they frequently roamed into the deep seas ; such are CUdodus^ 
Psammodus, Pal^eoniscus^ Wiizodus, &c. To this fact there 
appears to be «n exception. I refer to the tooth found in the 
Derbyshire limestone, that seems to prove that Clenodus was also 
a deep-sea fish, but a little thought will show its improbability ; 
only one tooth has been obtained from that stratum, notwith- 
standing the extensive researches that have been made into it ; 
the tooth has, therefore, been most probably carried out into the 
deep sea by a strong under-current, or a solitary fish may have 
strayed out and died from inability to exist in a foreign water, 
leaving its remains to decay or become imbedded in the forming 
limestone. That Cienodus 4id not live in fresh water is clearly 
proved by the fact that the shale containing these teeth has never 
been observed, by me at least, to contain fossilized terrestrial or 
fresh-water vegetation. So much for the classification, geo- 
graphical range, and habitat of Clenodus, We will now turn to 
the fish itself, and in this paper I shall confine myself to the 
teeth, describing the characters of the different species and illus- 
trating them by drawings. In future papers I shall pourtray 
their microscopical structure, draw attention to the characters of 
the bones that enter into the formation of the mouth and the 
mode of arrangement of the teeth, and finish by describing the 
endo- and exo-skeleton. 

C crislalus was the first species named by Agassiz, and was 
founded upon a tooth at present in the Leeds Museum ; Mr. 



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OK THE aEKirS CTEK0DXJ8. 103 

T. p. Barkas, and, I believe, Mr. Atthey also possess perfect speci- 
mens in their cabinets. The tooth was imperfectly described by 
Professor Agassiz in his "Poissons Possiles," but tolerably 
figured. Professor Owen referred to the genus in his " Odon- 
topography" among the Cestracianis; and, if I mistake not, for 
I haye not the book at hand for reference, the tooth he figures, 
and figures well, is one of C. cristatua ; but his remarks on the 
external characters are too brief to be called « description, while 
his sketch of the minute structure is quite inaccurate. Messrs. 
Hancock and Atthey, in a paper entitled " Notes on various 
species of Ctenodua obtained from the Northumberland Goal 
Fields," which appeared in the third volume of the "Transactions 
of the Northumberland and Durham Natural History Society," 
were the first palaeontologists to give a complete description, and 
it may be summed up aa follows : — Tooth plate-like ; rather thin ; 
irr^ularly elliptical ; inclining to ovate ; 2i inches lone, li inch 
broad (these measurements are, of course, average) ; the upper 
surface somewhat hollowed or concave ; inner margin well arched, 
the outer much less so ; upper surface is covered with twelve 
dose-set transverse ridges, which are studded from end to end 
with closely arranged tubercles ; ridges increase in size externally 
and incline towards the anterior and posterior margins, thus 
appearing to radiate ; grooves angulated ; tubercles perfect only 
on outer margin and are covered with brilliant enamel ; base of 
each tubercle subtriangular ; the imperfect tubercles are 
much worn and compressed laterally; tubercles and ridges 
coarsely and irregiilarly granular. Mr. T. P. Barkas, F.Q-.S., 
briefly describes his specimen, in a paper on " Ctenodus," which 
appeared in the " Geological Magazine " for July, 1869. 

C Bohertsoni is only referred to bv Agassiz himself in the 
'* Poissons Eossiles" ; he neither describes its external character 
nor does he figure them; but he refers slightly to its micro- 
scopical characters, and attempted to pourtray them; the 
description and engraving are, however, nearlv valueless from 
the meagreness of the one and the low power of the microscope 
thai has been employed in examining the other. 

C, Murchisoni was named by Agassiz, but neither described 
nor figured by him; and Pictet merely gives the name and 
founder of the species in the second volume of his " Traits de 
Palaontologie." 

<7. alatu8, from the Old Bed Sandstone, is merely mentioned by 
name by its first observer, Agassiz, in his ** Poissons Fossiles." 

C. asteriteu9 (Agassiz), also from the Old Bed Sandstone, is 
just hinted at by name by Giebel in his " Fauna der Vorwelt." 

The four last-mentioned species mayor may not be true species 
for anything I know to the contrary ; and I am not aware that 
any palaeontologist who is acquainted with the recent discoveries 



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lOi OK THE GEKTS CTSKOBUS. 

of the teeth of different species ^f Otenodui has ever seen them ; 
^d, as I have said, neither descriptions nor figures are extant for 
comparison. 

C. tuhereulaius was discovered by Mr. T. Atthej, in the 
shale of the Low Main coal seam in Northumberland, and was so 
named by him. The discoverer, in conjunction with the late M>. 
Albany Hancock, F.L.S., describe its teeth fully in the " Notes " 
that I have already referred to. The following is a brief epitome 
of the external characters of the tooth ; plate-Hke ; thick ; uregu- 
larlv ovate ; 2 J inches long ; li inch broad, but they vary a 
little in size, the specimen I figure is 2i inches long and If 
broad ; narrow posteriorly ; inner margin gibbous or angulated 
in the centre ; outer margin a little convex ; upper surface slightly 
convex, with from twelve to eighteen ridges traversing it, deep, 
sharp, parallel and approximate, strongly tuberculat^ tewaros 
the outer margin ; grooves narrow, deep, and angular ; ridges 
arched posteriorly and enlarged towards the external border, but 
they are not radiate ; anterior ridge widest, and is reflected and 
prolonged somewhat beyond outer margin ; tubercles conical with 
obtuse points, those near the outer border are coated with 
brilliant enamel and are well-produoed ; mandibular tooth narrower 
than palatal and very convex. From this description it will be 
seen that this tooth differs from O. criiiatus in being convex, and 
in havingsharp and deep ridges, and b^ the form of the tuberdes. 
Messrs. Hancock and Atthey gave an illustration of this tooth 
in the fourth volume of the *' G^nsactions of the Northumberland 
and Durham Natural History Society,'* but Mr. Barkas figured 
it previously in the sixth volume of the " GFeoloirical Magazine,*' 
and at the same time a drawing was given or a tooth in the 
British Museum, with a few remarks by the editor. Mr. Barkas 
also gives excellent lithographs in the " Atlas ** to his ^ Coal 
Measure Paleontology.** Mr. Miall of Leeds gave it as his 
opinion, in the Annals of Natural History, fourth series, volume 
15, that there is not any difference between the teeth of C, 
tubercuhUu9 and O. oritiatus, I cannot help thinking that that 
gentleman has never seen a true tooth of the former fish t)r he 
would never have uttered this opinion, for they undoubtedly 
differ very much, but it is possible that they might belong to die 
one species, the one tooth being mandibular and ti^ other 
palatal, but this is not probable, as 0. tuherculatus is compara* 
tively common while O. crutaiu$ is very rare ; nor have they ever 
been found on the same slab of shale ; groups of the teeth of C 
tuberoulaiua have been discovered which tend to show that tiie 
mandibular and palatal teeth are similar, the latter differing 
from the former in being narrower only ; we must, therefore, for 
the present at least, consider these two varieties of teeth as 
belonging to different species. Fig. I. is a specimen of a tooth of 



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OK THE OEIfUS CTEKODVS. 105 

<X tuherculaius from the cabinet of Mr. T. P. Barkas. Alter 
the conyexity to a concavity and shorten the external ridge to a 
uniformity with the others, and we would have an almost perfect 
figure of C, crUtatut, 

C, ohliquusy Atthey. From the Northumberland Coal Measures, 
id a comparatively common species. It has been described and 
figured by Messrs. Hancock and Atthey in the third and fourth 
volumes of the " Transactions '' I have already alluded to, and by 
Mr. Barkas in ** Coal Measure Pal«ontology." Externally the 
tooth is plate-like ; depressed ; lanceolate ; 1^ inch long ; | inch 
broad ; mner margin regularly and much arched ; outer border 
slightly curved; six or seven strong, compressed, sharp-edged, 
transverse ridges, radiating somewhat towards the external margin, 
where bein^ enlarged they curve downwards and are denticulated ; 
anterior ndge very obliaue, being much inclined forwards; 
tubercles much compressea laterally, lancet-formed with sharp 
points, coated with briUiant enamel ; mandibular tooth narrower 
than palatal, is broadest in front, tapering pretty regularly pos- 
teriorly, anterior ridges very wide and much produced beyond 
the oUiers, all the -ridges are curved downwards, and vary from 
I of an inch to li inch in length. In figure IT. I have 
pourtrayed this tooth. 

C, elegan$y Atthey, is the commonest species found in the 
Northumberland carboniferous shales, and it is also the smallest 
yariety. It was described in the " Notes " of Messrs. Hancock 
and Atthey, but was not figured. Mr. Barkas illustrates it in his 
work, and I herewith ^ve a drawing of a very large specimen, 
Kg. in. The tooth is plate-like, depressed, triangular, averag- 
ing i of an inch in length and -^g of an inch in breadth; 
inner margin produced and an^ulated in centre, from whence it 
slopes anteriorly and poeterior^ towards the outer margin, which 
is slightly arched ; seven to eight strongly denticulated ridges 
whkh radiate from the angle, at which point they are very 
minute; anterior ridge a little produced ; six or seven denticles 
on each ridge, which are much compressed laterally, sharp- 
pointed and iancet-like, with inner limb a little shouldered, 
where there is occasionally a minnte toothlet; ridges and 
denticles brilliantly enamelled. Professor Owen, in his 
booklet on the '* Dental Characters of Carboniferous Fishes and 
Batraehians,'* founds a new genus, Sagmodus, upon some sections 
he had sent to him, but he never saw the original teeth ; the 
structure exhibited by the microscope of these sections presented 
feajfcures quite new to him, and he accordingly designated the tooth 
SagemduM iMqmlia, In this work he gave excellent illustrations 
of the structure, and it is similar in every detail to the micro- 
scopical i^[>pearance of CX eUgans^ which had been described fully 
long previously. 



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106 ON THE GEKTTS CTENODITS. 

C. corrugatas, Atthey, was discovered in the coal shales of 
Northumberland. It was described by Messrs. Hancock and 
Atthey in their " Notes," but it has never been figured. Its 
characters are as follows (it must be .remembered that my 
descriptions of the teeth discovered and named by Mr. Atthey 
are summaries of his remarks. I may state, however, that I 
possess or have examined specimens of each of his species) : plate- 
like; thin; sub-triangular; three inches long, two inches broad ; 
upper surface slightly convex, with nine stout, somewhat irregular 
rounded ridges ; grooves wide and rounded ; ridges die out as 
they approach the internal and external margins, but they are 
slightly enlarged at the external extremities, and are indistinctly 
and irregularly tuberculated ; inner margin nearly straight ; outer 
border slightly convex ; anterior edge slopes forward from inner 
margin; posterior border produced and rounded; surface 
strongly and irregularly punctated. The distinguishing features 
of this tooth are the fewness of the ridges, their roundness and 
wide separation, its great size and general form. 

C. ociodorsaliSf T. P. Barkas. From the Northumberland coal 
seams, was described in the second volume of " Scientific 
Opinion," but it was not illustrated. Its characters, according 
to Mr. Barkas, are : — length, two inches ; width, one inch ; eight 
ridges free from denticulations ; at the extremities of the first 
six ridges there are slight depressions which indicate two rudi- 
mentarv tubercles ; the seventh ridge is drawn to a point, and 
the end of the eighth ridge is flat and chisel-shaped ; the grooves 
between the ridges are broad, and their bases are shallow and 
smoothly rounded. 

O. eoncavus, T. P. Barkas, is only founded provisionally, for 
its foOnder has occasion to think that it may be an unusual form 
of C. tuberculatus. It was discovered in the Coal Measures of 
Northumberland. The tooth is 2f inches long, IJ inch broad, 
very concave from without inwards, and presents the appearance 
of a large segment of a cylinder ; the external edge is nearly 
straight ; the internal margin resembles the side of an ellipse ; 
the ridges are eleven in number, and extend across the body of 
the tooth at right angles with the front ; the ridges are deep, 
angulated, and slightlv curved ; the anterior ridges are broad, and 
the remainder gradually narrow towards the posterior extremity 
of the tooth ; except at the external extremities of the ridges, 
they are free from tuberculations ; the crest of the anterior ridge 
is very convex, the others very concave ; anterior ridge has two 
weli-aeveloped and two rudimentary tubercles ; the second three 
well-defined ; third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, have one each ; 
the eight luis two, and the remaining ridge one ; each external 
tubercle on first, second, and eighth ridges are covered by 
brilliant cream-coloured enamel ; the rest are dark, and highly 



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OK THE GEXUS CTENODUS. 107 

polished ; behv'een the ridges and the plate of attachment there 
la a distinct line of pale enamel surrounding the tooth ; the 
plate of the tooth is thin ; under surface as convex as upper 
18 concave. A description of the tooth appeared in the second 
volume of " Scientific Opinion," and an illustration was given in 
" Coal Measure Palroontology." In my opinion this tooth more 
closely resembles (7. cristatus than C tuherculatus, Eig. IV. is 
a copy of Mr. Barkas's lithograph. 

O. monoeerus, T. P. Barkas. From the Northumberland Coal 
Measures. It was described and figured in the paper and book 
juat referred to. The tooth is 2\ inches lon^ ; 1 J inch broad ; 
five bold radiating ridges ; first ridge projecting forward at an 
angle of 80 degrees, second at 45 degrees, third at 60 degrees, 
fourth at right angles to the base, fifth inclined backwards from 
the perpendicular 15 degrees ; ridges smooth ; tip of first ridge 
lost; second, third, and fourth ridges have each two highly 
enamelled tubercles at their extremities ; fifth ridge one tubercle ; 
the plate extends beyond the 5th ridge with an undulating 
surface for half an inch, and is symmetrically rounded off ; u})on 
the front of the tooth and opposite the groove of the fifth ridge is a 
large mammillary tubercle or horn which distinguishes this tooth 
from any other species. Pig. V. is a copy of the published drawing. 

The teeth I have described so far have all ridges that are more 
or less tuberculated ; those I now intend to refer to are without 
tubercles, and therefore more closely resemble the teeth of 
Ceratodus, 

C. tmhricattc^, Atthey. From the Northumberland Coal Shales, 
was described in the 3rd, and figured in the 4th volumes of the 
Northumberland and Durham Natural History Society Transac- 
tions, by Messrs. Hancock and Atthey. The palatal tooth is 
depressed; very thick; slightly concave; 2i inches long; upwards 
of 1 inch broad ; inner margin well and regularly arched, the 
anterior slope being much longer than the posterior : outer mar- 
gin nearly straight and coarsely serrated by the ridges projecting ; 
6 ridges, which enlarge rapidly towards the outer margin, strong, 
smooth, somewhat distant from each other, and though mostly 
inclined forwards, are laid over towards the posterior end, having 
an imbricated appearance ; grooves angulated, surface minutely 
granular, edges enamelled. Mandibular tooth very narrow and 
fusiform ; ridges not imbricated and grooves scarcely angulated. 
Fig. YI. is a copy of Mr. Atthey's en^aving. As my specimens 
are in England I cannot make an original sketch. 

C. ellipticus, Atthey. From the Northumberland Coal 
Measures, was described in Messrs. Hancock and Atthey's 
"Notes." Palatal tooth flattened; thin; elliptical; If inch long; 
^- of an inch broad ; inner and outer margins irregularly arched : 
5 transverse, smooth, distant, angular ridges, increasing in size 



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108 ON THE GENUS CTEN0DU8. 

externally; grooves wide and round, anterior and posterior margins 
extended a little beyond the ridges, surface minutely puneti^d ; 
mandibular tooth narrow and inner border gibbous, otherwise is 
the same as the palatal. No drawing has been published, and I 
cannot illustrate the tooth, for the reason given above.* 

(7. obtusm, T. P. Barkas. Prom the Northumberland Coal 
Measures. The palatal tooth was described by Mr. Barkas in the 
4th volume of the " English Mechanic. ' ' The tooth is strong ; flat ; 
approximately ovate; H inch long; 1 inch broad; inner mar^rin 
regularly arched; outer margin has a wave-like serration arismg 
irom the roundness of the extremities of the projecting ridges ; 
the four posterior ridges and their accompanying furrows have an 
undulating appearance, the grooves ana ridges being equal in 
width ; the anterior ridge is broad, flattened, and slightly concave ; 
upper surface boldly punctated and ridged, the edges of which 
have a tendency to inosculate ; much of ^e surface has, therefore, 
a reticulated appearance. Mr. Barkas adds — '' That the only tootii 
with which it is likely to be confounded is C. ellipticui, but a very 
slight examination will show the contrast that exists between 
them." 

C. quadraiuiy T. P. Barkas. From the Northumberland Coal 
Measures, was described in the 18th volume of the '* English 
Mechanic," but it has not been illustrated. The teeth of tins 
species vary slightly in size, but the tooth I figure in Fig. Vii 
is about the average ; the inner margin is bent almost at right 
angles, a little external to its centre; the outer margin is also bent 
about the same place, but not so abruptly, possessing more of a 
curve ; this peculiarity of the margins gives the tooth a quadrate 
form ; the outer margin is irregularly waved from the riches pro- 
jecting beyound it ; fiie ridges, six or seven in number, radiate 
from the inner angle ; they are not tuberculated, being smooth 
and angular ; upper surface finely pitted and showing a tendency 
to reticulation. 

O, OV4UU9, T. P. Barkas. From the Carboniferous Limestone of 
Derbyshire. Only one tooth has been discovered; it was describedin 
the 2nd volume of *' Sdentifio Opinion," and was figured in *' Coal 
Measure Palaontology." I have not the founder's description at 
hand, but I herewith give a copy of his lithograph. Fig. VlIL 

C. intemtptm, T. P. Barkas, was foimded on a tooth in the 
York Museum, and was described in the same paper as C. ovatu^, 
I cannot describe this species, for I have never seen it, nor has it 
been figured, and as I have said, I have not at present access to 
the 2nd volume of " Scientific Opinion." 

* This tooth has the greatest reeemblance to a tooth of Ceratodm ; the 
latter tooth has ax ridg^ instead of five, the plate does not extend beyond 
the anterior and posfterior margins, nor is it so huge. 



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OK THB asasruB ctehodvs. 109 

O. caudatus, W. J. Barkas. Prom the Northumberland Coal 
Measures. The specimen that I pourtray in Eig. IX is the only 
one that has been discovered as yet. It resembles C, ellipticua 
to a certain extent, but it differs in being smaller and in having 
along projection from one extremity; this prolongation is not 
the result of a fracture nor is it a fold of shale, for I have freed 
the tooth completely from the matrix of shde; the posterior 
rid^ee are rather indistinct, having; probably been worn away 
during life ; but traces are left of four non-tuberculated ridges ; 
the anterior ridge is broad, much inclined forwards, and projects 
beyond the outer margin ; the under surface is smooth,*and a ridge 
runs horizontally alonp its centre from the back of the prolonga- 
tion; the tooth is 1 inch long, including the tail, ana \ of an 
inch broad. 

I have now described the characters of the teeth of everv^ 
species that has been discovered, and with which I am acquainted. 
In my next paper I shall refer to the microscopical structure of 
these teeth, and illustrate it by drawings taken with the camera. 
Eortpnately all the teeth I have* described possess the same 
structure, there will, therefore, not be any necessity to go over 
all the species in detail again. My further programme is to 
pourtray the incisive or vomerine teeth, the mandibular, palatal, 
and articular bones, and the dental arrangement ; next, the head 
bones, ribs, operculsD, &c., <&c. By this means aU that is known 
of CCenodui will be brought together for the first time into a 
series of consecutive papers, and comparisons with the similar 
parts of Ceratodus win then be more easily made. 

In order that comparisons may be at once instituted between 
the teeth of Ctenodus and those of a recent OeratoduSy I here- 
with append Dr. Odnther's description of the external characters of 
the teeth of the latter fish, which appeared in a paper on Ceratodus 
in the ** Philosophical Transactions," Part II, for 1871 :— 

" Each maxillary dental plate is an oblong piece, with a grind- 
ing surface, a convex inner side, and with uie outer side divided 
into six prominent trenchant ridges or prongs, by five notches, 
of which the foremost is the deepest, the others becoming 
shallower posteriorly. The foremost ridge passes to the inner 
border of the tooth, which is likewise somewhat raised. The 
grinding surfiorce has a great number of minute depressions or 
punctuations. The to^ length of a maxillary tooth is li 
inch, and its greatest width i an inch. In form and size the 
mandibulary teeth are very similar to the maxillary, only the 
grinding surface is less uneven. These teeth are andiylosed to 
the bone, and inserted in an oblique direction — the upper teeth 
nearly meet each other in the median line, but there is rather a 
wide inteorspaoe between the lower." Fig. X. is a maxillary 
tooth copiea firom Giinther's monograph, plate XXXIY, fig. 3. 



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110 ok the micboflcopic structure of the 

Discussion. 

The Rev. "W*. B. Clarke, Chairman, said that Dr. Barkas Lad 
studied the Ctenodu9 chiefly from the teeth, and had compared 
these with the teeth of Ceratodus, When he (Mr. Clarke) first 
saw the recent Geradotus he examined the teeth, and pointed out 
to the Curator of the Museum that it was a Ceratodus, referring 
him to the plates in the JPoissons Fossilea of Agassiz. Sir C. W. 
Thomson had also shown him fossil teeth oi Cetatodus found 
embedded in the soil of Queensland. In the Geological Maga- 
zine for 1869 the father of Dr. Barkas had described the teeth 
of various species of Ctenodus found in the Coal Measures of 
Northumberland, and of some of these teeth figures were given 
as shown in the Magazine; vol. VI, produced. 

There was a difierence between Ctenodw and Ceratodus, yet 
they were related. It was a marvellous fact that a fish of such 
antiquity in Europe as Ceratodtis should be found living at the 
antipodes. Mr. Clarke then exhibited to the meeting teeth of 
Ceratodus of several species ^om "Wurtemburg. 



Part II. 

ON THE MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF THE MAN- 
DIBULAR AND PALATAL TEETH OF CTENODUS. 

By W. J. BABKi^, M.R.C.S.E., L.E.C.P.L. 



ISead before the Royal Society of N,8,W., 4 October, 1876.] 



In my last paper I described the external characters of the 
teeth of all the species of this genus that have been discovered, 
and hinted at the classification and probable distribution. To- 
night I shall draw your attention to the minute siructure of the 
teeth, and as I fiDid from my investigations that they possess a 
similar structure in all the species, I shall take C, tuherculatus, 
this species possessing the largest teeth and being the most 
common, as a typical tooth. C. elegans apparently difiers in 
structure but in reality it does not do so, as I shall show in the 
course of my remarks. 

Professor Agassiz, while describing the different species in his 
" Poissons Fossiles" that were known to him at the time of publi- ' 
cation of that great work, refers to the structure of C Bohertsoni 
only, leaving it to be conjectured that it was the only species, he 



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MAKDIBULAB AJH) PALATAL TEETH OP CTEXODFS. Ill 

examined, or that the other teeth had a similar formation ; he 
figures a section magnified a very few diameters, which only shows 
the medullary canius branching and anastomosing in an homo- 
geneous matrix, and such is the opinion the Professor held of the 
minute anatomy, for he distinctly states that there are not any 
calciferous tubules nor canaliculi (sic) permeating the osseous 
part of the tooth. Undoubtedly he was right in pourtraying what 
he saw, but we will see shortly that even with a low power 
dentinal tubules can be easily perceived, and that when they are 
absent it is because of the thinness of the section. 

Professor Owen, in his "Odontography," remarks that the 
texture presents a coarse osseous base supporting a dense osseous 
or enamel-like layer, which statement is very indifferent and 
might be applied to a great number of the teeth of Cestraciont 
genera and species. Many years after the appearance of this 
work. Professor Owen published a booklet entitled " On the 
Denial Characters of Carboniferous Fishes and Batrachia," but 
which was immediately withdrawn from circulation, as it was at 
once seen that every tooth he described and had raised into a new 
genus or species had been known, named, and described years 
previously. Among these so-called new genera was Sa^enodue, 
the species inequalisy the description of which was accompanied by 
beautifully coloured lithographs, but neither the letter-press noV 
the figures differed in one essential point from the account of 
Cten<Su8 structure as published by Messrs. Hancock and Atthey 
in the " Annals of Natural History" and the " Transactions of the 
Northumberland and Durham Natural History Society." 

A somewhat brief description of the minute structure of these 
teeth was given by Messrs. Hancock and Atthey in a paper entitled 
'' Notes on the Bemains of some £ep tiles and Eishes from the 
Shales of the Northumberland Coal Field," which appeared in the 
3rd volume of the above " Transactions" ; they took G, cristatus 
for their purpose ; they, however, did not figure the structure. 

Mr. T. P. Barkas does not refer to the microscopical characters 
in any of his writings on this subject, but he gives coloured litho- 
graphs of them in the " Atlas" accompanying his " Coal Measure 
Palaeontology." 

This is aU the literature bearing upon this portion of my paper, 
and it will be seen that it is too meagre for purposes of com- 
parison ; the figures, however, of Agassiz and Barkas are excellent 
considering the low powers they employed. As I have said, the 
structure of the teeth of Gtenodi is similar in detail whatever 
species may be taken, but undoubtedly they can be made to 
dimer markedly to all appearance by cutting sections in different 
situations and directions, but when a section of a tooth of one 
species is compared with an exactly similar cutting of the tooth 
of another these differences disappear. 



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112 ON THE MICE08C0PIC BTEUCTtrBE OF THE 

But before entering into the microscopical ttructure I wish to 
quote Dr. Ounther's remarks on a vertical section of a tooth of 
tkratodusy as the characters he describes are identical with those 
of a tooth of C. tubfircuUOua, C, cruiatm, &c. " In a vertical 
section of one of the grinders it is seen that the real depth of the 
tooth (that is, that portion which is formed bj .dentine) is much 
less than it appears from a merely outward inspection. It rests, 
in fact, on an elevated plateau of the dentary bone, which has 
exactly the same outlines as the tooth itsc^, and the substance of 
which passes so gradually into that of the tooth that it is only 
by the difference in the shade of colour that the boundary between 
osseous base and dentinal crown is indicated. This anchylosis, 
however, is limited to the circumference of the base of the tooth ; 
for its central parts are separated from the bone by the extennve 
but shallow pulp-cavity. We must remember that our specimens 
of living OeraMut are by no means aged individuals, certainly 
much smaller and younger than those gigantic individuals of 
extinct species must have been, of which teeth two and more inches 
long are preserved. In such fossU teeth no pulp-cavil^ is visible, 
but the dentine passes into the bone across tne whole base of the 
tooth. It is not at all iinprobable that the pulp-cavity disi^pears 
altogether with a^.'* The last remark concerning there not 
being any pulp-cavity in the teeth of fossil Oeraiodi certainly does 
not apply to the teeth of Otmodi, for I have examined vertical 
sections of teeth of C iubereulatua that displayed just fw distinct 
pulp-cavities as we see in similar sections of the teeth of Oerm- 
todus Mnteri, and others again that exhibited no trace of such 
spaces. Dr. Oiinther's hint as to the presence or absence of a 
pulp-cavitv being an indication of age is, in my opinion, 
undoubtedly true when applied to the teeth of Otenodu$, 

A vertical section of C tubercuUAus taken either from before 
backwards, or from side to side, when slightly magnified, shows 
that the osseous tissue of the tooth is eicee<ungty freely permeated 
by medullary canals, which are very large in cUameter, and which 
branch and anastomose with each other frequently but yet in a 
very irregular manner, so that the tissue presents an appearance 
of a network of vessels, the meshes of which vary much 
m size. Though this is the aspect observed in a brief glance, 
a closer inspection makes evident that there is a tendency 
of the canals towards a certain course, and towards a regular 
method of branching also, in some parts of the tooth ; for the 
arrangement of these tubes varies according as to whether we 
examine the base, or plate as it is usually termed, or the ridges 
with their tubercles. We have in these two parts fundamental 
dJ^erences of structure, apart from the characters of the canala, 

ifi^^u® P?f »®s™g certam features found in true bone structure, 
wniie the ndges present characteristics that are purely dental. 



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MANBIBULAB AND PALATAL TBETH OP CTKNODUS. 113 

The i)ase or plate when cut verticallj and examined under 
moderate powers, presents large canals traversing the * bony sub- 
stance, and which gives off branches at all sorts of angles. These 
branches vary slightlv in length, but they are always short and 
soon imastomose with each other. The irregular branching and 
ready inosculation, combined with the fact that the diameters of 
the branches are quite as great as those of the main vessels from 
which they arise, cause the base to appear riddled with an 
irregular open network of vessels ; nor aoes this character alter 
when the Imse is taken horizontallv, thus showing that the canals 
at this point have not any particular course. The proportion of 
bone tissue to canals is about equal. The canals in this part of 
the tooth do not give off any ramuscles to penetrate the osseous 
substance. The bone, however, is supplied with nutriment by 
means of lacunsB. These lacunsB, or bone-ceUs, are characteristic 
of true bone ; but in tibis tissue they differ from those of true 
bone in their form and arrangement. They are numerous, and are 
not arranged in concentric circles round the canals, but are dis- 
persed throughout the bony tissue in an irregular fashion. In size 
1^ bone-celk are lai^e, and present more of a reptilian character 
than of a piscine. Jui a vertical section the lacun» have an 
exceedingly elongated form, the long diameter being frequently 
parallel witii the course of the medullary canals they accompany ; 
btit oflen they lie without any such order. When cut transversely 
through the centre the cells assume an almost circular form. The 
bone-cells vary somewhat in length and breadth. All the lacunae 
^ve off canahculi, which ramify in the osseous substance, and 
moseulate with canaliculi springing from neighbouring lacuns 
or else empty themselves into the adjoining canal. In order to 
examine these lacun» with their canaliculi, it is not necessary to 
U8e4iigh powers on account of their size, but they are often 
absent in sections, this being due to the cuttings having been made 
too thin, and the kcun» ground away altogether. The bone 
tissue is homogeneous, no structure being observable under any 
power of the microscope. 

As we follow the network of medullary canals to the upper 
snr&ce of the plate we find that it gr^ually assumes a more 
regular appearance from the canals becoming smaller in diameter 
and pursuing a more vertical course near the junction of the 
plate with the ridges ; the network slowly changes and becomes 
obliterated. This alteration is caused by the branches that are 
given off by the main canals arising at a more and more acute 
angle, and pursuing a more and more vertical course, thus 
necessitating anastomoses of the branches with each other at 
higher points than their places of origin — ^the branches still pre- 
sent a similar diameter to the parent canals. The bone tissue at 
the same time becomes more and more out of proportion to the 



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114! 03^ THE MTCBOSCOPIC STBrCTVBE OF THE 

canals, that is, it increases in quantity, but the addition is never 
in great excess, the sections, whetner vertical or transverse, 
always having an open structure. The bone substimce still 
remains hgrnogeneous, but it often presents a laminated appear- 
ance immediately surrounding the canals ; lacunas are to be 
seen, but they are much smaller, more roimded, and few and far 
between. 

On a level with the bases of the ridges, the network character 
of the medullary system is quite lost, and the structure of the 
ridges and tubercles presents a totally different arrangement 
from that of the base; -when a low magnifying power is employed 
for observation the change seems to be sudden. The canals are 
now much decreased in diameter, run in a somewhat vertical 
manner, give off branches at a very acute angle, which anastomose 
with each other very freely after pursuing a short vertical and 
oblique course. From these causes, a section when examined 
appears filled with very short vertical tubes, as is portrayed in 
Fig. X., which is a vertical section of a tubercle of C. tuberculatm 
magnified 2Q diameters. The osseous substance immediately 
surrounding the medullary canals is laminated, and the concentric 
rings are darker in tint than the unlaminated portion of the 
tissue ; the whole, however, is homogeneous, and the lacunse have 
disappeared. From the canals spring numerous dentinal tubules, 
which run a very short course and branch once or twice on their 
way in a dichotomous manner. The tubules of one canal 
inosculate by their terminal branches with those of a neighbour- 
ing canal, and they also undoubtedly anastomose with the 
tubules adjoining that arise from the same main vessel. These 
tubules are often not visible in sections, sometimes from the 
Canada balsam, which has often the same degree of refrangibility 
as the fossil substance, permeating them, but more frequently 
they have been ground away in attempting to make a thin 
section. Fig- XI. represents a portion of a medullary canal cut 
vertically, and shows the laminated character of the osseous tissue 
adjoining, and the tubules springing from the canal as seen 
under a magnifying power of 250 diameters. The structure 
I have just described is present throughout the ridges and 
tubercles. 

Immediately external to this tubular portion of the ridges 
and tubercles on the upper surface of the tooth is a thin layer of 
dense tissue, unpermeated by the medullary canals or their tubub\ 
and apparently without structure. When an unworn tooth is 
examined there is perceived external to the above dense layer a 
coat of ganoine or fish enamel, which is also structureless; this 
covering, however, is rarely seen, for it appeiars to have been very 
easily worn away by the friction which trituration of hard sub- 
stances with teeth like these would cause. 



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MANDIBULAR AND PALATAL TEETH OF CTEKODUS. 115 

It only remains for me to notice (7, elegana. On account of the 
extreme thinness of the plate of the tooth of this fish, it is impos- 
sible to cut vertical sections similar to those we have employed in 
observing the structure of the teeth of the other species of 
Otenodus, Even in taking transverse sections, it matters not how 
carefully one may attempt to make them, it is also impossible to 
cut below all the tubercles, which are large compared to the size 
of the tooth ; we have, therefore, an appearance presented to us 
of bulbous ridses ; in Fig. XIT, however, the first ridge has been 
taken pretty rairly, the bulbous aspect only appearing near its 
apex. In a section like this we still find the two varieties of 
structure that we noticed in C. tvberculatus ; Fig. XII, however, 
does not exhibit the network character of the medullary canals 
in the base of the plate of the tooth ; but I have observed that ' 
feature in other specimens that have been more fortunately 
ground ; it does illustrate, though, the vertical tendency of the 
course of the canals in the upper part of the plate and in the 
ridges and tubercles, for both Figs. XII and XIJI show them cut 
tn&nsversefy across as they were proceeding towards the upper 
surface. From these canals dentinal tubules are given ofi* wnich 
ramify in the clear osseous tissue that is observable in the centre 
of each tubercle. The peculiar radiate form of the bone substance 
in the centre of the tubercles is due to the medullary canals 
grooving the mass on their course upwards, leaving processes of 
clear transparent bone between them. External to the medullary 
formation we have the layer of dense tissue, and covering that, in 
unworn specimens, there is a coat of enamel. 



Fart III. 

ON THE VOMERINE TEETH OF CTENODUS. 
By W. J. Babkas, M.E.C.S.E., L,E.C,P.L. 

ISead before the Royal Society of N.8.W., 1 November, 1876.] 



In the spring of 1874 I discovered two teeth in the shale of the 
Low Main Coal Seam in the Carboniferous formations of North- 
umberland, that were quite new to me and to all Coal Measure 
pftlffiontologists to whom I submitted them, and in none of the 
numerous works to which I then had access were there any 

K 



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116 ON THE TOMEEINE TEETH OF CTENODUS. 

figures or descriptions of fossil teeth at all similar, either in their 
external form or in their internal structure ; the teeth that most 
nearly resembled them were certain varieties of Fetalodus 
described and figured in Newberry and Worthen's Geological 
Survey of Illinois, U.S. One palaeontologist whose knowledge 
of fossil fish teeth is second to none, submitted that they might 
be a variety of JPefalodus, for in many respects their external 
characters agreed with those of some teeth of that genus 
discovered in America. So far as the outer appearances were 
concerned I inclined to agree with this judgment, but when 
I had made a microscopical examination I saw that in structure 
at least, these teeth differed very much from the minute anatomy 
of Petalodi teeth ; I, therefore, provisionally only, named these 
new dental organs as pertaining to a fish of the genus Petalo- 
dopsi*, and gave them as a specific name mirahilisy on account of 
the structure. A description of the external characters and the 
internal structure appeared in " The Monthly Review of Dental 
Surgery," for May, 1874, as one of a series of papers I was 
publishing therein " On the Microscopical Structure of Fossil 
Teeth from the Northumberland True Coal Measures.*' 

These two teeth were discovered on separate pieces of shale, 
and were unaccompanied by any other remains, I, therefore, in 
the above paper, hinted that Fetalodopsis was probably a Selachian ; 
I also mentioned, however, that one of the features of the 
internal structure was unlike any structure that I had seen in 
the teeth of anv fossil fishes, labyrinthodonts, reptiles, or 
mammals, while the rest of the characters of the minute anatomy 
closely resembled those of the mandibular and palatal teeth of 
Ctenodus. As I had not at that time seen Ceratodus nor read 
Dr. Gunther's paper, I did not receive the hint that the latter 
observation might have given me, viz., that the strange teeth 
that I had named provisionally as Fetalodopsis mirdbUis were 
really the incisor or vomerine teeth of Ctenodu*. It was 
reserved for Mr. T. Atthey to make this ^observation, which he 
did in the " Annals and Magazine of Natural History,'' for May, 
1875, in a paper " On the Articular Bone and supposed Vomerine 
Teeth of Clenodus ohliqum'' ; he therein' says — " On a thin slab of 
shale from Newsham (this is the pit from which I obtained my 
specimens) in my possession, and which measures 5 by 3i inches, 
are seen imbedded one rib, several bones of the head, fragments 
of scales, and what I take to be right and left vomerine teeth of 
Cfenodusy He then briefly describes the teeth, and closes his 
remarks by stating that " the microscopic structure of these teeth 
corresponds exacthr with that of the maxillary teeth of Ctenodu9. 
I possess about a dozen other specimens believed to be vomerine 
teeth of Ofenodtis, in close proximity on the same slabs to the 
bones of the head and teeth of Otenodu9*' Mr. Atthey's 



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ON THE TOMEBINE TEETH OF CTENODUS. 117 

statement concerning the structure, we will see hereafter, is not 
altogether correct. Accompanying the above-quoted paper were 
illustrations of the Tomerine teeth, which do not differ from those 
I had figured a year previously. Mr. Atthey does not state why 
he supposes these teeth to belong to Gtenodus but he leaves it to 
be inferred that his belief is funded upon discovering them 
often accompanied with undoubted remains of Cienodus^ nor 
has any other proof than this been yet obtained ; still, knowing as 
we do that Gtenodus is similar in its details to Ceratodus, we are 
justified in supposing that it also possessed vomerine teeth. 
Ctenodus is also very closely allied to hipterus, and Dr. Q-unther 
considers that he has evidence to show that the latter fish 
possessed* vomerine teeth, for he has found a head with fang 
cavities situated just where the incisor teeth should have been ; 
the vomerine teeth of Dipterus, however, have never been dis- 
covered. Should this statement of Dr. Griinther be correct, it is 
rendered more probable that Gtenodus was armed with similar 
oral appendages. To the facts that these petaloid- shaped teeth are 
found associated with remains of Gtenodus, that the allied fishes 
Ceratodus and Dipterus have vomerine teeth, we must add that 
they have a certain degree of resemblance in form to the known 
incisor teeth of Geratodus which are thus described by Dr. A. 
Gunther: — "The vomerine teeth are broad and rather low laminae 
with a convex and trenchant margin, the outer or posterior part of 
which slightly serrated. Each lamina is 13 millims long, and in 
the middle 5 millims deep. They are inserted in an oblique 
direction to the longitudinal axis of the vomer, and meet in the 
middle at a right angle ; being implanted in cartilage, they are 
slightly movable." 

A vomerine tooth of Gtenodus " presents some rather peculiar 
characteristics ; it is 2-5ths of an inch in height, about the same 
dimensions from side to side at the broadest part, which is near 
the superior border, and 3-lOths of an inch in thickness at the 
lower portion of the base. The tooth presents two portions, a 
crown and a base, which 'are only distinctly separated on the 
posterior surface ; I shall not, therefore, describe them separately, 
but take the tooth as a whole. The posterior surface (Fig. XIV) 
is somewhat triangular in shape, with the apex pointing down- 
wards ; it is concave from above downwards, the concavity being 
most pronounced near the lower border of the tooth, where the 
apex of the triangle is bent backwards rather abruptly; the 
upper portion of this surface is smooth, shining, and minutely 
pitted ; the lower is irregularly pitted, the depressions being 
comparativelyWarge, the raised portions round the pits give this 
part of the surfoce a coarsely reticulated as well as pitted 
appearance. The anterior surface (Fig. XVI) is divided into a 
crown and a base ; the crown is convex from above downwards 



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118 OK THB TOMBEnTE^TEETH OF CTEKODTTS. 

and slightly so from side to side, the vertical convexity being 
most marked where the crown- rises from the base ; the sur&ce 
is smooth, shining, and covered with minute pores ; the base 
is concave vertically and convex from side to side ; it is 
rough, from the large punctations and the coarse reticulation ; 
this surface of the base is triangular, and the apex is pointed 
downwards and curved forwards, giving the base, in a side view, 
the appearance of a heel (Fig. XV) or process protruded from the 
back of the tooth proper, as in the teeth of Janassa, but in this 
case a bony mass timtes the anterior and posterior points and 
mi^es the whole a solid osseous base. The superior border is 
convex from side to side, and ends at one extremity very suddenly 
as though a portion had been broken away^ which is not .the case, 
this being a genuine character of the tooth ; there are five 
denticles on tins margin, those on the most rounded portion being 
the best defined; the denticles resemble broad, flattened tuber- 
cles, with a smooth and shining sur&ce. 

" In the base the vascular canals are very numerous, and run 
apparently at right angles to the vertical axis of the tooth; 
those near the inferior border are larger than those near the 
junction of the base with the crown, the decreaee in size being 
gradual, the variation in diameter being from irJoth to eSi^th 
of an inch ; the canals at the inferior border are patent, and at 
the superior border are continuous with those of the crown ; 
those that extend to the external surfaces remain open, not being 
closed in by dentine or ganoine. Branching occurs freely, the 
branches being given off apparently at all angles ; a vertical 
section of the base has, therefore, somewhat of a reticulated 
appearance (Fig. XVIII). The tissue between the vascular 
canals is homogeneous, and is not arranged around them in con- 
centric layers; the proportion of tissue to the sum of the 
diameters of the canals is nearly equal, that is, the tissue 
situated between two canals is on an average about equal to the 
diameter of one of the canals. From all the medullary canals 
spring numerous calcigerous tubules, which branch and inosculate 
very freely ; the branches arising from the same trunk anasto- 
mosing with each other and with the branches from neighbour- 
ing systems; besides this frequent anastomosis the -branches 
are freely interlaced one with the other, so that it is difficult to 
examine their arrangement, and it renders the tissue of the inter- 
spaces dark and cloudy ; the course of those that can be examined 
satisfactorily is observed to be short and wavy. The average 
diameter of the tubules at their origins is about ^o^tfTrth of an 
inch. • 

" In the crown the canals are «till numerous, and though they 
are continuous with those in the base, they have undergone 
certain marked changes in their course, &c., the change occurring 



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OK THE YOMEBINE TEETH OP CTENOBtTfl. 119 

at the junction of the base with the crown ; their course is now 
directly parallel to the vertical axis of the tooth, ancl they are 
almost parallel to each other ; branching still occurs, but not so 
frequently as in the base, and the brancnes are given off at a 
more acute angle. This arrangement of the- canals gives the 
crown the appearance of being composed of a series of upright 
tubes (Fig. aViI) when a vertical section is examined under a low 
power. The canals are smaller in diameter than those in the 
base and also more uniform in size throughout their course, the 
average' diameter being whsth of an inch. They are open on all 
the external surfaces, this giving rise to the pitted appearance 
thereon. The tissue between the canals is homogeneous and not 
laminated, and thcry are in about equal proportions. From all 
the canals arise calcigerous tubules, which are short and run a 
straight course ; they branch frequently, and the terminal 
branches anastomose with those from the nearest vascular canals. 
The intermediate branches inosculate with others given off by the 
same trunk or with those arising from neighbouring tubiiles, but 
which spring from the same canal. Th^ measure - at their 
origin about T^'^th of an inch in diameter and the minute 
branches average about ^TriTTDth of an inch, but the extreme 
terminal branches can only be observed under a power of 600 
diameters ; they have, therefore, an exceedingly small, almost 
immeasurable, diameter. Fig. XIX gives an excellent illustration 
of the method of branching pursued by these tubules." I may 
observe that this arrangement is totally different from that of 
any tooth structure that I have investigated under the micro- 
scope, whether fossil or otherwise. " The tubules arise by a 
comparatively large trunk, which immediately gives off from all 
sides a number of short fine tubules, some of which are larger 
and longer than the others. These larger branches in their turn 
give off minute branches in the same manner as the parent stem ; 
the trunk of the tubule after proceeding a short distance divides 
into two main branches, which give off two sets of tubules like 
the main portion of the tubule. This process of double division 
goes on until anastomosis takes place with the terminal branches 
of a tubule from a neighbouring canal. Each tubule and its 
main branches divide dichotomously. Although the figure I 
have exhibited shows the peculiar structure very lairly, it requires 
at least 600 diameters to do so perfectly, and even imder that 
high power it requires a trained eye to detect the minute branches 
dividing once again. I cannot better express in words the 
peculiar method of branching of the tubules and the main 
branches than by remarking that they are * feathered.' " 

Such is the account 1 gave of a vomerine tooth of Ctenodua in 
my pi^rs to the "Monthly Eeview of Dental Surgery'' for 
May and June, 1874 ; but at that time I considered it to be a 



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120 ON THE DENTAL BONES OF CTENODU0. 

new tooth, which I provisionally named Petalodopsis. Through 
the kindness of Mr. "W. Macleay, wJio supplied me with two 
vomerine and two palatal teeth, I have had the opportunity of 
examining the structure of the vomerine teeth of Ceratodus 
under the microscope. I made a vertical section, and was pleased 
to find that the fundamental structure was similar to that which 
I have just described. Still there are marked points of difference, 
for in Ceratodus the tissue is greater in quantity than the sum 
of the diameters of the canals, and the calcigerous tubules are 
not feathered, but they do branch as we observed the tubules in 
the palatal and mandibular teeth of Cienodus to do. Exter- 
nally also the incisor teeth of Cienodus and Ceratodus are 
essentially similar, both being evidently constructed to answer 
the same purpose. In minutiae, however, there are differences 
by which one could easily distinguish the one from the other. 

Judging from the anatomical, microscopical, and pal»on to- 
logical evidence before us, we can have little doubt concerning 
the teeth I have just described. They pertain to Cienodus, and 
80 far as we have progressed in the descriptions of the different 
parts of Cienodus the evidence is strengthened that Cienodus is 
closely allied to Ceratodus, 



Part IV. 

ON THE DENTARY, ARTICULAR, AND PTERYGO- 
PALATINE BONES OF CTENODUS. 
By W. J. Babkas, M.E.C.S.E., L.R.C.P.L. 



[Read before the Royal Socieiy of N,S,W,, 1 November, 1876.] 



We have now to leave those characters of this fish that are 
strictly dental, and enter upon the description of the different 
parts of its osseous structure, or rather, of those parts of it that 
are known to us, for a portion of the endo-skeletou has yet to be 
discovered, and necessarily many parts will not have been 
capable of f ossilization. In the previous portions of this series 
of papers I showed that, in the external characters of the teeth of 
Cienodus and also in their structure, there were many points of 
resemblance to the dental features of Ceratodus, To-night I 
intend to speak of the dental bones, more especially, pointing 
out their osteological characters, and incidentally I shall draw 
attention to the dental arrangements. We will then see that 
even in these points the similarity is pretty closely carried out 
between Cienodus and Ceratodus, 



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OW THE BEITTAL BONES OP CTEKOBUS. 121 

The mandible or dentaiy bone is comparatiTely frequently 
discorered in the shales of the True Coal Measures of Northum- 
berland, but no jaw has been brought to light in any other for^ 
mation so far as my knowledge extends, and in all cases the 
tooth is found still attached to it. In those cases where teeth 
are discovered unconnected with the mandible (a frequent occur- 
rence) OP pterygo-palatine bone, they show evident traces that 
they were once anchylosed to the bone, in fact, we saw when 
examining the teeth microscopically that the osseous structure 
of the bone gradually merged into the true dental tissue. Mr. 
Atthey, in a paper that appeared in the Trans. Northd. and Dur- 
ham Nat. Hist. Socy. vol. iv, states that he has obtained the dentary 
bones of Otenodus tuberculatus, C, crittatus, C, ohliquuSy C. elegans, 
C. imhricatm, but I myself have only had the opportunity of 
examining the mandibles of the first and third species named 
above ; this want of observation is, however, of no moment, as 
Mr. Atthey distinctly states that the variation in form is very 
slight, being mostly one of degree in size. Mr. T. P. Barkas, 
F.G.S., records in different periodicals his discoveries of mandi- 
bles, and figures one in his book " Coal Measure Paleontology," 
but Mr. Atthey, in conjunction with the late Mr. Hancock, were 
the principal authors on the different parts of the endo-skeletoii 
of Otenodus, and as their remarks are generally exact, I shall 
employ their words, for my descriptions could only be similar in 
regard to the facts. "In Ctenodus" {obliqutis) the ramus is a 
stoutish bone, flattened vertically, with the upper margin turned 
over towards the external surface to give support to thelarge dental 
plate ; it is therefore channelled on the outer surface and some- 
what convex on the inner. The posterior extremity projects 
backwards beyond the dental plate a little more than half the 
length of the latter, and is for the greater part occupied by the 
glenoid surface, which extends from the upper margin, and is a 
deep, wide, circular notch, inclining backwards and downwards. 
In front the symphysial surface is straight, extending the whole 
depth of the ramus, and is grooved transversely. The dental 
plate is about two-thirds the entire length of the ramus, and is 
placed nearer the symphysis than the posterior extremity. The 
ramus is upwards of 3 inches in length, and including the thick- 
ness of the dental plate, is an inch deep." Fig. XX pourtravs 
the inner surface of the dentary ; the dental plate resting on the 
upper border; the symphysis; and the glenoid notch. Y\^. XXI 
exhibits the other surface with the dental plate overhanging. I 
may explain that these figures are copies of drawings published 
by Mr. Atthey. I am not able to give original dra^vings, as my 
specimen was destroyed on mj travels. From the above des- 
cription it will be seen that each mandible possesses only one 
tooth, but Mr. T. P. Barkas, in a letter to the "Scientific 



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122 ON THE DENTAL BONES OF CTENODUfl. 

Opinion" or the " English Mechanic," I am not now sure to which 
nor have I access to them to find out, but in that letter he 
remarks that he has evidence to show that in one case at least 
the mandible and maxillary bones had each two teeth ; however 
this may be, it is the general, if not universal rule, that each of 
these bones carry only one tooth. Putting aside the exceptional 
example mentioned by Mr. T. P. Barkas, no marked difference 
can bo observed between this ftiandible and the mandible or 
dentary bone of Ceratodus ; the similarity is carried further, in 
that both these genera have the lower jaw composed of two 
osseous portions, an inner or dentary bone and an outer or 
articular bone, which in the modem fisn are held together by an 
intervening mass of cartilage and were presumably so united in 
the palaeozoic fish. It was only recently that the articular 
bone was discovered, or rather, the bone had been found 
some time by Mr. Atthey, but he did not recognize it until 
he had had the opportunity of examining the articular bone 
of Oeratodus. In 1874 he verified his belief, for he dis- 
covered two specimens of the mandibular arrangement of C. 
obliquuSf in which the dentary and articular bones were in ikeir 
natural positions. These articular bones I have observed in ike 
cabinet of Mr. T. P. Barkas, and I have one in my possession. 
It is this specimen that I pouitray in ¥i^. XXII. In describing 
this bone, Mr. Atthey states that it vanes much in length — as 
much as from i of an inch to 4 inehes ; he then proceeds : — 
'^ The articular bone of Otenodus is of about the same length as 
the inner plate or ramus which bears the teeth, slightly convex 
on the outer surface, and marked by five or six i^rtures for 
vessels ; it is pointed upwards in front like the prow of. a boat. 
Its posterior border presents two scallops, the upper being some- 
what larger than the lower, which extends to the posteriorly 
projecting point of the lower border, which is convex; the 
upper sc^dlop ends at a rounded projection, which separates it 
from the upper border. This border presents two shallow con- 
cavities, the anterior occupying the greater part of the border ; 
the posterior has a projection on its inner side, somewhat in the 
form of a bracket, for the support of the teeth of the inner 
plate or ramus." In the bone that I figure there are some 
slight points of dilEerence from the al^ve description, the 
inferior margin is not so curved anteriorly ; the upper concavity ' 
on the posterior border is not so large as the lower one, nor 
does the superior margin present two concavities. With these 
minor exceptions, however, my specimen agrees with his accouat. 

The pterygo-palatine bone (Fig. XXIII.) is aflat bone, situated 
along the front and sides of the roof of the mouth, having its 
antero-posterior diameter much greater than its lateral diameter ; 
its posterior extremity is much more expanded than its anterior. 



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OK tHE BEIfTAL BONES OF CTEFOBTTt. 128 

The anterior extremity is bluntly pointed and projects bejond 
the general body of the bone; from this process the outer 
horde/ runs in a direction outwards and backwards and joins the 
posterior margin in a rounded point; this border is very 
irregular in outline from its alternate concave and convex 
curves, the bends themselves varying much in their degree. The 
posterior border presents two gentle concavities, which join a 
tittle to the inner side of the centre of the margin. The inner 
border presents anteriorly a surface for union with the similar 
portion of the opposing bone ; behind this it forms a broad 
sweeping concavit^ outwards and backwards, and then a slight 
convexi^ just before its junction with the posterior border. 
The under surface bears upon its outer and anterior portion 
the dental plate; which plate projects somewhat beyond the 
bone, more especially at its posterior extremity. When the two 
pterygo-palatme bones are in position they are united anteriorly 
by a long suture, they then diverge widely in their progress 
backwards. In all these points this bone corresponds closely to 
the pterygo-nalatine bone of Cerafodus, with the exception that 
the latter is hardly so expanded posteriorly. The peculiarity of 
this bone (and also that of Geratodus) is that it occupies the 
position of two bones, the palatal and inner pterygoid, and it 
presents greatly the form that would accrue on me union of 
these two bones as they are observed in the fossil fish Dipterus. 
I may remark in passing, that Dipterus possesses many charac- 
ters in common with CfenodiM and Ceratodus, more particu- 
larly as r^ards its teeth ; but in the formation of its upper jaw 
there are, as I have remarked, two distinct bones which are 
united by a suture. The form of this bone in Ctenodus and 
Ceraiodw, and the fact of the similarity that it has to the 
united palatine and pterygoid bones of Dipterusy conclusively 
prove that Dr. Giinther was right in his conjechire that these 
two bones have been merged into one in the case of Ceratodut^ 
and, as Mr. Atthey first pointed out, in the case of Ctenodus, 

As I have not a ptery^o-palatine bone with me at present, I 
have had to trespass agam upon the drawings of my fnend, Mr. 
Atlhey. The engraving appeared in vol. iv of the Transactions 
of the Northumberland and Durham Natural History Society. 



[Platw.] 



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Fig I 



Q 111 



FigV 



Fig VI 




I Ctenodiis Lubercuiaius. Nac. 

II C. obliquus 
ffl C elegana 



12 e 



IV C concavus Nai size 

V C monocerus ,-.,.,,-,,^ 

VI C imbncauia vjQOgJ.L 



L 



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FigVlU 



Fi^VII 



Fig. IX 



'W^ 



Fig.XKI 



C lu^drjuis Nat. size. 



X. Vertical secuonof a lubwrde of C t.uben'iubuis Ma^ ?Ocliar 
XI.Medullai7 caiidl of C Uiberciildtua.vert sect !vl3>:jK^50dijn 
XII C.elegana Trans sect, of Looth Magn 20 diams 

Digitized by V^OOyiCf 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



F.g.XlV 



Fig XV 



k 



Fig.XVI 




!\ 



FjgXVlI 



Fi| 



X'V !nc:3or looih of Cienodus Posierior view XVII. 
XV . . .. side .. XVIII. 

XVi. . , anterior , XIX. 



,. vert secL of crown Magnified 

base 

crown . GOOdiam^ 



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Fig XXll 

(3. 



XXUI. PterygopalaURe bone of Ctenodus Luberculatus. Nat size^lOglC 



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125 



ON THE FORMATION OF MOSS GOLD AND SILVER. 

By Abchibald Litebsidge, 
Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the University of Sydney. 



[Bead before the Royal Society of N.S. W., 6 September, 1876,] 



The origin and mode of occurrence of certain of the metals 
which are found in the free or native state, both in mineral 
veins and disseminated through various rocks, has for some time 
been a question of much interest to me ; nay attention, however, 
has hitherto been directed more particularly to the circumstances 
connected with the occurrence of native gold and of the minerals 
with which it is usually foimd associated ; and it was while per- 
forming an experiment to ascertain, if possible, whether the gold 
which was known to be present in a certain specimen of mis- 
pickel, existed in the crystallized state, or was merely disseminated 
through the mineral in amorphous particles, that I first obtained 
the 'peculiar form of gold which I now have the pleasure to 
exhibit to the Society. 

I have called this remarkable, and to myself hitherto unknown 
artificial form of the metal " moss gold," because in many respects 
it resembles the well-known "moss copper," hence it is convenient 
to use the above term for it ; although it should be stated that 
none of the specimens of gold presented anything like so velvety 
an appearance as that commonly exhibited by moss copper. 

One of the two specimens before me was a rich piece of mis- 
pickel from the Uncle Tom Mine, near Orange, I believe, and 
the other a somewhat richer specimen from Paxton's, or the 
Bampant Lion Mine, Hawkins Hill, obtained from a depth of 
200 feet. Both contained some visible gold, the first only a few 
small specks, but the second was fairly rich in free gold, although 
the amount was not to be compared to that which it now shows. 
Mispickel, I may remark, is a compound of arsenic, sulphur, 
and iron, combined in the following proportions, — 

Iron = 34-4 

Sulphur = 19-6(orFeAs2reSo) 

Arsenic = 46*0 



10000 
The first specimen was roasted in a muffle in order to expel 
the sulphur and arsenic, and my intention then was to dissolve 

V 



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126 ON THE FOEMATION OF MOSS GOLD AND SILVEB. 

out the oxide of iron and to "examine the residual gold for 
crystals or any trace of crystalline structure which might be 
present, as I hoped by the above means to set the gold so 
completely free from tne matrix that I could at once ascertain 
whether it existed in the mispickel in a crystallized form or 
-only in irregular or amorphous lumps and particles. 

On taking the specimen out of the muffle after the whole of 
the arsenic and sulphur had been driven off, I found that the 
surface was studded with small, irregular, more or less rounded 
excrescences of gold, having much tiie appearance and colour of 
small drops of sulphur. On closer examination, and especially with 
the aid of the microscope, the surfaces of these mushroom-like 
growths were seen to be covered with minute capHhury wires 
and branching forms, which in some cases a^ypearea to l>e made 
up of minute uregularly-f ormed crystals. This is more noticeable 
in the second specimen. Some of the cavities in the gold are seen 
to be lined with the most beautiful little spicule of gold, and 
some of the rounded bosses are composed solely of such spiculcB, 
interlaced into a ball-like form. Miuiy of these capillary wixtes 
are curled into most symmetrical and beautiful spirals ; one about 
i to i inch in length and of about ^hf inch in £ameter is coiled 
with the utmost regularity, the piteh of the screw being main- 
tioned uniform throughout its entire length. 

In some eases the mushroom-like growths are seen to be 
supported on but a very slender stem, while others have 
apparently become recumbent from their Weight and have grown 
along the surface. 

It is by no means an uncommon thing to find natural gold in the 
form of capillary threads, which are orten interlace and twisted 
into beautiful and fantastic shapes ; also as thin flakes and scales, 
having a more or less fibrous sur&oe ; and at times in scales 
so exceedingly thin t^t they are not thicker than ordinary gold- 
leaf. Some of the gold from Oura, near "Wagga Wagga, occurs 
in this manner. The best known Australian locality for filiform 
gold is, perhaps, the Upper Cape Eiver, Queensland. 

I should mention, however, that I have never seen or heard of 
any native gold presenting exactly the same kind of appearance 
as the before-described artificially-formed specimens, but certainly 
the latter is at times somewhat similar. 

Origin of the Moss Gold. 

The general appearance of these peculiar cauliflower-like 
excrescences of gold would at first signt tend to give one the 
impression that they had been formed in somewhat the same way 
as the blebs and excrescences often observed on coke, which are . 
so familiar to us in a fire made of so-called bituminous coal — i.e., 
caking coal, in which constantly we see portions of the coal fuse 



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ON TH£ FOBMATIOH OF MOSS GOLD AND SILYEB. 127 

and swell up into fantastic blebs and bladders until the impri- 
soned ^ breaks through the thin skin and inflames with a bril- 
liant light. After the more combustible portions have been 
volatilized and cons.umed, a hard, clinkerj, and more or less 
cauliflower-like excrescence is left. 

But I do not think that we can account for the form of these 
cauliflower masses of gold in a similar way, for the mispickel 
shows no traces of having undergone fusion, neither does the 
gold ; the crystals of mispickel, which by the operation of roasting 
have become converted into oxide of iron, still retain their 
original form, even down to the jagg^ points along the sharp 
spbntery edges of fractured surfaces. Hence it cannot be urgea 
that the gold had merely been left in the form assumed by the fused 
mispickel in the same way that a cauliflower mass or capillary 
thread of coke is left by the escaping gas from a piece of fused 
coal. 

Neither can the gold have been merely squeezed out through 
pores in the matrix by mechanical pressure in the same way that 
clajr is forced through moidds in the manufacture of earthenware 
drainage pipes, for the enclosing matrix of mispickel during the 
operation of roasting becomes comparatively soft and tender. 
Hence it could not well offer sufficient resistance to the expJEinsion 
of the gold to act as a wire draw plate, even if we suppose that 
the gold existed in the form of small pockets of metal, and that 
thwe are the necessary minute apertures and perforations in the 
mispickel through which the expanding gold could make its 
escape. 

And again, the forms exhibited by the gold show that it has not 
been in a fused condition, neither does it appear even to have 
been of a pasty consistency. 

To ascertain whether this remarkable form of gold was fur- 
nished by artificial mixtures of the metal and mispickel, or was 
solely <3onfined to those occurring in nature, a series of experi- 
ments was commenced, and the results obtained satisfactorily 
showed that the same phenomena were presented by certain of 
the artificial mixtures employed. 

Experiment. — 80 grammes of powdered mispickel were fused 
under a film of borax with one gramme of precipitated gold. The 
whole of the gold was apparently taken up by the mispickel, for no 
metallic particles or shot could be detected in the fused mass of 
regultts. The button of regulus was then roasted at a low red 
heat in the muffle ; it fused, but after the whole of the arsenic 
and sulphur had been driven off, the oxide of iron was found to 
be more or less covered with a brown, non-metallic looking cauli- 
flower-shaped mass of gold. On scraping it with the point of a 
knife the unmistakeabte yellow metallic streak of gold was at 
once exhibited. 



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123 ON THE FOBMATION OF MOSS GOLD AKD SILTEB. 
Moss SiLTEB. 

Next a series of experiments was made in order to ascertain 
whether any light would be thrown upon the subject by the 
behaviour ot silver compounds under somewhat similar conditions. 

The first experiment was the reduction of silver chloride, in a 
bulb tube, by the passage of a current of pure dry hydrogen, 
mentioned byDr.Percy,r.E.S., in his great work on ^^ Metallurgy,^'' 
and by other writers. 

The silver chloride was allowed to fuse, but the temperature was 
kept very much below the fusing point of silver, so much so that 
theglass was not even softened. 

The surface of the reduced metal was somewhat mammilated 
and cavernous, and it was found in certain places to be covered 
with minute capillary threads and spiculte oi silver ; the cavities 
also were more or less filled with them. 

Some silver sulphide was prepared in the humid way from 
silver nitrate. Tins was well washed, dried, and transferred to 
a French crucible, and then fused under a layer of borax in an 
ordinary melting furnace. 

The mass of sulphide, weighing about 2 ozs., was then cut iu 
two by means of a large knife and hammer, and one of the t>vo 
parts roasted in a muffle furnace. The piece of silver sulphide 
was placed on a small scorifier just inside the mouth of the 
muffle, where for some time the temperature did not exceed the 
melting point of tin {i.e. about 442° F.) Within a very few 
minutes (between 10 and 15 minutes) after the lump of silver sul- 
phide had been placed in the muffle, beautiful little growths of 
metallic silver were seen to be dotted over its surface, and 
particularly near the upper edges ; the lower portion of the mass, 
to a height of about J inch only presenting one or two points 
of silver at the right-hafld end. This experiment was repeated 
several times with fresh pieces of the silver sulphide. 

The projecting filaments had a most brilliant silver-white 
colour and lustre. 

Th'eir surfaces are strongly striated parallel to the length of 
the filament, and the larger ones are in most cases more or less 
curved or spirally convoluted. Towards the base the majority 
become much thicker, and in one direction they are usually much 
broader than in the other, hence they in this respect somewhat 
resemble blades of grass. 

In certain instances the crystals could almost be seen to 
lengthen — a perceptible increase in length in more than one 
inetance was observed within the space of between one and two 
minutes. 

The crystals seem to increase in length and thickness far more 
rapidly during the first hour than afterwards, and their growth 
does not appear to be materially hastened by urging the tem- 



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ON THK rOBMATIOK OF MOSS GOLD iLNO SILVEK. 129 

pcrature — that between the melting points of tin and zinc 
(770° P.) appeared to be the most favourable. At a higher 
temperature the whole surface of the silver sulphide becomes 
covered equally witka'coat of metallic silver. 

The extrusion of the silver crystals cannot well be caused by 
pressure from without inward, for neither the silver nor the 
silver sulphide undergo fusion or even softening ; neither can 
the production of the filaments be due to the simple and ordinary 
process of reduction by the removal of the sulphur as sulphur- 
ous add gas, otherwise the whole surface of the mass of heated 
and more or less roasted sulphide should be covered with a coat 
of reduced metallic silver, just as when the sulphide is reduced in 
a current of hydrogen gas. But such is not the case ; the extruded 
wires and filaments appear to be rooted in the sulphide, as if 
they pushed their way out from within, and thev usually project 
out at nearly right angles to the surface ot the apparently 
unchanged dark lead-coloured silver sulphide, just as Dr. Percy 
describeiB the formation of silver filaments, from the same com- 
pound under the reducing agency of a current of hydrogen gas. 

It may be that their formation may have been determined by 
the presence of nuclei of some sort, just as in the case of various 
saline solutions. 

On even the most searching examination I cannot detect any 
difference between the filamentous silver thus artificially formed 
and specimens of similar native silver. 

Since making my experiments, I find that De la Beche says, 
in his " Geological Observer," p. 768 : — 

" Artificial sulphuret of silver was found to be readily decom- 
posed by stcAm, and more easily so at a moderate heat. At a 
temperature under the melting point of zinc this was soon 
effected, and the silver effloresced in such forms as to induce Mr. 
Gustav Bischofi* to regard the moss-like and filamentous occur- 
rence of native silver in veins as very probably the result of the 
decomposition of sulphurets." 

Moss Copper, 

It is a well known fact that metallic copper occurs diffused 
through certain kinds of copper regulus, in the form of minute 
angular particles, which do not show the least trace of having 
imdergone fusion ; all the edges of these particles are sharp and 
not in the least rounded, and where cavities occur the metallic 
copper may be seen protruding into them in the form of piinute 
pomts and hair-like threads or filaments. 

Dr. Percy, in speaking of moss copper says* : — ^^ In copper 
works this term is commonly used to designate those accumma- 

• Percy's « Metallurgy," vol. i., p. 859. 



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180 ON. THE FaBAfATIOV OF H0S8 GOLD AlTD SILTEB. 

tions of filamentous or mosB-like copper, which are formed in 
cayities in pigs of certain kinds of regulus. Mr. Edward informs 
me that, in making copper from Cornish ores, moss copper 
seldom appears, but more of it is produced when these ores are 
melted in admixture with a little Irish ore (copper pyrites mixed 
with much iron pyrites) : it occurs most abundantly when foreign 
ores are much used. It is chiefly observed, and in the fin^ 
state, in pimple mefal, when all the cavities are filled with it, and 
it is found protruding from the bottom of the pigs into the sand 
underneath ; sometimes a little of it, strong and wiry to the 
to uch, appears on the upper surface of the pigs. According to 
Mr. Edward, it may be seen in the little prills or shots of mMal 
in the ore slag ; and the surface of the pigs of metal from the 
oaleined metal furnaces are covered with a coating of it, generally 
of a dark colour, and as thick as the nap or pile on velvet. 

" In specimens in my collection the filaments of copper vary in 
size from the finest thread to fibres iV of an inch in mameter, and 
from one of three specimens obtained from a Jine-metal furnaoe 
bottom I have taken separate filaments perfecfly continuous, and 
exceeding 5 inches in length. 

" Under the microscope the filaments present numerous minute 
parallel and longitudinal lines or grooves, as though they counted 
of bundles of extremely delicate fibres. ###♦.**# 

" The mode in which these fibres are produced is an interesting 
subject of inquiry. Each fibre seems to have been pushed, as it 
were, through a draw-plate, and at a temperature when the metal 
was soft, but certainly not exceeding that of well-melted copper, 
for otherwise the fibres immediately after their protrusion would 
have been remelted into globules." Then he goes on to mention 
that " filaments of silver, which, examined under the microscope, 
appear to possess identically the same structure as those of moss 
copper, may be formed by heating finely-divided sulphide of 
silver in a current of hydrogen at a temperature sufficient to 
agglutinate the sulphide, but below the actual melting point of 
silver. This beautiful experiment may be made in a glass tube, 
through which a current of the gas is passed. Long delicate 
fibres of silver may be seen protruding from minute rounded 
masses of the sulphide ; and as they are produced while these 
masses are in a soft state, and lying free m the tube, the idea 
that they result from the application of external mechanical 
pressure in a similar manner to maccaroni, can hardly be enter- 
tained. 

" There seems to be a force in operation at the base of each 
filament, which causes the particles of silver at the moment of 
liberation successively to arrange themselves in one continuous 
fibre or series of fibres ; or, in other words, each filament grows, 
as it were, from a root imbedded in sulphide of silver." 



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ON THE FOBMAIION Of H0S8 GOLD AND SILYEB. 131 

Experiment. — I placed some lumps of native copper disulphide 
{^RedruUiite) in a hard-glass bnlb tube, heated and passed current 
of hydrogen gas. After the experiment the whole surface of the 
mineral was foimd to be thickly covered with a nap of acicular 
filaments of copper. No traces of fusion were exhibited. 

Dr. Percy also shows by a series of experiments that metallic 
copper is separated in a similar way by simply fusing some copper 
disulphide (CU2S.) in a crucible. And he further states that 
there is at present no certain knowledge of the cause which 
brings this aoout. 

The foregoing results obtained bv different eminent scientific 
obsen'ers, together with* those yielded by my own experiments, 
afTord, I think, some very interesting information, much important 
matter for reflection, and a large field for future experiment. 

The conditions under which the formation of crystals have been 
oBserved may be briefly stated to be comprised by the following 
divisions; ».tf., crystalbzation takes place under the following 
conditions : — 

Methods by which crystallization may he produced. 

1. By CONDEIfSATION FEOM A STATE OF TAPOVB. 

2. FbOM SOLrTIOK. 

8. FhOM a STATE OF FrSIOIf. 

4. By ELECTROXTSIS. 

5. By "spoyTANEora** CHANGE. 

6. By thebmo-eedijction. 

1. Condensation of a substance from a state of vapour — e.g., 
iodine, arsenic, water vapour yielding snow and hoar-frost. 

2. Orvstallization from solution. — As when crystals of a salt are 
obtainea by the evaporation of its solvent; and as when a solution 
of sulphur in carbon* disulphide is allowed to evaporate spon- 
taneously, beautiful crystals of sulphur are left. . 

3. On solidification from a state offrision. This is commonly 
seen when metals such as bismuth, antimonv, and others are 
allowed to solidify slowly. Beautifully crystallized examples of 
sudi metals and of sulphur may be readily obtained in the fol- 
lowing way : — Melt a consideraDle quantity of the substance in a 
crucible or ladle, and when a thin coat has formed over the 
surface by cooling, pierce the crust and pour out the still 
fluid contents as quickly as possible. A large part of the metal 
or sulphur, as the case may be, will be left lining the inside pf 
the crucible in the form of most beautiful groups of crystals 
with sharply defined ed^es and angles, and not as the rounded 
imperfect semifused-looliing bodies that we might naturally 
expect when we consider the density and viscosity of the fluid 
in which they were formed and by which they were bathed. 



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132 ON THE FOBHATION OF H088 GOLD AND 8ILTEB. 

4. Crystallization ly Electrolysis. When solutions of the salts 
of the heavier metals are submitted to the action of electric cur- 
rents, they undergo decomposition, and the metal whicj^ is 
deposited at the ne^tive pole is usually more or less cirstallized. 
A current of low mtensity, cateris paribus, seems to favour the 
formation of well-developed crystals. The reduction of a metallic 
solution by a more electro-positive element may probably be 
classed under this head, as stannic chloride by zinc, or silver 
nitrate by lead, and so on. 

5. Spontaneous Crystallization, as it is usually termed, <?.y., 
the gradual passage of amorphous plastic sulphur into the crys- 
talline state, also the similar change undergone by barley sugar. 
Many well known chemical precipitates apparently undergo 
spontaneously a similar change. Again, the gradual conversion 
of tough fibrous wrought iron into nard brittle iron with short, 
grain, by repeated concussion and vibration, seems to be a variety 
of crystallization ; certainly a great molecular change has taken 
place— but this matter requires further investigation. Then we 
have the passage of bloclts of tin, which had been exposed to 
intense cold, from the malleable and non-crystalline to a fibro- 
crystalline and brittle state,— in fact, so brittle does the tin 
become that it more or less completely falls to powder. 

The devitrification of glass may also be here mentioned. 

6. CrysfalUzntion by thermo-reduction. I think that we may safely 
regard the forms exhibited by the artificially produced moss 
metals as varieties of crystalline forms, and with as much reason 
as the mineralogist assigns a place for the similar natural forms 
amongst crystals ; the arborescent and other group forms assumed 
by native metals can be traced from normal and primary forms, 
such as of the octohedron and rhombic dodekahedron through 
various degrees of elongation and attenuation until we arrive at 
tlie filiform and capillary threads, a number of which aggregated 
together give in the velvet or plush-like mass of moss copper or 
other me^. Moreover, some portions of the gold reducea from 
the mispickle showed branching and arborescent groups which 
had all the appearance of elongated dodekahedra pEiced end to 
end in no. way differing from natural specimens except in 
minuteness and perhaps greater brilliancy of lustre. 

But these crystals have been produced by a process differing 
considerably from the methods enumerated in the first five 
divisions ; hence the necessity for forming the sixth and last group. 

The artificially prepared moss metals are produced by a pro- 
cess of reduction, aided neither by vaporization, solution, fusion, 
or electrolysis, neither are they produced " spontaneous^^," but 
they are prepared by the aid of a heated re-agent. Hence I 
have for convenience ventured to form a special class, i.e.^ 
crystallization by thermo-reduction. 



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OK THE FOBMATIOK OF MOSS GOLD AKB BILTEB. 18B 

This matter is, of course, very closely connected with the 
ordinary metallurgical processes of reducnon, but in such manu- 
facturing operations no effort is made to obtain the metal in the 
crystallized state ; on the contrary, it is the practice to favour the 
conversion of the metal into the liquid state as speedily as possible. 

Although, perhaps, there may be no true analogy between the 
two cases, still it would be very interesting to calculate the 
amount oi force requisite to produce the crystals, supposing 
that they had been mechanicadly pulled out like wires through a 
draw plate, or had been squeezed out through moulds similar to 
lead tubing. 

I hope at some future date to be in a position to supplemont 
the foregoing preliminary notes upon a question which is of 
great interest and importance in the chemical geology of mineral 
veins and deposits, wnen the iseries of experiments at present in 
hand are somewhat nearer completion. 

Discussion. 

The Chairman said he could have brought some specimens of 
quartz in which the gold was fexactly in the form of wire. In 
one case this wire was in the form of a true lover's knot. He 
was sure what they had heard to-night would lead to the explana- 
tion of some very curious phenomena. It had been said that 
volcanic heat melted gold from some previous condition. Now 
we know that some of our volcanic rocks could not have been at 
a great heat. In Victoria volcanic rocks lie upon vegetable 
matter, which has been only dried, not carbonized. If the quartz 
had been melted, the gold would have been all evaporated. It 
had been found that gold was lost in the Mint, and they wondered 
what had become of il They swept the roof and the chimneys 
and found it there. So in certain lead works there had been 
accomplished a saving of £10,000 a year, by building long 
chimneys curved and extending backwards and forwards over 
some miles length, in which they collected the lead fume which 
had evaporated. * This crystallization at a low temperature 
would explain many things. It remained a mystery how gold 
could be twisted and tied into a knot in the solid quartz where it 
was found. 

Mr. H. 0. BussfiLL said he hoped Frof^sor Liversidge would 
be able to find out how these forms occurred. Crystels form 
out of very complex fluids. Each substance seems to have the 
power of taking to itself in crystallization those particles which 
belong to it, and rejecting those that do not. What we want to 
know is : how does the force of crystallization act ? We know it 
was one of the forces active in forming meteorites from the 
primitive matter, which, according to the theory of La Place, 
once existed in the form of gas. And if the investigation which 



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184 UxN TITK FOUMATION OF MOSS GOLD AJSTD SILTES. 

Professor Liversidge is now carrying on shows us how crystals 
are formed on the earth, it will be one step forward in the 
investigation into the mysteries of nature. 

Mr. Dixon, F.O.S., asked whether.the silver was melted during 
the reduction. Did not the air raise the temperature of 
portion by the combustion of the sulphur ; and would not that 
be sufficient to melt the silver ? 

Pbofbssqb LrvEEsroeB said that the silver presented no trace 
of fusion. The temperature was ascertamed by placing a piece 
of zinc and tin or cadmium close to the spot on wnich the sulphide 
of silver was; so that the two were kept at (he same temperature. 
He did not think the increasing growth of the metal was due to 
the combustion of the combined sulphur. The crystals increased 
at a much greater rate in length and breadth than in thickness. 
The sulphide was reduced to a oletallic state at a heat just 
about that of melting tin. The reduction did not take place 
re^fularly. These silver growths started out from particular 
pomts, and increased in size. It was not a case of mere reduction. 
If it were, they would get the whole surface of sulphide of silver 
equally reduced. The reduction seems to take place capriciously, 
as if the point were determined by some nucleus ; fibres of 
silver stood out from the unreduced surface of the sulphide. 
One could almost see the fibres grow. There was a great cnange 
in a minute. It was generally supposed that the deposits of 
native metal could only nave been formed by electric current or 
by the agency of great heat, perhaps assisted by the vapour of 
water. By tnese experiments it was shown that they could get 
metals in forms not distinguishable from the niftural ones. He 
had in his hand a specimen of quartz containing filiform threads 
of j^old. In most cases the contorted crystals occur in little 
cavities, not in the solid quartz. With regard to volcanic rocks 
only drying the vegetation under them, in the district of Etna 
people depended for their store of ice on the snow covered and 
protected by ashes overlaid by lava. 

Mr. W. J. SxEPHEif 8, M.A., remarked that when lava was run- 
ning the part next the ground was tolerably cool, while what 
came over it was red hot. 

Pbofessob LrvEBSiDOB, in answer to a question, said it did 
not follow from his experiments that the crystahai obtained were 
pure gold. Moss copper is specially pure. Certain inetals might 
perhaps be purified by this process. 

He also stated that he was not at present prepared to put 
forth any very definite and final theory to account tor the forma- 
tion of the moss metals ; the above communication was intended 
merely as a preliminary notice of certain results already obtained 
from a large series of intended experiments now in hand. 



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135 



RECENT COPPER-EXTRACTING PROCESSES. 
By S. L. Beksusatt. 



ISead he/ore the Botfol Society of N.S.TT., 4 October, 1876.] 



Ijt the following paper I propose to make special reference to 
some of the new and improved methods known as " wet " pro- 
cesses for the extraction of copper from its ores. 

Among the new methods which have been introduced, a 
variety of conditions exist, under which one or other has main- 
tained its claims to the possession of some advantages over its 
competitors ; in the main, however, they all aim at the extraction 
of tne metal hj processes requiring the smallest outlay in plant, 
&c., coupled with the minimum expenditure in chemicals and 
labour. Some metallurgists have sought to utilize bye products, 
as an auxiliary to other sources of profit ; some have directed 
their attention to the simultaneous extraction of valuable metals 
sometimes associtlted with copper ores ; a few have studied to 
perfect processes which are only available under certain special 
conditions, wherein the usual methods are not capable of being 
employed ; and in cases where complicated mixtures have existed 
of metals, the extraction of one of which alone would not pay, 
many and ingenious devices have been resorted to, for utilizing 
and turning to profitable account portion^ of the constituents 
of the mineral which hithero have been a source of actual loss. 

In the Australian Colonies the principal considerations which 
appear to suggest themselves, in connection with this subject, 
are, — the adoption of processes which do not necessitate the 
usual large outlay, and the utilization of such as are most 
available for p»articular districts, and to meet special conditions. 
One great desideratum is necessarily to mako the modtis operandi 
80 clear and intelligible that it may be easily understood by most 
persons not possessed of special metallurgic knowledge. In a 
country like this, where the population is so scattered, and in 
which so much metallic treasure is known to exist, it is most 
desirable that a resumS of all that is generally known on the 
subject should be diffused ; and while each inventor or discoverer 
of any new process only aims at the publication of his particular 
views and theories, and doubtless does much good, it is hoped 



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136 SECEKT COPPEB-EXTBACTIKG PBOC£SS£S. 

that a digest of the various plans adopted, a comparison of their 
merits, and an attempt to point out in which particular cases 
their individual excellence consists, may do much good in further- 
ing the development of the Colony's resources. 

It is sought to imp^ress upon mineral explorers that methods 
are available for giving a value to mining property, without 
preliminary large outlay i but it is not intended to imply that, 
after inexpensive proof oi value has been obtained, economy and 
profit may not be oetter attained by the introduction of laoour- 
saving appliances, even at great outlay, though it is urged that the 
large outlay can be deferred until its justification is definitely and 
conclusively demonstrated. 

Beginning with one of the most simple processes, and one with 
which most people are tolerably familiar, that known as the 

SULPHTJEIC A.CID PhOCESS, 

we find that in South Australia, at a mine of some reputation in 
times past, known as the Kapunda, the sulphuric acid process is 
in use for the extraction of copper from an ore containing only 
f of 1 per cent, of metal. But the conditions here are pecuh- 
ariy favourable, inasmuch as the mineral operated upon consists of 
a vast heap of many thousands of tons of debris, or tailings, which 
have already passed through the dressing machine : consisting 
principally of oxides and carbonates, it requires no preliminary 
desulphuration ; while the sulphuric acid is made on the spot 
from iron pyrites, which exists in great abundance on the pro- 
perty. The ore is digested in the acid until all the copper is 
dissolved out, several successive portions being treated m the 
same liquor up to the point of saturation ; it is then allowed to 
settle, rim on clear into a large vessel containing scrap iron, 
when the copper is precipitated at the expense of the iron in the 
form of cement copper, of about 70 per cent. The quantitjr of 
iron dissolved is equal to a little less than the weight of the 
copper precipitated, in neutral solutions ; the cement copper is 
sold to the smelters, and has only to be passed throiigh the 
refinery, and run into ingots. The acid is no doubt heated when 
used, and probably kept nearly up to boiling point, by the intro- 
duction 01 a jet of steam, mid the material kept agitated to 
facilitate the action of the acid. Taking 16s. as the value of one 
unit of metallic copper, and seeing tliat this material contains 
only I of 1 per cent., or 14 lbs. of copper, in one ton of 
material, the gross value is only lOs., so that to yield a profit the 
cost of treatment, including the cost of sulphuric acid, labour, 
refining of the cement copper, and wear and tear of apparatus, 
must be less than 10s. per ton of ore treated. 

Of course it is not supposed that we can readily find places in 
this Colony where the conditions will be precisely the same — 



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BECENT COPPER-EXTRACTING PROCESSES. 137 

where the heap of debris already crushed will exist — where it 
shall consist of carbonates and oxides — where iron p3rrite8 is 
found in abundance for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, &c. ; 
but we can find many places where a little modification of the 
process may be made with profitable results — where large deposits 
of copper pyrites exist, containing 2 to 3 per cent, of copper, the 
pyrites itsfelf serving in many cases for providing its own sul- 

Shuric acid, for the subsequent treatment of the oxidized or 
esulphurized ore. 

The Snowden^ or Luce Process, 
is the next deserving of mention, on account of its simplicity and 
easy application in places difficult of access in the fer interior, 
where the usual requirements of a reduction establishment and 
skilled labour would be difficult to obtain, and even valueless for 
thepoor class of ores that may be treated by the process. 

There are two necessary conditions to its application: Ist. 
That the ores, or a considerable portion of them, shall be sul- 
phurets ; and 2nd, that limestone be obtainable on the ground. 

The process is as follows : — The mineral, containing copper 
pyrites is crushed, mixed with a small proportion (rarely exceed- 
ing 5 per cent.) of burnt lime ; the lime and pyrites are then 
moistened and shaped by machinery into bricKs, stacked, and 
roasted at a low rea heat for a short time. The lime and pyrites 
undergo a double decomposition, the sulphide of copper being 
converted into a sulphate, and the lime into a sulphide of calcium. 
The bricks are then rapidly passed through a crusher into water, 
where the soluble sulphate of copper is at once removed ; suc- 
cessive lots are passed into the same liquor, which becomes 
strongly acid ; and if any oxide should have been present 
ongiimUy in the ore, or be formed by careless roasting, it will be 
dissolved out in the strongly acid liquor. After being allowed to 
settle, it is drawn off into another tank, and the copper is 
precipitated by passing hydrogen sulphide through the solution. 
The resulting product will contain 50 per cent of copper. The 
entire cost of treatment, inclusive of 10s. per ton for mining the 
ore, is about 208. per ton, so that an ore of two per cent, could be 
worked at a very good profit, if the ore is plentiful and readily 
procured. The hydrogen sulphide is made irom the ores them- 
selves. Very little apparatus is wanted for conducting the pro- 
cess ; a good bush carpenter could make the tanks of hardwood, 
taking care to use no metal in any part, at least inside, or at the 
joints ; the bricks can be made by hand ; the furnace for gene- 
rating the hydrogen sulphide comd be put up in a few days by 
an ordinary bricklayer working from a plan. The crushing of the 
ore will require some appliance, unless in the first instance it is 
reduced by a dolly, shod with iron, worked by a long lever, an 
appliance by which a few hundredweights can soon be reduced 



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138 BECENT COPPER-EXTEACTn<rG PEOCE8SE8. 

by a strong boy. With only a moderate amount of instruction 
any person of average intelligence, and without any previous 
metallurgic knowledge, may conduct the process, even on a large 
acale. It derives its name from the Snowdon Mountains, where 
it is at present being successfully employed, and where, probably, 
no other known process would be available. 

The Huirr akd Douglas Pbocess 

is rapidly and deservedly gaining favour. It possesses several 
features that give it special claims to consideration. The appa- 
ratus used is simple and inexpensive ; the treatment capable of 
being easily taught to an intelligent workman ; the materials 
used in the extraction of the copper from its ores cost but little in 
the first place, and are capable of doing an indefinite amount of 
duty, witn but little addition to supply inevitable waste ; the 
precipitant is usually scrap iron, whicn, however, may be replaced 
with iron sponge. 

In case the ore contains sulphur or arsenic, it is crushed, passed 
through a sieve of forty holes to the linear inch, and calcined. 
At the Ore Knob Mine in America the cost of the wood used in 
desulphurizing is found to be only one shilling for every ton of 
ore treated. The calcined ore is then treated with a solution of 
sulphate of iron and salt, of a certain strength, which experiment 
has found to be most effective ; these are kept stirred in circular 
tanks, at a temperature of about 180 degrees Fahrenheit ; the 
stirrers make aoout twenty-five revolutions, apd the extraction 
of the copper occupies about eight hours. It is then allowed to 
settle, the clear part drawn off, 'arid the turbid led into a settling 
vat. The copper is precipitated from a hot solution by scrap 
iron ; the precipitation occupies twenty-four hours. 

The rationale of the process is as follows : — Sulphate of iron 
and salt being dissolved and mixed together mutually decom- 
pose, forming sulphate of soda and chloride of iron ; on the 
addition of ore containing oxide of or carbonate of copper (or 
the desulphurized ore), the chloride of iron reacts upon the 
copper, forming chloride of copper and dichloride, and precipi- 
tating the iron. In subsequently passing the solution containing 
these chlorides of copper over metallic iron, the copper then 
changes place with the iron, the former being precipitated as 
cement copper, and the regenerated chloride of iron solution 
being returned to the bath to act on successive charges of ore. 

It will be seen that the cost of treatment is particularly small, 
but it may be added that the loss in treatment is less than half 
per cent., while the material employed in the extraction of the 
copper does duty many times. The one great source of expense, 
especially in situations far removed from the sea coast, is the 
iron used in precipitating ; but in places where hematite is 
abundant they are commencing to make sponge iron to use 



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BECEirr C0PPEB.E3CTBACTnfa PK0CES8KS. 139 

instead of scrap. The precipitation of one ton of copper takes 
about 13 cwt. of metallic iron, so tliat it is a very important item, a 
large proportion of the copper solution being dicbloride. The bath 
of chloride of iron may of course be made by dissolving the 
metal in hydrochloric acid ; the apparatus in which the operation 
18 performed must be of wood, and no metal must be exposed to 
the action of the chemicals. The bath is prepared by dissolving 
120 lbs. of salt, or 112 lbs. of dry chloride of calcium, with 280 
lbs. of green copperas (sulphate of iron) in 100 imperial gallons 
of water ; 200 lbs. of sea salt are then added ; this quantity is 
capable of chlorodizing and dissolving about 90 lbs. weight of 
copper. 

In case the ores contain gold or silver, the latter will be taken 
up by the copper solution, and can be recovered by digesting 
with metallic copper, while the gold remains in the tailings, which, 
being freed from copper, is m a condition admitting its easy 
extraction. 

This process in the main is by no means new, though the 
original scheme of Bobert Oxland has been greatly improved 
upon, and Messrs. Hunt and Douglas may be said to have given 
it a commercial value. In April, 1868, Oxland took out his 
patent for the extraction of copper from its ores by the use of 
ferric chloride, or chlorhydric acid. At home the latter was a 
waste product in the manufacture of salt cake, so that its use 
was less costly than the employment of salt. The precipitation 
was effected with metallic iron, and the bath was regenerated 
for the extraction of further quantities of copper. By the patent, 
however, it appears that after the first lixiviation Oxland dried 
the ore in a furnace, and subjected it to a second treatment, 
whereas Hunt and Douglas extract the copper in one operation, 
leaving only half per cent, in the tailings, besides, the cnemicals 
can be transported any distance in a solid form, which is no 
mean advantage, and the precious metals extracted at very small 
cost, while the whole of the reactions have been exhaustively 
studied by the inventprs. 

Stephen H. Ehmens^s Pbocess 

was patented on 16th July, 1875, its object being the economical 
extraction of all the valuable metals, besides copper, which may 
be associated with the ore under treatment. It consists essen- 
tially of three stages : — 

1st. Eoastingwithor without salt to oxidize or chloridize theore. 

2nd. Lixiviating with water acid, or brine, to wash out the 
soluble metals. 

3rd. Precipitating the dissolved metals from solution. 

In the first stage he adds fluor spar ; in the second or lixiviat- 
ing staffe he adds salt or saltpetre, and sufficient ' sulphuric acid 
to evolve enough hydrochloric or nitric acid to dissolve any 



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14.0 BECENT COPPBB-EXTBACTING PB0CESS18. 

metalB not previously in a soluble condition ; in the precipitating 
stage the liquor is passed over iron pyrites or other metallic sul- 
phides with a \new to precipitate any gold and silver present in 
solution, ferrous sulphate oeing sometimes added to facilitate 
such precipitation. The liquor is next passed over metallic iron, 
copper, or zinc (according to its composition), to precipitate 
other metals present, in such order as may be most convenient ; 
and, finally, if any other metals in solution, the liquor is treated 
with an alkali, to precipitate them, and then concentrated, or 
evaporated to dryness, to recover the saline substances for use in 
successive operations. A jet of steam is used during the two 
latter stages, to accelerate the reaction. When silver is present 
in the ore, salt is dispensed with and saltpetre substituted, to 
avoid its precipitation and loss in the lixiviating stage, or 
sufficient salt is used to ensure a saturated solution ; it being 
well known to metallurgists that, while any chloride in dilute 
solution will precipitate the silver present, a saturated solution 
win arrest its precipitation. If no gold or silver were present, 
the liquor would not have to pass over metallic sulphideB. 

The process appears to possess great merit and value, especially 
in Australia, where copper is found associated with other valuable 
metals, the presence of which has hitherto detracted from their 
value insteaa of adding thereto. 

Claudet*s Pbocess 

for the extraction of copper and the precious metals from their 
ores is one of the notable economic methods for the treatment of 
particular kinds of mineral. Hitherto it has been principally 
applied to the treatment of cupreous pyrites with great success, 
the average contents being about 4 per cent, of copper and 18 
dwts. of silver. The pyrites is roasted with salt, which converts 
the metals into soluble chlorides ; it is then put into vats and 
subjected to eight or nine washings to extract the copper and 
silver. The first three washings take out 95 per cent, of the 
metals ; this is all that is sought to extract of the precious 
metals, but the remainder is returned to the vats for re-treat- 
ment. 

The silver present is precipitated by iodide of potassium, as an 
insoluble iodide, after previous titration, to ascertain the quan- 
tity required and avoid waste; acetate of lead in solution is 
also added, which ensures a precipitation of the chloride and aids 
in collecting the silver. It is then thoroughly shaken, and allowed 
to stand for forty-eight hours, when the copper liquor is drawn 
off clear ; the tanks are filled for a further operation, and finidly 
cleaned out once a fortnight. The precipitate contains a consid- 
erable quantity of copper, which is readily washed out with dilute 
hydro-chloric acid. The precipitate is next decomposed by the 
addition of metallic zinc, which reduces the silver to the metallic 



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BECEKT OOPPEB-EXTBACTING PBOCESSES. 141 

state. At thiB stage gold, if present, makes its first appearance, 
liaving been dissolved in tlie first instance with the other chlor- 
ides, precipitated by iodide of potassium, and converted into the 
metallic state by zinc. l?he precipitate then consists of silver, 
with a small quantity of gold, lead (about 60 per cent.), oxides 
of iron and zinc, and a sm^ quantity of lime and copper ; there 
is no iodine present, as it has combined w^ith the zinc m solution, 
from which it is recovered for further use. The copper solution, 
which has been drawn off clear from the silver precipitating tank, 
is passed into another tank containing metallic iron^ whicTi pre- 
cipitates it at the cost of the iron. 

At the TVidness works the value of the precious metals con- 
tained in the ore is only (2s. lOd.) two shillings and tenpence ; 
they consist of half an ounce of silver and one and a half grains 
of gold ; the total cost of extraction is lOd. per ton of ore treated, 
and the profit 2s. per ton, on 30,000 tons treated primarily for 
copper. The method was first introduced in 1871, and in the 
first year 16,300 tons of burnt pyrites were operated upon ; the 
additional expense connected wiui the extraction of the precious 
metals was £416, while the value of the gold and silver after 
deduction of the cost of melting and refining was £3,232. The 
process has been very largely employed since. In Cornwall there 
are mines producing large quantities of poor ores which have 
hitherto been treats in the dry way, for copper onljr, but have 
been found to contain more silver than trie Spanish pyrites ; 
these have recently been treated profitably by the process. In 
the first part of the process sulphate of soda of great purity is 
ohtained, and the iron of the pyrites being very free from extra- 
neous matter is recovered in a state of very fine di^dsion, used for 
polishing looking-glasses, and sold in large quantities to the iron 
manufacturers for " fettling" their puddling furnaccB. 

The Mikdelepp Pbocess 

is comparatively new, though the chemical theories involved are 
well known. The mode of applying these principles is certainly 
new. The inventor, a Russian metallurgist, has introduced his 
process into America, whence we derive details of the modus 
op&rajuii ; it consists of a new mode of applying light carbur- 
etted hydrogen as a reducing agent for oxides, siuphides, arsen- 
ides, and carbonates. The chemistry of the process has been 
long known, and various attempts have been made to utilize it, 
but hitherto without success. In California some experiments 
were made on copper ores, which were placed in a retort and 
heated to expel moisture ; when sufficient heat was attained the 
gas was admitted under pressure, the escape pipe bein^ adjusted 
to admit of the slow escape of the gases evolved. It is claimed 
that the process is a perfect success, the ore being thoroughly 



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113 BECENT COPPEB-EXTRACXmO PB0CEB8ES. 

reduced to a metallic state, subsequently to which it has to be 
run in a furnace and refined. It would be premature to offer 
here an opinion of the merits of this iu^ention, and the mention 
of it is made here because the subject would be incomplete if it 
were ignored. Seyeral attempts have of late years .been made in 
Europe to reduce iron by the direct application of hydrogen, with 
more or less success. 

The Ammonia Pbocess 

is the invention of Dr. Thomas Clarke and Mr. E. Smith, P.C.S., 
and specially intended for ores containing silver. If sulphides, 
they are roasted, to convert into oxides ; usually, even after care- 
ful roasting, some of the copper and silver will remain in the 
form of sulphates, though the iron be completely oxidized ; the 
I'est will consist of oxides, and possibly a small quantity of metal- 
lic copper. The charge is then treated with calcic chloride, 
which removes all the sulphuric acid, forming calcic sulphate, 
while the copper and silver are converted into chlorides. At this 
stage ammonia is added, which forms chloride of ammonium ; and 
this, with the free ammonia, dissolves the copper and silver, 
whether they exist as chlorides, oxides, subsalts, or finely divided 
metallic particles. The ammoniacal solution is then passed into 
a platinum tank, where the silver is deposited at the expense of 
the copper sheets in the tank, such copper being taken up in 
solution and recovered in a subsequent process. When all the 
silver is deposited, the solution is passed into a tank, a little 
caustic alkali added, and superheated steam admitted. The cop- 
per is precipitated as oxide, the ammonia being expelled, and 
recovered in condensers for subsequent use in fresh operations. 
At first sight it might appear that the cost of the ammonia would 
be considerable, but it is found that the loss is very small, nearly 
the whole being recovered without any additional expense ; it is 
said to be in no way an objection to the process. The wear and 
tear of the platinum is infinitesimal, and the copper plates are 
easily renewed, while the copper dissolved is recovered. The 
copper plates require renewal only once in three months if fifty- 
tons per day be worked. It is claimed that a very small amount 
will cover tne cost of plant, while the material consumed is less 
costly than with any cnlorinization process. In England calcic 
chloride is very cheap, being a waste product, but how far it 
would be available here remains to be ascertained. It would 
appear, however, that with oxides and carbonates the calcic 
chloride will not be required ; and the same remark applies to 
ores thoroughly calcined, and containing neither sulphides nor 
sulphates. It is necessary that the ore be ground very fine, and 
that as much as possible of the sparry gangue shall be eliminated 
before treatment. Of course soaic chloride may be substituted 



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BECEVT COPP£R-£XTBACTIN0 FBOCESSE8. 148 

for calcic cUoride. To the writer it has suggested itself that the 
use of any chloride tnay be dispensed with altogether, by simply 
passing the charge direct from the roasting furnace into water, 
when any sulphates that may have formed will be immediately 
dissolyed, ana after beinff thoroughly washed the charge would 
be ready for the ammonia, the solution of sulphates would be 
recoyered in the usual way, and less ammonia would be required 
for the process. In &ct, the larger the quantity of sulphivbes 
formed the cheaper the entire process, irrespective of the saving 
of chlorides in any form. 

Othbb Pboosssbs. 

In addition to the different processes above referred to, there 
are several others possessing aiocal value dependent, upon certain 
special circumstances. One of the most notable is the process 
OBed at the Edgeley Hill works in England, where a very large 
body of poor ore, containing something less than two per cent, 
of copper, is crushed, and then treated with chlorh^^rio acid» 
to di»Bolye out the copper, which is precipitated with scrap iron. 
In this case the acid is a waste product, the ore very easily mined, 
the cost of the labour moderate, and iron procurable at a low 
r»te. 

The method of treating the copper schists at Mansfield is 
pretty senerally ^own. but it may not be out of place to advert 
eursori^ to it here. Tne ores contain &om 1 to 4 per cent, of 
copper, existing in a bituminous schist ; this schist is roasted in 
heaps, and after combustion being first communicated the bitu- 
men present sustains it for a considerable time. It is then placed 
in a cupola blast furnace with coke. Matts and slags continually 
&>w from the furnace, the former of which are again roastea, 
^ad again put back in the furnace. Repeated roastings convert 
some of the coj^r sulnhides into sulphates, which are repeatedly 
lirivilkted to separate tne soluble sulphates. When any of the 
ore contains sihrer, it will come out with the copper ; to ezta*act 
it a quantity of lead is .added to the black cep^r, and the alloy 
slowly heated in a fun^ace, when the lead will separate from 
tlie ecqyper, and be found to contain nearly all the silver present ; 
the proportions for effecting the liquidation are about one-fourth 
cc^per and three-fourths l^Eid. 8ome lead will remain with the 
copper, which is subjected to a stronger heat, in a suitable 
aMaratus, bjr which the whole of it is sweated out, the copper 
cases remaining in a porous state, and bemg subsequently remied. 

Bbmabks. 

The study of the subject has convinced me that, where the 
extraction of the copper is the sole consideration in cases where 
the quality is pretty good, there is no process of reduction more 



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144 RECENT COPPER-EXTBACTINO PROCESSES. 

economical and more suitable than the old-&shioned smelting 
process. Few people, however, have the slightest idea of the 
difficulties that beset the owners of copper-smelting works, 
especially in a new country ; the inefficienejr of furnace-builders 
and smelters ; the difficulty of procuring refractory clays, and 
making bricks that will sitand ; tne want of sufficient knowledge 
of the chemistry of smelting, and the way of making suitaUe 
fluxing mixtures, the impossibility in some parts of getting coal 
or good wood ; and, lastly, the enormous expense of erecting and 
maintaining a copper works. This paper is written for the use of 
those who have no such advantage (I mean the advantage of a 
well-appointed and well-officered smelting works, with plenty of 
work to keep it going, and other favourable conditions) ; and 
most particularly addressed to those who possess large bodies 
of ore, too poor to pay by the ordinary smelting process, or 
possessing some element of value that could not be rendered 
available by that process. 

To have given this subject a proper value it would have been 
well to have endeavoured as far as possible to show the cost of 
applying each of the processes described. Such was my original 
intention, but several difficulties presented themselves, the princi- 
l)al of which was that in almost every case the materiaLs used 
and labour employed varied in such a degree as to preclude the 
possibility of even an approximation ; while any comparison of 
the kind would be open to challenge by the advocates of the 
rival systems. I must, therefore, content myself by stating 
generally that the smelting of copper ores, averaging 10 to 15 per 
cent., and of such character as to afford suitable fluxing mixtures, 
will cost for smelting with coal, at 2s. 6d. to 8s. per ton, about 
£15 to £16 per ton of refined copper produced ; and with good 
wood, such as box, ironbark, and olue gum, readily procurable, 
about £20 to £25. It is not possible, however, to state what will 
be the cost of lime, iron, salt, chemicals, fireclay, or even fuel or 
labour, in any particular part of Australia, every individual case 
demanding separate study ; and in the fact that different pro- 
cesses are adapted to different conditions lies what I conceive to 
be the whole value, if any, of this paper. If all conditions were 
alike, we could compare the value of the different processes, and 
elect which in our opinion possessed the greatest merit ; but the 
fact is that they each possess independent merit ; and where one 
would be a complete success under certain conditions, it would 
fail if these conditions were different. Precisely for these 
reasons the ingenuity of the chemist has been brought to bear to 
adapt processes where none previously known were available ; 
and the necessity of the case has been the means pf bringing a 
new process into being. Hitherto progress in copper-mining 
industry has been greatly retarded in. this Colony, owmg to that 



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BECEyi COPPEtt-EXTH ACTING PROCESSES. 145 

bugbear, the smelting^ establishment ; aud men have been 
frightened even to ascertain what wealth tliey possessed, for fear 
of being induced to ruin themselves by tUniing smelters. Now, 
however^ in the far interior — in places removed hundreds of 
miles from centres of civilization— any man possessing ordinary 
intelligence may commence by amusing himself with small 
experiments, having for his stock-in-trade in starting, a pick and 
shovel, a pestle and mortar, an iron kettle, a few tubs, and suffi- 
cient ingenuity to build himself a small furnace for roasting 100 
lbs. weight of ore. He will want also a fair stock of determina- 
tion not to be beaten until he has made a pound weight of 
cement copper; and after he has succeeded he will probably 
enlarge his work sufficiently to admit of the production of half a 
hundredweight of copper, and ultimately half a ton at a time. 
There are, no doubt, many who will break down at the first onset, 
aud give it up ; but I should be doing Australians an injustice 
did 1 not believe that many will persevere until they have 
mastered all obstacles. 

No attempt has been made — and, indeed, it would be beyond 
the limits oi this paper, to enter into minute details ; but suffi- 
cient outline has been given to enable the earnest man of 
progress to supply the rest. The thirst for starting metallurgic 
work, on hn inexpensive scale, is increasing, not only in this 
country, but in every .country ; but the avenues for obtaining 
prelimmary information for making a start are few and insuffi- 
cient. 

In the preparation of this paper I have been encouraged by 
the hope that it will lead in many cases to experiments on a 
small scale, which will develop into industries of importance. 
This I shall esteem my best reward for any trouble I may have 
taken in directing attention to this subject. 



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147 



ON SOME TERTIARY AUSTRALIAN POLYZOA. 

By Eet. J. E. Tenisok-Woods, P.G.S., F.L.S., Honorary 
Member Eoyal Society of N.S.W., Ck)rr. Member Hoyal 
Society of Tasmania, and Linn. Society of N.S.W. 



{fieadrhefare the Royal Soeiettf of N.S.W,, 4 Ocioher, 1876.] 



The following fossils were, with one exception, derived from 
the Mount Gtimbier polyzoan limestones, S. Australia. They 
correspond with the Middle Cainozoic, and while showing a 
tertiary facies are very distinct from the existing fauna, whicn is 
the more remarkable as polyzoa generally have a large chrono- 
logical range. 

The fossil polyzoa of Australia hare scarcely attracted any 
attention from naturalists ; the only description kno>\Ti to me 
being that of Professor Busk, in the Geological Society's Journal, 
1859, and a paper by myself in the Proc. Eoyal Society, 
Victoria, for 1862. The field is therefore almost an untrodden 
one. The corals (Alcyonaria, &c.) have been more fortunate, and, 
thanks to the zeal and industry of the learned President of the 
Geological Society, Dr. Duncan, all the known Australian ter- 
tiary corals have been described. 

ESCHXBA CATEBNOSA, n.8. Fig. I. 

Polyzoary, pedunculate, palmate ; cells deeply immersed and 
concave, with a raised margin, aperture very large and round, 
sloping towards sides, giving a hood-like appearance in front, 
two large raised pores at base of each side of cell, others, how- 
erer, when worn, have one large opening. Mount Gambler ; rare, 

EscHABA POBBECTA, n.s. Fig. 11, fig. Ill, single cell highly 

magnified. 

Polyzoary,],edujiculate, palmate; cells immersed, very long and 
slightly lozenge-shaped mouth raised towards summit, circular, 
slightly notched in front, with a sessile avicularium pore imme- 
diately below, another pore with a long channelled opening about 
the middle of the cell, the rest of the surface of which is 
irregularly reticulated with openings. Mount Gambier ; rare. 



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148 ON SOME TERTIARY AUSTRALIAN POLYZOA. 

EscHARA Clarket, n.s. Figs. IV, Y, VI, worn specimeiiBy 
differently magnified, fig. VII, single cell, highly magnified. 

Polyzoary pedunculate, palmate, or multiform ; cells immersed, 
pyrif orm, rounded on the summit and raised round the margin, 
obtusely carinate in front ; orifice rounded above, contracted 
below and slightly crescentic, with a raised margin ; mouth sloping 
downwards so as to leave only half the orifice visible in front ; 
a pore for the avicularium upon the summit. Surface, covered 
with distinct equal-sized rounded granules. The worn specimens 
of this fossil vary very much, the margin of the mouth narrow- 
ing like a funnel or spread out over the cell ; slightly worn 
species have the mouth continuous into a kind of groove upwards. 
It is the prevailing form at Hamilton, and is generally found 
there in large expanded masses. At Mount Gambier it abo 
occurs, but in short stems ; the cells are quite visible to the 
naked eye, which makes the species one of the very few 
Eschara which is attractive in its ordinary appearance as a fossil, 
without being magnified. Muddy Creek, Hamilton, Victoria. 

I have dedicated this species to the Reverend Vice-President 
of the Society. 

Eschara verrucosa, n.s. Fig. VIII. 

Polyzoary expanded, cells arched with a raised spirally striated 
margin, surface covered with warty granules, the margin with 
pores, mouth crescentic and deeply immersed. Mount Gambler. 

Eschara ritstica, n.s. Fig. IX, 

Poljrzoary branched, cells slightly raised, and marked on each 
side with three pores, gradually increasing in size and terminat- 
ing in a large pore with a raised margin ; month oval and 
raised, with a pore on each side of the margin for avicularia ; 
the first pair of pores round and indistinct, somewhat closer than 
the other ; second pair, round and deep ; third pair much larger, 
oval and very deep ; a sort of channel on each side of the raised 
terminal pore ; the worn species have the mouth obliterated, and 
then look like rustic work in architecture. Mount Gambier ; 
common. 

Eschara elevata, n.s. (Monilifera?). Fig. X. 

Polyzoary branched, cells raised and marked on each side with 
a linear series of pores, meeting at the apex of the cell ; six or 
eight in each series ; mouth simple, oval, and produced. Mount 
Gambier; rare. 

This may perhaps be a worn species of B, monilifera, — ^Busk. 



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OK SOME TEBTIAET AUSTBALIAK POLTZOA. 149 

EscHAKA LiTEBSiDGEi, n.B. Fig. XI, nat. size; fig. XII, 
magnified ; fig. XIII, higUy magnified. 

Polyzoarv expanded, cells obscure, mouth rounded above, 
expanded below, underneath three large pores disposed in a 
triangle or two above and one below ; on each side of the lower 
one obscure pores may be traced ; lower lip of orifice with a 
narrow sinus. Mount Grambier ; not common. 

I have dedicated this species to your Secretary, the learned 
Professor of Mineralogy. 

ESCHABA OCULATA, n.S. Fig. XIV. 

Polyzoary expanded or dichotomously branched, cells much 
raised, subtubular, and covered with irregularly-shaped pores of 
various sizes disposed unsymmetrically ; mouth circular, simple. 
The irregidarity on the pores of this species makes it difficult to 
recognize if it is at all worn. In the old specimens they coalesce 
and look like mouths, in the younger species it appears as if 
there were always three oval pores radiating symmetrically from 
the mouth. Mount Gambier ; common. 

EsCHABA TATEI,n.S. Pig. XV. 

Polyzoary dichotomously marked with elongated cells sur- 
rounded by a raised margin, which is expanded above, and 
slightly concave about the mouth ; two rows of pores with four 
ot five in each ; mouth round, with a raised margin, which is 
sinuated below. 

Observation, — This fossil when worn and the mouth obliterated 
shows only the raised margin of the cell with the pores enlarged, 
«o as to form a kind of net-work in front. The pores sometimes 
join to ^orm one row at the base of the cell if it is narrow, 
which, as the cells are crowdied and not regularly quincuncial, is 
fr^uentlythe case. 

This species I have dedicated to Professor Tate, of the Adelaide 
University. 

EscHABA BusKiT, n.s. Fig. XVI highly magnified, fig. XVII 

nat. size. 

Polyzoarv expanded, branched ; the branches, lobate, cells 
'quincuncially arranged ; mammillated so as to make a rounded 
raised margin to the cells, which gives the frond a warty 
appearance, very porous, with three larger pores on the inferior 
lip triangularly disposed, orifice roimd and immersed. A very 
-common fossil at ]Mu)unt Gtunbier. 

I have named this species after Professor G. Busk, F.RS., &c., 
the greatest living autnority on Polyzoa, and almost, we may say, 
the founder of its classification. 



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150 ON SOME TEBTIAET AUSTBALIAK POLTZOA. 

PUSTULIPOBA TJNGULATA, n.S. 

Polyzoary cylindrical, dichotomously branched; cells very 
dightly projecting and disposed in circles at equal distances, 
longitudinal lines of cells of different circles spiral ; transTerse 
section shows six partitions rayed liked the spokes of A wheel. 
Common ; Mount Grambier. 

TUBULIPOBA OAMBIEItENSISy n.S. 

Polyzoary erect, adhering by a slender cylindrical root ; cells 
dispersed on one side, but a few tubes sometimes opening behind 
near the margin ; tubes simple, slightly recun^ed, long and 
crowded, distinctly traceable oehind but faintly so in front;, 
mouth simple, disposed in irregular spiral lines in front ; when 
worn the mouths are very plain in lines almost encircling the 
cylindrical axis. Mount Grambier ; not common. 

PuSTULIPOBA COBBTTOATA, n.8. 

Polyzoary cylindrical, branched or lobed in the thicker speci- 
mens ; cells tubular, recurved, a very prominent irregularity 
disposed all round, and distant space between the cells corru- 
gated or wrinkled. In what seems to be the older branches of 
this fossil the cells are much closer and more numerous, the 
corrugations on the interspace cannot be traced and the branches 
are terminated by congenes of sessile cells. Mount Gambier, 
limestone ; very common. 



'OmcJusion. — The publication of these fossils may serve to* 
identify the beds in other localities. The zone itself, wnether met 
at Mount Gambier, Narracoorte, Cape Otway, Portland, or Table 
Cape, Tasmania, is pretty constant in character, being one 
immense mass of foraminifera, polyzoa, with few broken shells,, 
echini, teeth, &c., all showing a very deep sea deposit. It 
indicates probably the lowest depths of subsidence in our tertiary- 
seas — ana a depth of over 300 fathoms. 



[Plates.] 



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7[E!^TiA[^Y MST^^U^KI [P@LYI©A 



Fio. 1 




F]^ 111 






Fig. YI 



Fia. Y 



Fig lY 



Fi^ VII 



Fig VIII 



Fig iX 



I £sch3ra cavernosa 
!I frill Ksch.-^ra porrecta 
IVVV]*VI} Eschard Clarkei 



V!ll Fschara verrucosj 
iX. Escbara rusr.ca 



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Fig X 



FiC. XII 



Fig X! 




F.g XIV 



Fi2 XV 



Fig.XVI 



Fig XVII 



X Eschara elevaia (moniliferaO ^V. Eschara Tacei 
XIXII&Xlll. Eschara Liversidgei, XVl&XVll Eschara Buskii 

XIV Eschara oculata as. i3yn E.oculata' Busk Jour. Geo Soc.1859 

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161 



METEOROLOGICAL PERIODICITY. 
By H. C. Eubsell, B.A., F.E.A.S., Goverament Astronomer. 



IRead before the Boyal Society of N.S.W.^ 11 October, 1876.] 



A popular writer has recently said — " Surely in meteorology, as 
in astronomy, the thing to hunt down is a cycle. If it is not 
found in thetemj>erate zones, then go to the frigid zones or the torrid 
zone to look for it, and if found, above all things lay hold of it, 
record it, and see what it means. If there be no cycle, then 
despair for a time if you will, but yet plant firmly your science on 
a physical basis and wait for results." * 

In the spirit of these remarks, I shall attempt to bring together 
some facts beiaring upon meteorological cycles ; but from the 
difficulty of obtaining detailed observations for long periods and 
for many places, I am obliged to confine what 1 have to say 
chiefly to Australia, though I hope to be able to show you that 
we are bound by the same meteorological causes wliich rule the 
northern hemisphere, except in so far as local peculiarities 
modify the weather, which results from cosmical causes. 

On the general question. Is a meteorological period or cycle 
likely to be found ? a great deal might be said both ip favour of a 
affirmative, and also of- a negative answer. 

We know that the earth, year after year, revolves about the 
sun at an unvarying distance ; that the sun changes declination, 
going north and south over the same range, and in the same 
time ; that with it follow summer and winter, trade winds, mon- 
soons, ocean currents, and a host of natural phenomena in regular 
succession. "We know that the average temperature, barometric 
presstire, and winds are practically constant quantities ; nay, if 
our lot be cast in some favoured clunes we can tell to a day when 
the wind will change and the fruitful rain come with it, and we 
might say, with some appearance of truth, there is no cycle but 
an annual one. 

But if we look a little deeper we find that our averages here, as 
in other things, are very apt to mislead us, and that under all 
this regulari^ there is much uncertainty. It is true that the sun 
makes his annual excursions north and south, but we find the 
trade wind going at times farther north and south — is strong or 
weak, is surrounded by hurricanes, rain storms, and danger, in 



♦ Lockyer — Solar Physics. 



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.152 METEOBOLOaiCAX PERIODICIXr. 

what at first sight appears to us a most uncertain way. By and 
by two years of like character appear, and we dreain of a cycle, 
and the comfort and value that a knowledge of the period, if 
there be one, would give us. We started this inquiry ages ago, 
and in the present day we have heard njuch about meteorological 
periods, their causes and effects ; and we have learned, theoreti- 
cally or practically, to take a deep interest in the subject ; and the 
very difficulty of selecting the true cycle, or perhaps the conveni- 
ence of having a number to choose from, so long as our facts may be 
represented. Tends a charm' to it. 

.To the certainty of one cycle and its undoubted cause we 
have all been accustomed to give our adherence, but the very 
familiarity with it often makes us fail to see that the cause 
which riiles in the cycle of greatest changes, viz., from 
summer to winter, must surely be sufficient by its probable 
variation to produce the minor changes which distinguish one 
year from another. We know that a slight change in the sun's 
position in the sky is sufficient to make the difference between 
winter and summer ; and yet, when one year differs from another, 
we seldom suspect the grand cause of any variation. We call in 
theories of heated plains, unusual rains, or winds, to our aid in 
explaining the phenomena, while, if questioned at another time 
as to the cause of the heated plains, or the action of interior 
continents, we should, without question, attribute them to the solar 
influence. 

Passing, then, from the annual cycle, about which all are 
agreed, let us consider some of the " reriods " which have been 
put forward as the results of observation and investigation. 

The shortest is that which for many years pleased meteorolo- 
gical observers in Tasmania, viz., two years — a wet and a dry one 
alternately. Such a period does not take long for its discovery, 
and is exceedingly convenient in many ways, but after some 
twenty or five-and-twentv years of regular recurrence, during 
which observers naturally thought it was fully proved and 
established, a change came, and two wet years appeared together 
— 1848 and 1849 — and these were followed by two dry ones. 
1849, as we shall see, was a memorable year in the climate of 
New South Wales and the other Colonies, but here it was memo- 
rable as the dryest year on record. There it was the turning 
point in the two years* period ; and Tasmania, like the other 
Colonies, has since had an uncertain rainfall. 

The next " period '* is one of three years, suggested here by 
my friend, Mr. Tebbutt, in the Herald, 27th February, 1874;, 
and by him traced through aU his observations at Windsor for a 
perioa of fourteen years. For these observations, and also for 
those of Sydney between 1863 and 1875, it agrees remarkably 
well with the results ; but, in attempting to trace it back through 



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METEOBOLOGICAL PEBIODICITY. 153 

the Sydney and South Head ohservations, it fails to repreBent 
the rainfall results ; very much, however, may be said in its 
favour, and it has been remarked also in the climate of Ceylon. 

Mr. Tytler, writing in Ceylon on January 30, 1873, says : — 
** In the Tropics, at least here in Ceylon, where we enjoy the 
regular changes of the monsoons, the basic period runs five or 
six years dry and five or six years wet. These make eleven, 
and they form the medium cycle of three years, the grand cycle 
of thirly or thirty-three years being three periods of the eleven 
years cycle." It is evident, therefore, that m Ceylon some traces 
of a three-year period may be found. 

Mr. Eanken, in his work on the Dominion of Australia, speaks 
of years of dry weather in Central Australia, followed by years 
of drought. Making " years of a season, and not seasons of a 
year," he thinks that the immense area of flat and heated plain 
has a cumulative effect upon the weather, making season after 
season dry, until the tension becomes too great, and a great 
inrush of polar wind takes place, bringing abundance of rain, 
which spreads all over the burnt-up plains. Once there, the 
water takes several vears to get away. It rises, and is again 
precipitated, and flood after flood follows. He thinks that tnese 
changes over the vast extent of flat country in a large degree 
modifies the climate of its coast margins. 

Of this view it may be said that two well-known facts appear 
to be overlooked. In the first place, the evaporation on those 
interior plains during the summer months must at least amount 
to 12 inches per month ; and overhead is steadily blowing the 
return wind oi l^e trades, which, as the moisture rises, sweeps 
it away to the south-ea^, to be precipitated far from the interior 
of Australia. 

As we have already seen, a period of five or six years has been 
recognised in Ceylon ; and alfiiough I am unable to trace it in 
our annual results, the monthly rain tables show some signs of 
it. For instance, in April, 1845, there was a very heavy tall of 
rain ; again in 1850 and 1855, 1861, and 1867. Another series 
may be found in June, 1846 ; heavy rain in 1852, ] 858, and 
1864 ; but I do not think any weight can be attached to these. 
They are selected cases, and by no means represent the general 
character of the seasons. 

A period, however, of between six and seven years may be 
traced in our dry years a long way back ; thus : 1872, 1865, 1858, 
1852, 1845, 1838, 1832, 1826, 1820, 1814, 1808 ; and it is, per- 
haps, worth remarking, the comet of Biela has a period ot six 
and two-thirds years, and, whether connected with the cause of 
our seasons or not, has passed the earth in every one of these 
years except the three last, which should be 1819, 1813, and 1807, 
to agree with the comet's seven visits. 



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16i METEOBOLOaiCAL PEBIODICITT. 

There are Bome who believe in a period of nine years, and no 
doubt facts might be brought forward if the period could only find 
a champion. Of the next period in our list a great deal has been 
said, and for many years amongst observers of this climate this 
period of ten years has been considered, if not an established 
met, at least one on behalf of which very much could be said, 
and a large amount of experience brought in as evidence. 

For instance, the series following may be taken : — 
17897 T^ 

1799 l^^y^^^"- 

1809 This year was certainly wet during the winter, but 

very dry during a part of it. 
. 1819 Wet jrear in the winter, but dry spring and 

beginning. 
1829) 

1839 > Very dry years. 
Xo^y ) 

1*859 Moderate year. 
1869 Latter half dry. 
So 1808^ 

1828 [^^^^ y^*^" 

1838; 

1848 Wet, but dry spring. 

1858 Moderate. 

1868 Moderate. 

And so of other series which might be taken, the ten years seem 
to bring round the same weather ; and it will be observed that 
in the early days of the Colony it was far more marked than it 
has been during the last thirty years. It is not, therefore, sur- 
prising that those who had bitter experience of 1808, 1818, 1828, 
1838, 1829, 1839, and 1849, should be convinced that a ten years' 
period was beyond question ; yet, I think, a careful examina- 
tion of all the evidence reveals so many exceptions that it cannot 
be looked upon as satisfactory, and it will presently be seen that 
these years are better represented by the nineteen years* period 
than by any other. 

Mr. Symonds, in the Eeport of the British Association for 1865, 
and Nature, 1872, page 143, says : — " In a table I prepared for 
fifty years' rainfall in Great Britain, (1) the wettest years are 
1836, 1841, 1848, 1852, and 1860 ; (2) that these, all but tWo, form 
a twelve-year period, viz., 1836, 1848, 1860, to which we may now 
add 1872 ; (3) that the dry years were 1826, 1834, 1844, 1854, 
1855, 1858, and 1864 ; that of these, all but three form a ten-year 
period, viz., 1834, 1844, 1854, 1864. All this looked very satis- 



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MBTEOBOLOGICAL PEBIODICITT. 165 

factory ; but to make assurance doubly sure, I determined to 
make up a longer period ; this I accorcUngly did for 140 years, 
and I was so disappointed at the total disappearance of both ten 
and twelye-year periods that I cannot say that I have closely scruti- 
nized the values nerein given." Mr. Symonds is also inclined to 
adopt Mr. Meldrum's theory of wettest years with greatest sun 
spots. 

But no period haiS found such general favour as that known as 
the sun-spots, or eleven-years period. Its advocates assert that 
meteorological phenomena vary as the area of spots on the sun's 
surface ; that when they are at a maximum we have the maximum 
of hurricanes, violent storms, and rainfall. To Mr. Meldnim, of 
the Mauritius, belongs the honor of first pointing out the coinci- 
dence of these phenomena, not only for the Mauritius, but also for 
a lar^ niunber of stations, so far as maximum rainfall is concerned ; 
and it appears that out of the stations examined sixty-seven 
have the maximum rainfcdl between 1859 and 1862. Amongst these 
are included two of the Australian stations, Brisbane and Adelaide! 
which, to a certain extent, agree with this theory, while the other 
three Australian stations, where a long series of observations have 
been made, are left out. It is not stated whether the sixfy-seven 
stations were selected, but the three Australian stations omitted do 
not agree with it, while the two that are taken, to a certain extent do 
agree. Speaking of these rainfall investigations, Mr. Lockyer 
grows warm, for he says : — "A most important cycle has been 
discovered, analogous in most respects to the saros discovered by 
the astronomers of old. Inddfed, in more respects than one may 
the eleven-yearly period be called the saros oi meteorology ; and 
as the astronomers of old were profoundly ignorant of the true 
cause of the saros, so meteorologists of the present day are pro- 
foundly ignorant of the true nature of the connection between 
the sun and the earth." No doubt this theory has for a time met 
the growing feeling amongst students of this subject, viz., that 
we must look outside the earth for the true explanation of its 
irregular as well as its regular meteorological changes ; but I do 
not think that we find in it the final answer. In the first place, the 
sun-spots period is not an eleven years period ; it is generally 
called such, but if we examine records of the maxima and minima 
we find a very different result, for the period between maxima 
actually varies from seven to fifteen years, nay, it is itself subject 
to variations in intensity as well as in time ; and there is much 
that indicates an unknown cycle in this phenomenon also.* 



* Proctor has shown, |>age 188, ** Science By-ways,** that the sun-spot 
period cannot be traced in the earth's temperature, and the connection, if 
any, between it and rainfall and wind cannot, up. to the present time, be 
considered proven, if indeed the evidence does not tend the other way. 



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166 



METEOBOLOOICAL PBBIODICITT. 



In the next place, in the tropical limits of hurricanes, where 
the cycle is said to be most conspicuous, the truth of the tiieory 
has been denied by other observers, and I do not think that we 
can be satisfied with such an imcertain cause or coincident 
phenomena as the solution of our difficulty. It is true that the 
mcrease of sun-spots can be seen year by year, and to a certain 
extent the approach of a maximum can be detected in this way ; 
but the sun-spot curve is a most irregular one — sometimes re- 
maining almost stationary, and then, with a great outburst, 
running rapidly upwards. Besides, the great charm of a period 
is gone, if it may be seven or fifteen years long, as the case may 
be. I'or convenience I will here give the recorded dates of 
maxima and minima of sxm-spots from " Loomis' Meteorology :" — 

Sun-spot Pbbiqds. 



n 


1 


11 


M 




Year. 
1778 


111 


11 


1789 


73 


15 


1804 


44 


12 


1816 


58 


14 


1830 


111 


7 


1837 


101 


11 


1848 


06 


12 


1860 


140 


10 


1870 






Slight rise in curve— year 1781 
Rapid fall to 1791, then gradual 
Quick fall to 1806, then gradual 
Gradual fall to 1820, then slow 
Quick faU 

Veiy quick faU to 1838, then 

quick fall. 
Rapid fall to 1850, then a stop, 

and again a quick fell. 
Quick f»U to 1868, then rise, 

and again quick faU. 
Rapid fin 



Year. 
1784 




1798 


14 


1810 


12 


1823 


13 


1838 


10 


^1846 


12 


1856 


11 


1867 


11 



Rose nearly to max. by 1787. 

Gradual rise. 

Slow rise. 

Steady rise until 1823, theo 
slight fall, and again a rise. 
Veryrai^ rise. 

Rapid rise. 

Ver>- rapid rise. 

Very rapid riset 



The duration of this period has been variously stated as 11, Hi, 
and llj years, with how much regard to observations we have 
already seen. Taking the rainfall at Sydney, 1860 had the great- 
est recorded rainfall here ; but another year given as one of the 
limits of maximum, 1862, was, with one exception, the driest on 
record, while the nef^est approach in rainfall here to 1860 was 
1841, which was not a year of maximum or minimum sun-spots, 
but is exactly nineteen years from 1860. 

TJsin^ our rainfall observations, as has been done in Mr. Meld- 
rum's discussion of the results at other places — that is, taking 
three years together, one on each side of the maxima and minima, 
we get the following results : — 

Minimum period 1848 44 1 5 . . . 195 inches of rain. 

Maximum „ 1847-48-49 ... 115 „ 

Minimum „ 1855-56-57 ... 147 



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METKOBOLOGICAL PEBIODICITT. 157 

Maximum period 1859-60-61 ... 183 inches of rain. 
Minimum „ 1866-67-68 ... 140 
Maximum „ 1869-70-71 ... 165 

A period of hvelve years has by some been thought to exist and 

be connected with Jupiter's revolution about the sun. No doubt 

this planet has a great influence on the solar system^and controls 

some of its meteor streams ; but although I am fully prepared to 

admit the possibility of this action directly affecting our climate 

—and some confirmation appears to be found in such series as 

1866") or— 1865 •) 

1854 [ dry 1858 [ 

1842) 1829) 

(the intermediate year 1841 was very wet) — yet it fails altogether 
when extended to other series, and rainfall measurements show 
no trace of it. We are therefore compelled to feel, like Mr* 
Symonds, disappointment that it cannot be traced. 

A period of thirteen years is said to be recognised by the 
majority of obflervers in Ceylon, and that the intensity of the 
monsoons, rainfall, and cloudy weather, vary in this cycle. 

In America there are some indications of a period of seventeen 
years, and it is said that one of the marked features is the regular 
return of aplague of locusts. 

In the British Association Eeport for 1842, page 24, Luke 
Howard, F.B.8., attempted to prove a period of eighteen years 
in the dimate of England, from his own observations at Ack- 
worth, in Yorkshire ; but when he afterwards (1845) attempted 
to predict the weather on this theory, he stated that his lunar 
period was modified by the facts then taking place, and I am not 
aware that this period has been advocated by any one else. 

The next period, " nineteen years," we will pass over for the 
present, to mention an opinion expressed by Mr. Jevons, whose 
valuable investigation into the climate of Australia gave him every 
facility for forming a correct estimate of our cjimate. He says 
(at page 81 of his work) : — 

" I think it will appear pretty plain from the table of floods 
and droughts that the history of the Australian Colonies compre- 
hends only two complete and two incomplete climatic periods, 
thus) :— 

Period. Commencing. Terminating. Characterised by 

1. ... ... 1798 ... Drought 

2. ... 1799 ... 1821 . ... Flood 

8. ... 1822 ... 1841 ... Drought 

4. ... 1842 ... Not terminated Flood. 

in 1858 
There can be no doubt that, taken as a whole, the second 
period, 1799 to 1821, was one of great floods ; but 1808, 1810, 



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158 METEOnOLOOICAL PEBIODICITT. 

1813-14-15-16 will ever be remembered as years of severe 
drought. Again, 1822 to 1841, 1825, 1830, 1832, 1836 were wet years 

Mr. Tytler, in Ceylon, lays great stress on the cycle which has 
been observed there for thirty years, and he noints out that visita- 
tions of the horrible leeches of Ceylon and most of the great 
landslips occur at this interval, and that the Singalese, with their 
traditions going back some 2,000 years, believe in an Edorvore 
Kala and a Weyokala of thirty years or so. 

Of longer periods we have not much to say, though an attempt 
has been made to establish a period of fifty-six years in England 
(5 times Hi), and I shall have occasion further on to bring for- 
ward some facts which seem to point clearly to a long period of 
upwards of fifty years in this Colony. 

In England Mr. Symonds's most valuable researches on the 
rainfall have revealed some very interesting facts upon which a 
paper could well be written, but I will here only mention one or 
two. In the middle of last century a very severe drought began 
in 1737, and between 1740 and 1750 the rainfall was nearly 30 
per cent, below the average ; after that it gradually rose to 
1775, when five wet years, 1772 to 1776, came together, and such 
a wet period has not been experienced since ; alter this the rain 
curve sinks rapidly again to 1785, then a slight rise to 1795, then 
a fall to 1805, then a gradual rise to 1824, smce which time there 
have been some very wet years, but the average keeps the rain 
curve nearly even. The very dry years were 1788, 1806, 1826, 
1734, 1737-38, 1744, 1854, and 1864. These facts I have taken 
from Mr. Symonds's work, as they are valuable for comparison 
with some of our history and traditions derived from the abori- 
gines, especially the ^reat drought, of which more presently. (See 
diagram at end of this paper.) 

Coming now to the period of nineteen years, which I think 
was first suggested in my " Notes on the Climate of Kew South 
"Wales, 1870" ; but as the history of cycle-hunting has not yet 
been written, it is impossible to say that it has never been 
observed or published before. It is, however, certain that it was 
then first detected in our rainfall observations ; and, so far as the 
information was then available, it was traced back for two 
periods. The rainfall diagram from this point of view vras then 
published, including the results from 1840 to 1869. The follow- 
mg year (1871), Professor Smith, in his owning address to the 
Eoyal Society of N.S.W., took up the subject, and added con- 
sidembly to the information I had published. T^e information 
about many years in the list then available was very meagre ; 
yet the evidence again seemed in its favour, as may be judged 
from the foUowing numerical statement : — eighty-seven years were 
examined ; of these fifty-two fell into the nineteen-year period, 
twenty-five years were not determined from want of mformation, 



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HETEOBOLOOICAL PEBIODICITT. 169 

and ten appeared to be exceptions — that is, of the determined 
years enly one in six was as an exception. 

Since then I have been able, by a diligent search for informa- 
tion, to add largely to our knowledge of the meteorology of past 
years ; and, whatever may become in alter years of the nineteen-y ears 
period, it has more in its favour now than eyer before. Expe- 
rience, however, can alone decide this question, and I have never 
put the theory forward as the solution of our difBculty. The 
evidence has convinced me that it represents our climatic changes, 
but nothing will please me better than a succession of fine 
seasons from now onwards, in direct opposition to what the pre- 
sent investigation leads me to expect ; for such seasons would be 
of infinitely more value than tne confirmation of the theory 
could possibly be. And I think I shall be able to show you that 
there is an amount of probability in its favour that will justify 
at least a careful examination ; for if it should prove true, there is 
warning of seasons to come which may, if rightly used, be of the 
greatest value to the grazier and the agriculturist. A page of 
figures is not generally enticing to the reader, and I have, there- 
fore, put into the form of curves the rainfall at each place from 
year to year, and for convenience they have been arranged, as 
Sydnejr curve is, in the nineteen-years period. It is, however, 
impossible to convey in this way an exact idea of the character 
of each year, for the curve is in some cases wholly distorted by 
rainstorms, as for instance, in 1844, where the curve is raised 
twenty inches by the rain-storm of one day j and again in 1868, 
a very dry year and counterpart of 1849, we have a rain-storm 
in February in which ten inches fell. So again of 1870, it was 
the excessive rain in March that masked the drought of six 
months of the year ; but a very good general idea is obtained, 
and it seems, in my opinion, to illustrate the theory that we have 
every nineteen years a recurrence of similar weather. "We have 
already seen that much may be said in favour of a nine or ten 
years period, that is about half the period indicated, and there 
IS doubtless this sub-period which for three or four turns seems to 
fall in with the facts ; but if we attempt to carry it through all 
the years it wholly fails. "While tracing the nineteen years 
period through past history, we find no less than eleven well- 
marked lines in the series, and in many of them special charac- 
teristics will be found reproduced step after step in the series. 

The second set of curves represents the rainfall at other places 
in Australia, and one station (Greenwich) from the northern 
hemisphere, which is put in for comparison ; and although the 
theory does not at first sight seem borne out by the Greenwich 
curve, yet there are remarkable coincidences in the character of 
the curves, if they are viewed in the light of remarks to be made 
presently. 



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160 METEOROLOGICAL PERIODICITY. 

It will be seen that the Brisbane rain curve follows Sydney 
vei'y well ; it is below the average in 1859, above it for the two 
years 1860-61, very low in 1862, high again in 1863-4, very low 
in our memorable 1865, and so on, running to maxima in 1870 
and 1873, like the rain curve at Sydney. Melbourne is some- 
times with Sydney, as in 1862, 1865, 1868, and 1870, when 
droughts or heavy rains involved the whole eastern coasts ; but 
it often accords with the Adelaide curve, to which I wish to draw 
your particular attention, as it bears strongly on the opinions 
expressed in this paper. {Diagram 1). 

The Adelaide curve, if inverted, agrees very closely with that 
for Sydney, or, in other words, their rain seajsons are the opposite 
of ours ; and when the diy seasons prevail here, the rain precipi- 
tation, as I have before stated, is pushed southward, and recorded 
in Adelaide, and often in Melbourne. From 1840 to 1859 this 
fact is most striking, and, excepting 1854, 1864, and 1869, when, 
a« before stated, droughts seemed to envelope the whole of 
Australia, we have a very marked agreement. For the first 
nineteen years, seventeen are the reverse of Sydney, two agree 
with it ; for the second period, eight out of fourteen are the 
reverse of Sydney, and the others indifferent ; so that, twenty- 
five years out of thirty-three, the rain curve at Adelaide is the 
reverse of Sydney. At Melbourne these phenomena are not so 
marked ; but in many cases the same may be observed, notably 
of our driest year. 1849 ; it was at Melbourne the wettest on 
record. 

The remarks just made form a very good iUustt^rtion of what I 
have to state presently, viz., that the same cause, even a distant 
one, will not produce the same effects on different portions of the 
earth's surface. The force that brings us a drought usually 
carries rain in abundance to South Australia. 

Let us now take the years in series, as they are arranged in 
the diagrams, only remarlung that the year 1783 to 1787 are with 
us pre-nistoric : — 

1802. A medium year, but there is little information. 

1821. Moderate rain in July; heavy rain and floods in Sep- 

tember. 

1840. Moderate rains ; heavy in July and September. 

1859. Heavy rain in January and February ; rain in July ; very 
heavy and flood in September. 

1803. Early part, very dry ; latter part, wet and favourable. 

1822. Early part, very dry ; abundant rain in February ; latter 

part, wet. 

1841. February, dry ; terrific rain in April 29; abundant rains 

latter part. 



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METEOBOLOaiCAI* PEBIODICITT. 161 

1860. Early part, wet ; very heavy rain, April 28 and 29 ; abun- 

dant rains latter part. 

180lf. Heavy rain, April and October ; moderate year. 

1823. Heavy rain, March and October ; moderate year. 

1842. Moderate year ; heavy rain, Eebruary ; June, October, and 

November, dry months. 

1861. Hea\y rain, April and August ; September to end of year, 

dry. 

1805. Wet ; floods in Hawkesbury and South Creek, March, 

October, and Nqvember. 

1824. Wet ; heavy rains, Juhr, September, and October ; Mur- 

rumbidgee in high flood, 20th, 21st, and 22nd October. 

1843. Wet ; very heavy rains, February, March, April, and 

Auffust. 

1862. Dry ; heavy rain, Pebruary ; rest of year very dry. 

1787. Wet (?) ; when the colonists landed they saw recent flood- 
marks. 

1806. Wet ; very high flood in March ; flood in October. 

1825. Wet ; abundant rains in March ; floods in August. 

1844. Wet ; flood rains in June, and heavier in Octedber. 

1863. Wet ; January, February, and March, very heavy rain ; 

also August, and for sixteen days in October. 



1788. Wet; heavy rain, February and August ; October, 

November, dry. 
1807. Wet ; heavy rain and flood, January ; wet in Jime ; (no 

information end). 
1826. Wet ; heavy rain and flood, January ; floods in August ; 

September, October, November, dry. 
1845. Wet ; heavy rain, January and February ; flood rains in 

April ; August, September, and October, dry. 
1864. Wet ; heavy rain, February and March ; high flood in 

June ; September and November, dry. 



1789. Dry ; " the colonists suffered a parching thirst for several 

months." 
1808. Dry ; year very dry, but flood in November. 
1827. Dry ; dry year ; heavy rain in April ; little information to 

be had. 
1846. Dry ; dry year ; h^vy rain in November. 
1865. Dry ; dry year ; heAvy rain in November. 

1790. Dry ; Feoruaiy and March, heavy win ; no rain June to 

November. 



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162 METEOBOLOOICAL PEBIODICITT. 

1809. Dry ; February and March, hea^y rain ; floods, May arid 

July ; rest of year very dry. 
1828. Dry ; April and June, heavy rain ; end of year hot and 

dry. 
1847. Dry ; January, April, and May, heavy rain ; latter part of 

year very dry. 
1866. Dry ; January, February, heavy rain ; floods in June and 



,ry, nea\ 
id, dry. 



July ; August to en( 

1791. Early part severe drought ; (end no information). 

1810. Early part severe drought ; tanks dry in February ; flood 

in July. 

1829. Early part drought ; heavy rain, May and August ; flood 

in November. 

1848. Early part wet ; Februarv, April, May, dry ; flood rains', 

July and October ; ena dry. 

1867. January, February, dry ; March, April, very wet; June, 

highest flood on record ; end dry. 

1792. Dry ; heavy rain, April and September. 

1811. Dry ; early part dry ; Sydney tanks dry for weeks in Feb- 

ruary ; flood in March. 

1830. Rain in January; floods, March and April; floods in 

October and November. 

1849. Dry ; early part very dry ; heavy rain, May and July ; end 

very dry. 

1868. Dry ; January and February, wet ; March and April, very 

dry ; May and July, heavy rain ; end dry. 



1793. Early part dry ; rain in April and May. 

1812. Early part dry ; heavy rain in March ; floods in November. 

1831. Early part dry ; floods in April and May ; rain in 

November. 
1850. Early part dry ;' heavy rain-, March and April ; flood rains, 

July, and October. 
1869. Early part dry ; February and March, heavy rain ; flood 

in May ; heavy rain in November. 



1794. Moderate year ; very wet August. 

1813. Dry weather ; heavy rains in Octol^er. 

1832. Early part dry ; heavy rains in March and April ; May, 

June, July, very dry ; rain in August. 
1851. Early part dry ; heavy rain, February and April ; May to 

September, dry ; rain, October. 
1870. Early part dry ; March and May, heavy rain ; June to 

September, very dry ; rain, October and November. 



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METEOEOLOaiCAL PEBIOBICITT. 168 

1?95. Dry ; floods in January ; March, wet ; very heavy rain in 

August. 
1S14. Dry ; rains early in April ; early spring drought ; rain in 

October. 
1833. Dry ; rains, February and March ; spring drought ; rain in 

September. 



1S52. Dry ; March, rains ; June, heavy rain ; July, October, and 

December, dry ; rain in August and November. 
1871. Dry; March, Miy, and June, wet; July, October, De- 



1796. Early part, no information; floods in August; wet in 
December. 



1816. Verv dry ; rain in August and December. 
1834. Early part dry (water scarce in Sydney); : 
1853. February and April, very dry; heavy 
August ; September, October, and Dec< 
1872. February and April, dry; dry winter; rain in August 



1797. January, very hot ; March and April, wet ; May, June, 

Julv, very dry. 
1816. Ko information ; February, wet ; high floods, May 80 and 

June 20 ; dry spring. 
1835. January, very hot ; March, wet ; very dry winter ; July, 

rain ; dry spring. 
1854. January, hot ; rain, March, April, and June ; very dry all 

the rest of year. 
1873. January, hot ; February, great flood ; floods on the 6th 

and 18th June ; August, September, October, dry. 



1798. January and March, heavy rain ; May, wet ; very dry 

spring. 

1817. January and March, heavy rains ; May, wet ; (no infor- 

mation). 
1836. February and March, heavy rain ; May, wet ; snow in 

Sydney, June ; cold, dry spring. 
1866. February, March, April, wet ; winter, very cold ) dry, cold 

spring. 
1874. February to July, very wet ; winter, very cold ; August, 

September, dry. 

1799. Dry; January and February, hot and dry; floods in 

March. 

1818. Dry ; no information ; floods in March ; dry spring ; rain, 

September. 



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164 HETEOBOLOaiCAl. PEBIODIOTTT. 

1887. Dry ; February, hot and dry ; heavy rains, March ; Sep- 
tember to end of year, dry. 

1856. Dry ; March, April, May, heavy rains ; very dry spring. 

1875. Dry ; floods in March ; wet in April, May, and June ; July 

to end, very dry. 

1800. Early part dir ; March, heavy rain and fleod ; seems to 

have had (fry spring. 

1819. Early part dry ; February, March, Mid June, floods ; dry 

spring ; summer very diy. 

1838. Early part dry ; March and April, rain ; dry spring ; storm 

and rain, lOfch and 18th October ; 2nd November, day 
of humiliation on account of drought. 

1857. Early part dry ; February, March, and April, wet; Sep- 

temner, November, December, dry ; storm and rain, 6th 
and 7th October. 

1876. Early part dry ; April and May, wet ; storm and rain, 7th 

and 8th October. For the remainder of this year we 
have yet to write the history.* 

1801. A very high floodin March is the only information yet found. 

1820. Summer very diy ; Sydney water all gone, except in yrells; 

floods in June and July ; August, September, October, 
and November, yery dry ; heavy rain m December. 

1839. Summer very dry ; heavy rain in April ; dry spring ; rain 

in October. 

1858. Summer very dry ; heavy rain, April and May ; very dry, 

July, August, September, November, and December ; 
rain in October. 

1877. The character of this year we have yet to learn, but the 

series in which it stands has been very dry from the 
beginning. 
Bearing in mind that in this period it is supposed that the 
general character of the weather returns, and that it is only in 
some of the series that well-marfced 'characters develop them- 
selves, it is interesting to look back and see how the question of 
probability stands numerically, ninety years are under considera- 
tion ; of these there are only three, 1830-48-62, that are decided 
exceptions. I do not mean to say that there will be the same 
wet or the same amount of dry weather in every year of a scriets 
but that the general charocter of the 3^ars in each series will be 
the same ; in one year, for instance, 1870, there may be an ex- 
cessive fall of ram for two or three months, but take the year 
through, and it will be found very dry at the beginning ; a wet 

* Moderate rain feU in October 1876 along the Mountain and Coast 
district, bnt it wai still very dry in far west. In November moderate rain 
fell generally over the Colony, but the weather wa? very hot. In December 
no rain, 1st to 12th. 



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METEOKOtOOICAl FEEIODICITT. 165 

autumn, a dry spring, and then rain in the early summer, like 
other years in^the series. 

The droughts also show themselves very remaAably — 1865-6, 
1846-7, 1827-8, 1808-1809, 1789-1700. 

So, of the well-known three years drought, it appears first in 
1799, 1800, 1801 ; in 1818, 1819, 1820 ; in 1887, 38, 89 ; in 1866, . 
57, 58 ; and lasthr in 1875, 1876 ; of 1877 we have yet to learn 
the character. In 1819 there were some very severe floods, and 
80 in 1876 have we had similar heavy floods in some parts of the 
country, and so the great floods of 1809 find their representatives 
in 1866, fifty-seven years afterwards.* 

Heavy floods are not always an indication of" a wet year, very 
often they come in droughts, and naturally follow the great dis- 
turbances which then take place between the polar and equa- 
torial currents ; moreover, our rivers are so situated with respect 
to the mountains, that a heavy thunderstorm may make a flood, 
and in proof of this it may be stated that the first flood that ever 
alarmed the Hawkesbury settlers in 1799 came down on them 
without even an appearance of rain preceding it. 

In looking at these droughts which are recorded, it is worth 
while to notice one or two ot the traditions of the blacks. When 
Singleton was first settled, in 1821, the aborigines told the 
settlers that long before, there was a fearful drought, in which 
all the lower part of the Hunter Eiver dried up, and the only 
place they could obtain water was at the head of the river, 
amongst the mountain springs ; that here all the tribes — even 
those who bore each other the greatest enmity — collected, and 
for sake of dear life, lived peaceably for the time. Still the 
drought dragged on. All the great gum-trees died, and vast num- 
bers of the blacks, who were buried by their friends in a great 
field. In proof of these statements, tlie graves and dead trees still 
standing in 1822 were shown to the whites.t We may here recall 

* Droughts are a much more marked feature of climate than floods, for 
floods are often tiie product of a great storm, and some of the greatest 
hare come in notably dry years. Even in tiie fearfully dry vear 1862 
there was ym heavv rain in February, and in 1865, a memorable vear of 
drought, 9*877 in. fefi in November, and of this 4 inches fell in one day. So 
in June, 1866, 3 inches fell' on the 15th ; so of 1849, 5*610 in. fell in May, 
and of this 2*640 in. fell in one day. 

t In confirmation of the tradition of the blacks, it may be mentioned that 
a keen observer, who was sent by Captain King from Sydney to Melbourne 
along the coast, in 1802, says — ** All the gr€a4 gum trees were dead in every 

Slace I visited, and especially on Elephant Island, here I saw enormous 
ead trees, 5 to 6 feet m diameter, surrounded by a dense forest of young 
trees from 6 to 18 inches in diameter, these were only two or three feet 
apart, while of the old big trees there were only about twenty to the 
awe.*' The voune trees were just such a growth as might be expected in 
that rich soil in the forty or nHy years which bad probably elapsed sincb 
the great drought. 



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IGG HETEOBOjCOGICAL PEfllODICITT. 

the fearful drought extending over many years, in the middle of 
the 18th century (1740 to 1750), as sho^n in Mr. Sjinonds's 
work ; and we may mention that the drought of 1789 has its coun- 
terpart in England in 1788 ; that of 1814-15 here, in 1813-14 
there ; that of 1827 here, in 1826 there ; that of 1837-38 here, in 
, 1837-38 there'; that of 1846-47 here, in 1844-45 there. Many 
other instances might be given, but these are enough. {See 
diagram). 

In Africa, Livingstone records the drought of 1846-7 as 
follows-: — 

(" South Africa," pages 17 and 18.) 

" During the first year of our residence at Chonuane (1845) 
we were visited by one of those droughts which occur from time to 
time in even the most favoured districts of Africa. 

" In the second year (1846) scarce any rain fell ; the third was 
marked by the same extraordinary drought, and during these two 
vears the whole rainfall did not amount to 10 inches. The 
lEColobeng ran dry, and so many fish died that the hyenas from 
the country collected to the feast and were unable to clear away 
the putrid mass. A large old alligator was left high and dry in 
the mud among the victims. The fourth year, 1848, was equaUj 
unpropitious, the rain being insufficient to bring the grain to 
maturity ; needles lying out of doors for months did not rust ; 
and a mixture of sulphuric acid and water, used in a galvanic 
battery, parted with all its moisture to the air, instead of imbibing 
more from the atmosphere, as it would have done in England. I 
put the bulb of a thermometer three inches under the soil in 
the Sim at mid-dajr, and found that the temperature was from 
132° to 134*^. Ram would not fall, and dew there was none." 

Again, in India we have 1837 standing out as their most 
dreadful year of drought and famine.* 

Surely we have here enough to justify a strong suspicion, to 
say no more, that we have waves of drought passing over the 
earth, that we have an outside cause for the phenomena that has 
puzzled us so long — a phenomenon which we have every reason 
to believe is subject to laws as definite as those which hold the 
planets in their places, and the knowledge of which is fairly 
within our reach, if we have but patience to take the uphill way 
that leads to it. Nor must we at once assume that, if a period 
is proven at one place, we shall find the same at another. There 
is, I think, unmistakeable evidence of several involved periods ; 
out of the combination of these with local circumstances come 
the results there observed ; like the vibrations in musical notes, 

* In 1872 rain almost deserted Ben^nd, and fell in great quantity in 
Northern India, while the rainfall of 1873 was the lowest on record, with 
the single exception of 1837; and 1862, the very diy year in Sydney, was 
also a year of drought in Central Russia. 



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MST£OBOLOGICAL PEBIODICITT. 167 

thej will " beat" juBt in accordance with the conditions existing. 
For instance, with one of the waves of drought we may have the 
conditions which shift the trade winds and send a comparatively 
plentiful rain&ll ; or we may have a number of forces at work 
which shall make the nineteen years cycle of one place the thirty 
years period of another. 

As bearing upon this question, the history of Lake Oeorge is 
instructive, situated as it is in the mountains, with a well-defined 
catchment area, and no outlet. It forms a sort of natural rain- 
gauge, and should afford valuable information. I have been at 
some trouble to learn its history. In the latter part of 1820 it 
was discovered, and was then a magnificent sheet of water ; but, 
fine as it appeared, the blacks declared they had seen it dry, and 
even covered by a forest — tales that loosed, at the time, very 
improbable. The heavy rains of 1821 and 1822 fiUed it up con- 
siderably above what had been its level for many years, for it 
killed a great number of gum-trees round its margin, many of 
which were two feet in diameter. In 1824 it was twenty miles 
long, and about eight miles wide ; from 1820 the water 
gradually dried up, and during the drought of 1827, 1828, 1829, 
its size got rapidly less ; in 1828 it was fifteen miles long. In 
1882 it was possible to ride over it, and it appears to have been 
dry, or nearly dry, from Kenny's Point to George's Gap. In 
1836 it was visited by Sir Thomas Mitchell, and by him described 
as a grassy meadow like Breadalbane Plains, with dead timber on 
it. From this time it became a cattle and sheep run, at times 
having some water in it, which soon dried up. In 1842 and 1843, 
water accumulated ; but in 1846 and 1847 it got quite dry again, 
and it was not until the floods of 1862 that any large quantity of 
water stayed in it. In the drought of 1866 and 1868 the water 
nearly all disappeared ; but frpm 1870 it steadily increased, and 
by August, 1874, it was higher than ever before known, and 
again killed a number of trees around its margin. The water is 
now gradually decreasing (1876). It is therefore evident that 
from 1825 the lake decreased in size, and though sometimes of 
moderate extent after heavy rains, it soon dried up, and it was 
not until 1870 that the lake showed such decided signs of in- 
crease, rising to its maximum in 1874. It is difficult, nay impos- 
sible, to say in what jears the lake filled up before, but judging 
from the seasons, it is very probable that it began to fill m 1810 
and 1817, finding its maximum about 1822. Looking back at the 
droughts which came before these rains, it is most likely the lake 
was more or less dry from 1790 to 1800, and at that time afforded 
the experience related by the blacks in 1820 ; but taking only 
these points which are historical, we have the lake at its maxi- 
mum m 1824 and in 1874, a period of fifty .years. 

On the Hunter Eiver, about West Maitland, in the early 
days of the settlement, there were evidences of comparatively 



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168 METBOBOLOGICAL PEEIODIOITT. 

recent encroachments on the south or town side, and on the 
opposite side a considerable portion of land had been left by the 
nver, the current setting strongly on the town side ; but the 
water in an ana-branch still surrounding the portion that had 
been left, flood after flood came g;reat and small, and deposited 
mud, till the ana-branch was filled up, but no decided change' 
came in the river's course, even in the greatest floods of 1857 
and others, until 1870, when all at once, as it were, the river 
began to cut in on the town, and took away whole houses, even 
a terrace of small ones, and seemed disposed to cut off a large 
bend in the river, and many acres of the town, at the same time 
it made another large addition to the opposite side at that point, 
entirely changing its course. Judging trom the great floods in 
the Hawkesburj in 1816 to 1819, it is probaUe tlmt the Hunter 
was similarly visited ; indeed, there was debris in the trees at 
the first settlement which left no doubt of the fact, and we are 
left to form an opinion of the date from the recent character of 
the debris, and the banks of the river where changes had taken 
place ; and I do not think we <^n, from the known character of 
the seasons, place them at any other date than about 1817 ; or, 
in other words, we have evidence here of a similar period to that 
observed in Lake Gheorge ; and it is interestinff, in connectiar 
with the general' evidence from Lake G«orge and the Hunter of 
a long period during which the seasons seem to run to a cUmaz, 
to note some of the &ct8 in connection with the nineteen-year 
period, which seem to me to prove beyond doubt that there is 
a tendency here also to run at every tlurd period to a maximum. 
To take the whole of the evidence on this subject which mav be 
derived from the tabular statements would take much too Long 
for our present purpose, and a few instances will be sufficient to 
show that this tendency exists, which is all I wish to do at 
present : — 

1790. There was heavy rain in Februi^ and March, and it is 

said, " no rain fell from June to November," which was » 

very severe drought. 
1847. There were heavy rains in the early part of the year, but 

from May to the end of the year was a very severe drought. 
Again, 1809, one of the intermediate years, while generally a 

drjr year, and specially so at the end, had very heavy 

rams in May and July, and in the latter month a very 

heavy flood. 
While 1866, a similar year, and, like 1809, very dry at the end, 

had heavy floods in June and July. 

The other year of this series, 1828, there was heavy rain io 
April and June, and a very hot and dry spring. We have yet to 
learn if that fearful droughty so well kiiown of pld, will reappear 
in 1885. 



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ICBTBOBOLOOICJLL PKBIODICITT. 169 

Or, taking another line of the nineteen years series : — 

1797. January was very hot, March and April wet, and from 

May to ihe end of the year very dry. 
1854. January, hot ; March, April, and June wet ; all the rest 
. of the year very dry. Of the intermediate year, 1816, 

though there was, like these, a dij sprint, there were 

very hiffh floods, Bfay 30 and June 20, and heavy rain in 

November. 
While 1873, the fifty-seventh year from 1816, there were floods 

on the 6th and 18th June, almost returning to the day, 

and there was a dry spring. 

It is needless to multiplv instances — pages mieht be filled had 
we the time ; those which nave been given are siuBcient to estab- 
lish a very strong probability in favour of this law. To others, 
who have not investigated the &ct8, it may come with less force 
than it does to me ; but those who are interested will shortly 
have before them more complete information about the meteor- 
ology of New South Wales for past years than it is possible to 
give in this paper. 

Of the probable cause or causes, which produce the effects we 
have been considering, volumes might be written; but space 
requires me to condense into a few pages my views on this sub- 
ject ; and, at the risk of leaving out some points of importance, 
I will tnr to be as brief as possible. 

And first, allow me to nj, that I still hold the opinion (which 
was expressed in my " Notes on the Climate of New South 
Wales in 1870), viz., that it is wet or dry with us, just as the 
trade winds are weaker or stronger. In ouier words, that when 
from iome caute the trade winds and N.W. monsoon set to the 
■outhward with more force than usual, we have a preponderance 
of northerly and north-westerly winds, and, of course, dry 
weatiier, beoiuse ihe re^n of rain precipitation is on the mar- 
fi;in of tiie trades ; and if this is pusned to the south of us, we 
nave dry winds here, and an extra rain&ll on the south coast ; 
and if the trade wind is weaker we are in the rain region and 
have abundance of it ; and I have by no means given up the 
opinion expressed at the same time, that the moon has a ereat 
influence upon our weather. Every year oidy adds to the facts 
which, to me at least, prove lunar influence on the weather ; and 
had I time I should be fflad to introduce here many of them from 
my own observation which go to prove the moon's influence in 
firwmg and in distipatim; clouds, oesides many collateral facts 
proving her influence on the atmosphere, volcanoes, &c., but these 
must be left for another opportumty. 

Since 1870 many facts bearing upon the interdependence of 
tike parts of the solar i^stem have been brought to light, more 
•specially by the study of meteoric astronomy, which seem to 



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170 HETEOBOLOOICAL FERIODICITT. 

throw light on many historical statements, and phenomena that 
have been observed in more recent times — phenomena which I 
I think a little consideration will convince us could not take place 
without producing very decided effects upon the earth's atmo- 
sphere. 

It has been proved that the number of meteor streams is 
almost inconceivable; that they revolve about the sun at all 
degrees of inclination to the ecliptic, and in all sorts of periods ; 
that many of them have their perihelion within the earth s orbit ; 
and that m the meteor rings tnere is not a uniform distribution 
of the matter composing it, as has been shown by Professor 
Newton. With regard to comets also, facts seem to prove that 
they are not uniformly distributed in space, the sun in nis onward 
course meeting more at one time than at another. "From 1600 to 
1750 (150 years), only sixteen comets were visible to the naked 
eye ; of these, eight appeared in twenty -five years (1664 to 1689) ; 
and during the sixty years (1750 to 1810) only five comets were 
visible to the naked eye, while in the next fifty years there were 
double that number."— (" Kirkwood.") 

From these known conditions we should expect that at times 
the earth would pass regions of greater meteoric density, in 
which the denser portions of meteor rings happened to come 
together ; in this way, in all probability, so much matter inter- 
venes between the earth and sun that his heating power is tem- 
porarily much reduced.* And every one who has watched the 
sun's heating power knows that it varies enormously, and the 
sun-spots do not seem to affect it. When these changes are 
observed in the solar radiation, all that can be seen with the 
telescope directed to the sun is a troublesome thickness and con- 
fusion in the air that is a bar to all delicate observations. At 
night the same thickness in the air may often be detected, and it 
reveals itself to the naked eye as a phosphorescent or milky 
appearance in what should otherwise be a black sky. 

It is amongst these phenomena, the laws of which are daily 

* And observation proves this to be fact, for whenever the son has been 
seen in total eclipses its envelope has had a most irrc^g^olar form, generally 
radiated. At times the corona, as in December, 1870, extended roond ld&* 
of the sun's circumference, while the other 180** was divided into three 
irre^lar rays by dark spaces which extended nearly to tiie sun's limb ; cm* 
agam, as in 1868, forming no less than nine rays extending from the sun to 
an inunense distance into space. In 1870, photograt>hy provml that the corona 
extended for nearly double the sun's diameter on one side, while at another 
place the extent was onlv one-eighth of this, and it is evident that matter 
which is capable of reflecting light and heat must be also sufficient to 
prevent some of the radiation from the sun, and, as Proctor justly remarka, 
"Science By-ways," pace 161, "no reasonable doubt can exist that the 
matter (forming the solar corona) is no other than the meteoric and 
cometic matter which other researches have taught us to recognise as plen- 
tifully strewn throughout the regions around the sim. " 



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METfiOBOLOGICAL FEfilODICITY. 171 

being brought more within our reach, that I think we must look 
for the causes which produce the proverbial uncertainty of the 
weather— an uncertainty which will doubtless disappear when we 
shall have learned more'aboiit the smaller elements of the solar 
system. 

Here also we shall find an explanation of the dependence of 
the seasons of the two hemispheres, and the reason why a 
remarkable season in the north may be followed by a similar 
one in the south, or vice versa. For the causes of which we have 
been speaking may last days or months, and in the latter case 
would have a similar effect upon both hemispheres ; but if the 
duration is short, the similarity in effect would probably not be 
noticed, for a very clear ether and increased solar effects would 
have different results in an Australian summer and an English 
winter. 

In this view of our subject it will be interesting to refer to 
opinions which have been expressed by others. A well-marked 
depression in temperature has been observed in Europe in the 
months of February and May, and the celebrated M. Erman 
considered that " this is causea by the interposition of meteoric 
rings between us and the sun, and that the increase in tempera- 
ture in August and November is caused by their preventing 
radiation from our globe, and possibly by radiation towards us of 
a part of the heat which they tnemselves receive ;" and a "French 
physicist, M. Deville, who has examined in the most crucial 
manner the temperatures of the months of August and November 
since 1808, has detected the fact that in both months there is an 
increase of temperature about the period of the star showers, 
and a decrease m February and May, which he does not hesitate 
to ascribe to the influence of meteoric rings." (Guilemin, Ast.) 

It may be mentioned that the 10th of August meteor stream, 
if disposed in the form of a flat ring, would encounter the 
ecliptic between the 6th and 11th oi February, and would 
partially eclipse the sun*s light. 

As the data upon which these views were founded were for the 
northern hemisphere, it is interesting to inquire if any similar 
phenomena have presented themselves here ; and, comparatively 
short as the time of oup observations has been, we get several 
marked instances, and in every year examined there is a depres- 
sion in the temperature curve between the 5th and 11th of 
February, and in nearly all cases it is on the 8th, 9th, or 10th. 

In 1869 there is a marked &11 in the annual temperature curve 
in February, although during February there was less cloud and 
cool south wind than in March and January. In the tempera- 
ture curve for that month there is a great depression on the 10th, 
and on the nights of the 10th and 1 1th there were terrific cyclonic 
storms, with thimder and lightning, in >Sydney. 



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173 METEOROLOGICAL PEBIODtCITT. 

» 

In 1868alB0 there waaa greatfall in the temperature in Eebruary, 
and the average for the month was only equal to that of Marcn. 

In 1860, February temperature is again below January and 
March, and there was less south wind in February than in either 
of the other months. On the 9th, 10th, and 11th there were 
storms of thunder, lightning, and heavy rain. 

Other remarkable depressions in the temperature of other 
months might be given of the same kind, but these will suffice of 
particular mstances. 

No one can, I think, look at the temperature curve plotted 
for a number of years without being struck by it» stran|;e 
anomalies. One year the temperature runs up suddenly to its 
maximum, and one month, or part of it, constitutes the summer ; 
while in another year it rises to the same temperature and 
retains it for two or three months, the temperature of each being 
quite as high as the jear of short summer. It is the same in 
winter. T^e curve is pointed, or rounded, in direct accordance 
with the circumstances which modify the sun's heating power. 
That these are between us and the sun does not, I conceive, 
admit of a doubt. Year after year the sun rolls on, and the spots 
which we see on his surface do not sem to afEect his heating 
power, or if they do, almost inappreciably ; while month after 
month, or season after season, strange irregular changes take 
place in the temperature, which can only be accounted for on 
the supposition that space between the sun and earth is not 
empty. To what extent these cosmical causes may interfere 
m^ be judged from historical statements. 

Humboldt remarks with regard to the occasional darkening of 
the sun, that " a phenomenon of this kind, which cannot be ex- 
plained by fogs or volcanic ashes, occurred in the year 1547 
(24th to 28th August), and lasted three days. The sun was 
reddish, and so dark tnat several stars were visible at noonday " 
Similar darkenings of the sun's surface occurred in 1090 and 
1208, but lasted for a shorter time — the former for three hours 
and the latter for six hours. Messier states that on the 17th 
June, 1777, about noon, he perceived an immense number of 
black globules pass over the sun's disc. Two other obscurations 
of the sun, that of the beginning of February, 1106, and that of 
12th of May, 1706, during which, about 10 o'clock in the morn- 
ing, it became sex dark tha*: bats commenced flying, and persons 
were obliged to light candles, do not appear to admit of any 
other explanation. 

One other case from Eoman history may be mentioned : — ^**At 
certain times the sun appears to be not of nis wonted brightness, 
as it happened to be for a whole year when Csesar was murdered, 
when it was so darkened that it could not ripen the fruits of the 
earth." — Virgil^ Gtjor., Liber 1, Ac. 



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METEOBOLOOTCAL FEBIODICITT. 178 

Dr. Weisfl of Vienna, says : — ^** Cosmical clouds undoubtedly 
appear in the universe, but only of such density that in most 
cases they possess sufficient coherence to withstand the des- 
tructive operation of the sun's attraction, not only up to the 
boundaries oi our system, but even within it." 

He considers that comets from these clouds, when the earth 
meets them, give ocular demonstration of the fact in a shower of 
meteors ; and on the 27th of November, 1872, when the earth 
passed over the orbit of Biela's comet, such a shower actually 
took place, and a magnificent display of meteors was seen. At 
Turin, 33,400 were observed in 6^ hours ; and in other places 
similar displays were seen ; and if to thesd recorded meteors we 
add the far greater number that were not seen, we get some idea 
of the density of this stream representing only a faint comet, and 
how potent a cause for effects on terrestrial temperature may 
exist between the earth and the sun, all unheeded by us. 

I confess that the account given of the darkening and red 
colour of the sim during a whole year does not seem to me so 
incredible as many have esteemed it ; for we have in modem 
times two accounts of a similar phenomenon, lasting for weeks, 
viz., the drtfftMjfs of 1783 and 1831. Manv have attributed these 
to the action of volcanoes, and it is well Known that in 1783 the 
fearful earthquakes in Calabria took place in February, and 
began a long Est of volcanic eruption in the world ; but in esti- 
wiating the part played by volcanoes in these and similar 
phenomena, it is to be borne in mind that there must be a cause 
for the volcanic outbreak, and probably a cosmical one. Modem 
research has shown that they are subject to tidal effects like the 
ocean, or to distant attractive forces, and that eruptions are not 
caused by contraction of the earth's surface only, but by this and 
some other forces combined. 

Besides, if great volcanic eruptions produced these dry fogs, 
we should have had many recorded in the world's history, and the 
peculiar and disagreeable smell would have been recognised; 
probably, also, rain would have thrown them down. 

On the other hand, dust has been collected on the high snow* 
covered mountains, and when examined it proved to be meteoric 
dust. 

Of the dry fog which came on suddenly in June, 1873, it is 
recorded that it extended from the northern coasts of Africa, over 
France, to Sweden, and over great part of' North America, and 
lasted more than a month. Thivellers found it on the summits of 
the Alps. Abundant rains in June and July, and* most violent 
winds aid not dissipate it ; and, in some places, it was so dense 
thftt the sun could not be seen until it had attained an altitude 
of twelve degrees, and throughout the daytime it was red and so 
dull that it might be looked at with the naked eye. The fog 



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174 METEOBOLOGICAL PEBIODICITT. 

diffused a disagreeable odour, and the humidiiy ranged from 57 
to 68, while in an ordinary fog it is 100. It had a phosphoresoent 
appearance, and the light at midnight was compared to that of 
the full moon. The second instance : — 

The extraordinary fog of 1831 excited public attention in the 
four quarters of the world. It appeared on the 

Coast of Africa August 3. 

' At Odessa August 9. 

In South France August 10. 

Paris ,. August 10. 

New York..^ August 15. 

Canton (China) End of August. 

This fog was so thick that it was possible to observe the sun 
all day with the naked eye, and without a dark glass, and in some 
places the sun could not be seen till it was 15 or 20° high. At 
Algiers, United States, and Canton, the sun's disc appeared of an 
azure blue or of a greenish colour. Where the fog was dense, 
the smallest print could be read even at midnight. 

M. A rago, the great French astronomer, was at some trouble 
to prove that these fogs could not be comets, and gave as his 
priTicipal reason that it would be impossible for the head of the 
comet to rise and set with the sun for more than a month, which 
is quite true ; but it is nevertheless possible that the comet left 
part of his tail with the earth, while the head was too insignifi- 
cant to be seen. 

I will not stay to point out the bearing of these factn on the 
opinions previously expressed, for this paper is already too long 
A wide field for speculation is opened up when we look at some 
K- t which have been brought forward to-night ; and I 

think enough has been said to convince us that, in diticussing the 
^^r^^^?y of the past or the future, we must ever bear in mind 
that the solar system is not stationary— it is rolling on into the 
" Ik f ^7^ regions of space. What changes in the cosmical ether, 
what clouds of meteoric matter, what strange forces we shall 
encounter m common with other members of the solar system, 
^uJfni i^amed. But space is no longer empty : day by day, 

^ iSlnfi^ advances, we have to acknowledge new-found denizens 
Z.^ TrTA^l^ expanse, and recognise new relations between the 
round us ^^^*ol<i occupants of celestial space which sur- 

oftK'J?i?^''T^''*^^**l^y«*a^«* ^^OBe with the presence 
the funct^t- r I'^'' ^ ^^°g familiar. We have yet to learn 
measure how J^ electecity in regard to climate ; we have yet to 
of meteors T.^^- l^ ^® produced by the friction of millions 
numberless of k! i? ***^^g*^ our atmosphere, not to mention 
which, so far P*^®^^*»e^^ comparatively within our reach, but 
> are by no means within our knowledge. The 



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M£TEOROLOGICAL PEBIODICITT. 175 

celebrated M. Arago, after a profound investigation of this subject, 
uses words that are well worthy of study, and with -them I will 
close : — 

" Thus the various phenomena of the celestial vault and of 
meteorology, even while they appear by their irregularity to 
defeat the sagacity of the human mind, are ultimately found by 
profound investigation to be connected by sublime relationship. * 



Discrssioy. 

TnE HoK. John Smith, M.D., M.L.C., said thia interesting con* 
tribution to the meteorological literature of New South Wales 
matly extended the scope of Mr. Uussell's former paper. He 
deserved great praise for the industry he had shown in hunting 
up the old records. He (Dr. Smith) had done something of 
this sort a few years ago for the Water Commission, hunting up 
notices of the weather in the newspapers, from 1802 down- 
wards. He believed Mr. Bussell had now exhausted all available 
sources, and they need not look for any additional information 
of value between the foundation of the Colony and the com- 
mencement of regular observations in 1840. All they had to do 
was to study carefully the facts collected. (In proof of the 
difficulty of getting trustworthy accounts of former years, Dr. 
Smith compu^d the statement of Captain Stokes, of the Beadle, 
as to the drought of 1838-9, with fetters kept on record by a 
friend residing in Sydney. According to Captain Stokes there 
was no rain at all here for eight or nme months, including the 
period from November, 1838, to March, 1839 ; but the gentleman 
referred to mentioned several instances of rainfaU in that 
period.) He (Dr. Smith) concurred in the theory of Mr. 
Itussell, that we get our rain from the meeting of the cold polar 
wind with the warm moist equatorial wind (or the return trade 
wind). The zone of rainfall probably oscillates north and 
south, according as the polar wind or the equatorial predomi- 
nates. A comparison of results at Hobart Town or Launceston, 
Wilson's Promontory, Twofold Bay, Sydney, Port Macquarie, 
Brisbane, and Bockhampton, would oring out the truth as to this 
oscillation. Last year Melbourne and Tasmania had more than 
the usual quantity of rain, while we had less. From this it 
appeared that either the return trade wind was too strong, or 
the polar wind was too weak for this Colony. If the fact of 
oscillation of the rain belt can be established, we should then go 
a step further and seek to ascertain the cause of the oscillation. 
The Hon. L. F. De Salis, M.L.C., expressed his opinion of the 
hieh importance of Mr. Bussell's paper. He (Mr. De Salis) firmly 
beUevea that there was periodicity m the weather of the Colony. 



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176 METEOBOLOaiCAL PBRTODICITT. 

He had taken some trouble in examining the question. The 
rainfall was north or south according to the strength of the 
monsoon. This wa« ascertained by Mr. Todd, on the overland 
telegraph, where he had special opportunities for observation. 
We ought to avail ourselves of the trans-continental electric 
telegraph, to secure observations across the interior. He 
beUeved the sun to be the great motive power in all the weather. 
The moon also had an influence. He found by Admiral Fitzroy's 
work, that he was a powerful lunarist ; and did it not stand to 
reason that these changes in cycles of nineteen years were con- 
nected with the moon riinning through all its course, as the 
eclipse proved, in nineteen years. Could anything be more likely 
than tiiat the moon in going through all her grand changes would 
affect the weather ? The moon affects the tide twice in every 
lunation ; so it might affect the changes of the weather twice in 
every nineteen years. And he believed there were cycles of 
nine and a half years. Then the same weather occurred every 
tiiirty -eight years, that is twice nineteen years, or four times 
nine and a half years. 

As to the nebulosity of the meteoric rings which darkened the 
sun, no doubt that also had some effect on the weather. There 
was a correspondence between the weather in England and here. 
He thought i)r. Smith's friend was not quite right about the 
drought of 1838-9. He had seen the diary kept by Mr. Close 
in those years, and it entirely corroborated the statement as to 
the extraordinary drought. The labours of Mr. Russell might 
lead to most valuable results, especially if they kept a record^ of 
the pain at different places in the interior. It would then be 
possible to prepare for a time of drought, and to mitigate its bad 
consequences. At present he believed three-fourths of the cattle 
in the interior had perished. And the drought was not over yet. 

Mr. Bus SELL, in answer to questions said, at every place on the 
earth's surface they would probably find a period peculiar to the 

Elace. There was some incucation of a period of thirteen years 
ere. The facts he had collected on the subject occupied 250 
to 300 pages of manuscript. Thero was no proof that the sun's 
spots affected the weather. 

The Chairman said, forty-two years ago he had collected in a 
book before h^uij materials bearing on this question, which con- 
firmed Mr. Russell's view aa to the causes of meteorological 
changes being cosmical. They were also connected with opera- 
tions in the interior of the earth. He (Mr. Clarke), had traced 
changes of the weather as far back as 1101, and down to 1883. 

A vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Buss^l. 

Mr. BrssELL, in further illustration of the subject, said the 
rainfall differed much at short distances. Sometimes there wat 



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HETBOBOLOeiCAL PEBIODICITT. 177 

only 1-lOth inch here while there was 1 inch at South Head. 
Tasmania has a very different climate from ours, quite insular, 
and there is no douht a two jear»' period did exist for many years 
in Tasmania, but they never have really dry seasons there. The 
evidence of the nineteen years period here is I think so strong 
that it does not admit of much doubt. 



[Thne diAgrami.] 



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179 



EFFECTS OF FOREST VEGETATION ON CLIMATE. 
By the Rev. W. B. Clabke, M.A., F.R.S., &c. 



IRead before the Uoyal Society of N.8. JF., 1 Xovanber, 1876.] 



At oup last meeting we had the pleasure of listening to a very 
able and instructive paper on " Meteorological Periodicity," by 
my learned colleague, the Colonial Astronomer, an essay which 
exhibited the resmts of his diligence and thoughtful discrimina- 
tion. 

The topic was one in which, in the course of my own researches, 
more than forty years ago, entered into a somewhat wider field 
than Mr. Eussell has chosen for his special investigation, since it 
embraced not only Meteorological but other Physical phenomena, 
and especially the internal as well as the external influences that 
produce either recurring or abnormal changes in the organism of 
this planet and the health of its inhabitants. 

I confess I felt a desire; on the occasion referred to, to say 
8omething relating to the last-mentioned of these effects, but the 
hour was late and the speakers had been many, and it was on the 
whole better to have deferred my comments on Mr. Russell's 
remarks till the whole of his design had been completed. At the 
s*ame time I deem it fitting to acknowledge that my own inquiries 
justify a full reception of many of his conclusions, although his 
range of observation was limited rather to the illustration of our 
Australian region than extended to the more universal evidences 
derived from ancient as well as modem instances of " Meteoric 
phenomena, Vicissitudes in the seasons, and Prevalent disorders 
contemporaneous and in supposed connection with Volcanic 
emanations," which was the subject of various essays published 
by me in the years 1833-4-5. 

I propose tJ)-night to call attention to something in a different 
direction which has also a bearing on the interests of the Colony, 
which may have interest for some here present, and which only 
takes the place which I expected would have been occupied to- 
night by a discussion from another quarter on a somewhat allied 
branch of inquiry, in which Forest vegetation will be considered 
under a different aspect, viz., in relation to Geological influences. 



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180 EFFECTS OF F0BE8T TZOETA.TION OX CL13IA.TE. 

Tlie«e latter will only be incidentally alluded to in the following 
remarks. 

It may, perhaps, have never been seriously contemplated by 
numerous persons who have traversed this territory, that tte 
progress of clearing land in such a forest region as New South 
Wales must have various effects on Climate and Sanitary con- 
ditions, and that civilization has destructive as well as conserva- 
tive tendencies. 

I would not dwell on the influence upon scenery of improperly 
•conducted clearings. A consideration of that kmd can hardly 
^nter into the mind of a person who can deliberately leave acres 
of unfelled timber, bare of foliage, barkless, and broken by the 
winds, such as might be enumerated by the score in some of the 
once most beautiiul tracts in the counties of Cumberland and 
Oamden ; nor is it necessary to point out the array of giants of 
the forest that stud the summit of the Dividing Bange at the 
•back of Heidelberg, in Victoria, or examples of landscape scenery 
ipartly ruined by me ravages of insects. It may be true that tl^ 
«custom of ring-harking trees is productive, for a time, of som^ 
extra growth of grass ; but to say nothing of the deprivation of 
shade to flocks and herds, or of waste of timber, as in the cedar 
districts of our eastern coast rivers by the ruthless and wilful 
wielders of the axe, who leave upon die ground to decay in 
ignominy some of the finest and most noble of our trees, I can- 
not help expressing groat surprise that gentlemen who in general 
character and condition of life aro far above the hungry and 
uneducated selector or wood-splitter can allow ring-bark ing in 
places whero grass can never grow, and whero nature embellished 
the rocks with woods. Such I have seen to be the case in many 
a spot far away from those beforo alluded to. It is a question- 
able policy that some of such clearings should have been per- 
mitted, and till the '* woods and forests *' have been takc^ under 
the protection of Government, many a district of rich timber 
will continue to be foolishly destroyed, and many a scene of 
sylvan beauty will be desecrated. A romark of this kind may 
perhaps be laughed at by some as not worthy of tiiought ; but I 
can anord to put up with such a inception, in tke consciousness 
that ridicule would be undeserved. The late Bishop of Australia 
once said to me, as we travelled together through a rogion of 
nakai, ring-barked trunks of trees, that he wished some thousands 
a year could be put upon the Estimates in order to clear them 
from the land, and in that wish I doubt not many besides the 
Bishop have concurred. [See Appenduc, No, 1.] 

I pass on to something of, perchance, greater importance than 
one of mero artistic or aesthetic taste. Yet, beforo so doiu^ 
I would call to the romembrance of the Director of the Botani- 
cal Gardens the sentiments expressed by him and his companions, 



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EFFECTS OF FOBEST VEGETATION OK CLIMATE. 181 

¥rben in the autumn of 1878, the Hon. Mr. Barlee, Colonial Secre- 
tary of Western Australia, and myself looked down from the 
edge of the escarpment oyer the relics of the beautiful jungle 
that once nearly covered the whole space in that part of the 
lUawarra which lies between* Bixon's Pass and the ocean at 
Bulli, when we found that that most lovely patch of greenery, 
containing plants that are now being eradicated altogether, was in 
possession of a Company, who were about to undermine it in 
search for coal. I omy regret that Mr. Moore's engagements 
have hitherto prevented his intention of describing the plants in 
that isolated patch and bringing its features before this Society. 
Hoping he may yet realise his intention, I will omit any further 
allufidon to the scene. 

The paper of Mr. Bussell had distinct reference to droughts 
and floods ; and in seeking to discover whether any and what 
periodicity exi^ respecting them in Australia, he made no allu- 
sion to any possible effect of our forest vegetation on climate. 
That there may be such effects, however feeble in comparison 
with the more f(N*midable cosmical operations of nature produc- 
ing atmospheric and meteoric phenomena, I firmly believe : and 
in order to justify my own condusions I will refer to and quote 
the statements and deductions of other obrervers, who are enti- 
tled to die fullest reliance. 

It is well, known that many regions which were fertile in 
ancient times have since become desert, and that countries which 
were incapable of bearing fruit are now amongst the best wine- 
growing districts in the world. 

Various causes have, no doubt, operated on the large scale in 
some regions beyond what we are now specially concerned with : 
and a passing remark may be made that, whereas in older geolo- 
gical epochs Coal measure vegetation, and in younger down to 
d^ Miocene «ra, as shown by Professor Heer, a rich flora 
extended over large portions of the Arctic regions, Greenland, 
which since a.i>. 1B48 has been blocked up by ice, then being 
coTered by forest vegetation ; so in times oi Biblical history 
the waste treeless tracts of Syria, Egypt, and Palestine were 
well wooded, and fertilised byTiving streams— the present barren 
Wadys occupying oftentimes the channels of once strong run- 
ning waters. Tacitus (Germania, v.) tells us that fruit trees 
would not thrive in the very country where now the vine is most 
luxuriant. He calls it frugiferarum arborum impoHens, 

" If we ask," says Professor Schleiden,'in his most delightful 
work " Die Planze, The Plant, a Biography," " the cause of this 
mighty change, we are directed to the disappearance of the forests. 
With the careless destruction of the growth of trees man inter- 
feres, to alter the natural conditions of a country. "We can, 
indeed, now raise one of the finest wines upon tl^e Rhine, where 



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182 EFFECTS OF F0BE8T VEGETATION ON CLIMATE. 

two thousand years ago no cherry ripened ; but on the other 
hand, these lands where the dense population of the Jews was 
nourished by a fruitful culture, are in the present day half 
deserts. The cultivation of clover, requiring a moist atmosphere, 
has passed from Greece to Italy, from thence to Southern 
Germany, and already b beginning to fly from the continually 
drier summers there, to be confined to the moister north. Bivers 
which formerly scattered their blessings with equal fulncBS 
throughout the whole year, now leave the dry and thirsty bed to 
split and gape in summer, while in spring they suddenly pour 
out the masses of snow accumulated in winter over the dwelling- 
places of affrighted men. 

" If the continued clearing and destruction of forests is at 
first followed by greater warmth, more southern climate, and 
more luxuriant thriving of the more delicate plants, yet it draws 
close behind this desirable condition another which restrains the 
habitability of a region within as narrow as, and perhaps even 
narrower limits than, before. In Egypt, no Pythagoras need 
now forbid his scholars to live upon beans {Nelumhium speciosum) ; 
long has that land been incapable of producing them. The wine 
of Mendes and Mareotis, which inspired the guests of Cleopatra, 
which was celebrated even by Horace, grows no more. No 
assassin now finds the holy pine-grove of Poseidon in which to 
hide and lie in ambush for the singers hastening to the feast. 
The pine has long since retired before the invading desert 
climate to the heights of the Arcadian mountains. Where are 
the nastures now, where the fields around the holy citadel of 
Daraanus, at the foot of the richly-watered Ida, supported 
3,000 mares ? * Who can talk now of the * Zanthus with its 
hurrying^ waves ' ? Who would understand now the * Argos, 
feeder of horses ' ? " 

After this burst of eloquence Schleiden quotes the thoughts 
of the venerable Eliaa Fries of Lund, and adds — " A broad \)and 
of waste land follows gradually the steps of civilization. If it 
expands, its centre ana its cradle dies, and on the outer borders 
onnr do we find green shoots. But it is not impossible, only 
difficult for man, without renouncing the advantf^ee of culture 
itself, one day to make reparation for the injury he nas inflicted; 
he is the appointed lord of creation.'* 

• • • * • 

** Before him lay original Nature in her wild and sublime beauty. 
Behind him he leaves a desert, a deformed and ruined land ; for 
childish desire of destruction, or thoughtless squandering of 

* " Three thousand jnares liis spacious pastures bi'ed ; 
Three thousand foals beside their mother fed." 

—Pope's Homer, xx., 262. 



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EFFECTS OF FOBEST TEGETATION ON CLIMATE. 183 

Tegetable treasures has destroyed the character of Nature, and 
terrified man himself flies from the arena of his actions, leaving 
the impoverished earth to barbarous races or animals, so long as 
yet another spot in virgin beautjr smiles before him. 

" Here again in selfish pursuit of profit, and consciously or 
unconsciously following the abominable principle of the great 
moral vileness which one man has expressed apres nous le dSluge, 
he begins anew the work of destruction." (Henf rey's Schleiden's 
Eleventh Lecture, p. 304-6.) 

There is much in this reasoning of the German professor 
which a^ees with the sentiments of the late Sir Henry Holland, 
Bart., wno in an able critical essay in the Edinburgh Beview of 
1864, of Marsh's excellent work "Man and Nature," says: — 
" It is the forest which actively ministers to the climatic con- 
ditions of the earth, which, extirpated by the axe or restored by 
planting, changes both the face of nature and the distribution 
and destinies of human life." The simple name of Forest will 
hardly bring to the casual reader a conception of all that it 
implies ; of the vast extent of the earth's " surface thus covered 
in every zone to the very confines of the Arctic Circle ; of the 
various aspects and qualities of this great forest mantle, and of 
its relation to all the moving elements of the natural world. It 
is impossible to estimate, even by loose approximation, the actual 
extent of surface so occupied. We have given reasons for 
believing that the earth was largely covered with wood at the 
time when man first became its denizen." Mr. Marsh himself 
enters most minutely into the use and value of Forest vegeta- 
tion, and describes with accurate care the effects consequent on 
the clearing of his native American lands bv the axe or the 
prairie fire: — "With the disappearance of the forest all (he 
says) is changed. At one season the earth parts with its warmth 
by radiation to an open skv, and receives at another heat from 
the unobstructed rays of the sun. Hence the climate becomes 
excessive, and the soil is alternately parched by the. fervour of 
summer and seared by the rigours of winter. Bleak winds 
sweep unresisted over its sur&ce, drift away the snow that 
sheltered it ^om the frost, and dry up its scanty moisture. . . . 
The washing of the soil from the mountains leaves bare ridges 
of sterile rock, and the rich organic mould which covered them, 
now swept down into the damp low grounds, promotes a luxu- 
riance of aquatic vegetables that breed fever and more insidious 
forms of mortal disease by its decay." — ("Man and Nature, or 
Physical Geography as modified by Human Action." .By George 
P. Marsh. 1864.) 

The reviewer of this enthusiastic work points out where the 
author leans t6o partially to one side of his argument, but fairly 
joins him in affirming that " vegetation, under the form of woods, is 



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184 EFFECTS OF FOBEST VEGETATION' OW CLDCATE. 

necessary, more or less, to the well-being of every country ; and 
that manv regions once fertile have become otherwise by the loss 
or curtailment of this magnificent provision^of Nature for their 
covering." He points out that there is a remedy in " planting 
fresh forests where none exists (#tfr^ arhoret qua alteri sweulo 
pro9int)y' and refers to Mr. Fox Wilson's memoir, read before 
the British Association, " regarding an extensive region in the 
Orange River territory of South Africa, bearing marks of 
having been formerly well W'ooded, but now utterly treeless and 
barren." 

This will be noticed hereafter. 

It has been stated by Dr. Kelly (Transactions of the Literary 
and Historical Society of Quebec, III., part 1, p. 46), from com- 
parison pf ancient documents, that the climate of Canada has 
not varied much for the last 200 years ; and by other writers^ 
that England in the time of the Norman Conquest, about 800 
years ago, resembled that of Canada in its extremes of heat and 
cold, its dense covering of forests, and its growth of vineyards 
and accumulations of winter snows and ice. Grapes certainly 
ripen now in the south-eastern part of England when propjeriy 
cared for, as I know they did on the walls and roof of my father's 
house ; and, I believe, even as far north as Archangel, in Eussia; 
but it is impossible to doubt that the clearing of the forests 
which formerly covered three-fourths of the country has modi- 
fied the climate of England, whilst a change in an opposite 
direction has been said by Mr. Williams to mtve taken place by 
the introduction of the hawthorn hedges (Oratwgus ox^eanika) 
that npw universally obtain. That author says, in his book on 
the Climate of Grreat Britain, that during sixty or seventy years 
previous to his publication, these hedges had producea wet 
summers. 

Perhaps this method of dealing with the subject may be con- 
Bidered too vague to carry conviction with it ; but it is only 
within a few.years past that Climatology has taken the appear- 
ance of an exact science, and observations respecting any of the 
elements of Meteorology — still in its infancy, and only yet par- 
tially understood— had no existence in the distant periods to 
which, for comparison with the present, we are called upon partly 
to have recourse. Moreover, all climates are merely local ; and 
what may be strictly true of one region may have httle relation 
to the particular conditions of another. Nevertheless, there are 
certain general facts that may be so applied, and specially in 
such an inquiry as the present, though many of the circumstances 
may be wanting to meet the strict objects of what is called 
modem Science. Each country has its own peculiar character- 
istics, and there are many geological data to be considered in 
relation to climate before what applies to one region especially 



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EFFECTS OF FOEBST TEGETATIOX ON CLIMATE. 185 

can safely be made strictly, applicable to another widely separated 
from the former. Still, there are certain conditions always capa- 
ble of entering into the practical working of the problem, such 
as the effect of forest shade as preventiug evaporation — the 
electrical agency of foliage, so great as to cause a single tree to 
produce Bumcient electricity to charge a Ley den jar — the con- 
densation of atmospherical vapour, and other agencies, which all 
belong to the question before us. 

There is also a reciprocal effect of Climate on vegetation, 
which cannot be omitted, if perfect balancing of elements enter 
into the problem to be solved. 

And yet we shall find that the Author of the Universe has 
providea peculiar and wondrous machinery to meet exceptional 
cases. Take, for instance, the influence of Vegetation on the 
ivtanosphere in the case of what a botanist of eminenc^, and an 
author of some interesting works on botanical subjects about 
half a century aco, included in his account of " Eainmg Trees." 
He enumerates the vrillow and poplar as producing even a gentle 
shower when grouped together. The properties of such plants 
as Gomtts (macula) ^ the Tillandsia, Nepenthes distillaforia, and 
other pitcher plants, which are resorted to by monkeys and mice, 
and especially the " Eose of Jericho " (Anastatica hierochuntina)^ 
that extraordinary succulent which inhabits the surface of a 
burning desert, were experimented upon by" the author I refer 
to, Mr. Murray, F.L.S., who reported on the latter to the Horti- 
cultural Bodetj of London. 

Mr. Murray refers to a tree met with by Cockbum (" Voy- 
ages ") at Vera Paz, in South America, which distilled water 
from the end of every leaf, and in a time of extreme heat 
had wet ground around it, and names a Calla and an J^a- 
panthua as affording a counterpart. He further cites^ Glass's 
" History of the Canary Islands,'* as to a tree in the Island of 
Hierro, called Til by the natives, to which they applied the term 
garse or sacred, and which had the property of condensing vapour, 
so that rain, as it were, fell from it so copiously that it was 
received in a tank and meted out to the inhabitants. 

To justify in some degree this to some apparently incredible 
fact, Mr. Murray mentions what is capable oi more easy verifi- 
cation, viz., that in avenues of elms and Lombardjr poplars, when 
a fog prevails, though the ground outside the leaty border be dry 
and parched, within the limits of the foliage it is wet, and he' states 
the time when he noticed this to have been in the month of Sep- 
tember, 1828, and that the place where this kind of rain im 
plentifully from the trees was on the road between StafFi^rd and 
Lichfield. 

He adds a passage which I will quote entire : — " The great 
rivers of Europe have their supply in the Glaciers ; but many of 



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186 EFFECTS OF FOEEST VEQETATIOK-ON CLIMATE. 

the rivers in the New World owe their origin to the forests of 
America, and their destruction might dry up many a rivulet, and 
thus again convert the luxuriant valley into an arid and sterile 
waste ; carried further, the principle extends to the great features 
of the globe. "What the glaciers effect among the higher regions 
of the Alps, the Pinus ceinbra^ and LarLv communis accomplish at 
lower elevations, and many a mountain rivulet owes its existence 
to their influence. It rains often in the woodlands when it rains 
nowhere else, and it is thus that trees and woods modify the 
hygrometric character of a country ; and I doubt not but, by a 
judicious disposal of trees of particular kinds, many lands now 
parched up with drought, as for example, in some of the Lee- 
ward Islands, might be reclaimed from that sterility to which thev 
are unhappily doomed." (M. N. H., vol. IV., p. 82-31) 

I shall,T)eiore I conclude, put in evidence what will prove the 
truth of this suggestion from one of the group pf islands men- 
tioned. 

But before I proceed, I wish to mention a statement made to 
me by more than one reliable informant respecting the power of 
Australian trees in time of drought to produce water from th^ir 
roots. I was travelling with a friend in the month of January 
of the present year in the valley of Bylong in the county of 
Phillip, during the height of the drought. Among other circum- 
stances brought to our notice was this— that water had made its 
appearance by springing up in several places where none had ever 
beiore been noticed, and the explanation given was that such 
water came from the roots of the gum trees. This opinion I 
heard uttered by several close observers, and I think it possible, 
when one considers the nature of the roots of these trees, and 
the effect of drought in contracting the wood, in cheeking the 
ascending sap and squeezing it out. I name this more to elicit 
observation and explanation from others than to lay it down as a 
fact sufficiently established ; but I am inclined to believe there 
may be more in it than is " dreamed of in our philosophy " of 
droughts; and I know no other solution for the fact, if it be such, 
than the one I have suggested. 

Professor Dob^reiner, of Jena, mentions in the Bibliotheque 
Univenelle that it has been noticed that on the high mountains 
of South America the trees continually transpired a quantity of 
water, even in the driest weather, the water falling sometimes as 
rain. This is a parallel case to that cited before from the island 
of Hierro. 

Certain trees have been tapped for a supply of water, and the 
roots have often been found to discharge it sufficiently to assuage 
human thirst. These have been called the " Traveller s Tree." 

Now, I believe it has been ascertained that the fibres of wood 
in trees are composed chiefly of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen — 



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EFFECTS OF FOREST VEGETATION ON CLIMATJ. 187 

the two last in the proportion to form water ; that the specific 
gravity of the sap is least at the roots, and that (which may be 
the cause of the hollowness of some of our Australian trees) it 
ascends in the greatest quantity in the newest layers, and that 
the innermost layers become clogged and hardened in the pro- 
cess of assimilation, so that the vitality ceases there, and the 
sap becomes deprived of the aqueous part of its constituents by 
the deposition of ligneous matter. 

How water may be collected from invisible sources is a diffi- 
culty for chemists and naturalists, which I do not venture to 
solve. But, when we read of white ants, during a severe drought 
in the heated parts of Africa, finding plenty of moisture beneath 
the surface for making their plaster, though three inches deep 
the thermometer stood at from 132° to 134^ Fahrenheit — and of 
other insects distilling (under experiment) from the* castor oil 
plant 16 ozs. of water in twenty-four hours, which are the state- 
ments of Dr. Livingstone in his Missionary Travels (pp. 21 and 
416, ed. of 1857), we must think that we know very little at 
present of either vegetable or animal life. 

" We must," to use the great traveller's words, " leave it for 
naturalists to explain how these little creatures distil both by 
day and night as much water as they please, and are more 
inaependent than Her Majesty's steamships with the apparatus 
for condensing steam — for, without coal their abundant supplies 
are without avail." 

It may be truly said that such phenomena as these can hardly 
belong to the ** effects of vegetation on climate " ; but in relation 
to drought, which is very intimately connected with climate, it 
may do no harm to show that there are alleviations of such a 
calamity for some of God's creatures, which defy the wisdom of 
man to parallel. We may thus be led to study the mysteries of 
the visible creation with humility as to what we cannot dis- 
cern, and with hopefulness as to what, by well-tempered zeal and 
proper direction of what we may be permitted to discover, our 
Sciences will finally attain. 

If, by a just employment of observation, we can arrive at any 

Eositive means of counteracting the adverse, .or employing the 
riendly forces of Nature to our advantage, it is not only per- 
mitted us so to do, but it is our duty to do it, for the good of 
mankind ; and it is not beneath the aim of rational and account- 
able beings to seek guidance as to the planting of a wilderness or 
the clearing of a jungle, if either be necessary, by inquiry as to 
the facts which may be obtainable by experience, and accepted 
as warnings or encouragements. 

There are some facts m relation to the ability of certain trees to 
discharge water from their roots which will justify further refer- 
ence to this branch of the subject, especially as the examples will be 
selected from Australia, and mi ve abearing on its sanitary conditions. 



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188 EFFECTS OF FOREST VEOETATION ON CLIUATB. 

In a very inlportant and valuable communication by Mr. 
Joseph Boeasto, M.P., one of the Commiesioners of the Phila- 
delphia Exhibition, to the Eoyal Society of Victoria, we find the 
characteriBtics and sanitary value of the Eucalypti shown by 
chemical analysis of their volatile products. 

The author says — " The Mallee countir plays a very important 
part in the climatic influences of Australia. * * * • * 
The nightly and morning dews of the mallee country are frequent 
in spring and summer. This is in part owing to the suspension 
of water in the air during the hot days from the river Murray 
and its tributaries, as they pass for a considerable distance 
through this scrub, but the greater amount of the dew moisture 
is owing to the exhalation of the leaves, for it must be remem- 
bered that, although the surface soil is dry and hard, the roots 
go down to the moist undersoil obtained from the salt-water 
springs. During the severe droughts to which this country is 
subject the trunks of these dwarf trees are Jull of moisture, but 
so poor of sap constituents that in one of the species in par- 
ticular, when the trunk is cut down close to the roots, and placed 
in a bushman's panikin, a cool and refreshing draught of water 
is obtained, to the great relief of a weary wanderer in this lone 
and dreary scrub." 

Mr. Bosisto goes on to say that it is held, on the lowest calcu- 
lation, that in New South Waies and South Australia the mallee 
country is twenty times the area of similar country in Victoria, 
and that " 06,877^444,000 gallons of oil are held at one and the 
same time in a belt of country over which the hot winds pass ; 
and considering also that the same condition exists throughout 
the major part of Australia with the other Eucalypti as that 
which exists in Victoria, we cannot arrive at any other conclusion 
than that the whole atmosphere of Australia is more or less affected 
by the perpetual exhalation of these volatile bcfdies." He quotes 
the address delivered by Dr. Andrews, in December, 1844, before 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh, in which he states that " volatile 
oils, like phosphorus {i.e. in common with) have the jpower of 
changing oxygen into ozone while they are slowly oxidiznig." He 
citss also Dr. Day, of Geelong, whose researches on this subject are 
well-known, and who has ** demonstrated that the eucalyptu9 oils 
absorb atmospheric oxygen, transforming it into peroxide of 
hydrogen." He concludes from the facts demonstrated in his essay 
that " whatever change may take place in the condition of the 
atmosphere, arising from the free and large supply of these 
chemical bodies in the air, it is, from all known evidence, of an 
invigorating and healthy nature and character." " Death (he says) 
lives where power lives unused, and were it not that such happy 
and benign influences as those exerted by the eucalyptu€ vegetation 
existed around us, independent of ourselves, we might mourn our 



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EFFECTS OF F0BB8T TSGETATIOK 027 CUlLiXE. 189 

fate. Ill conclusion, may we not say with some authority that the 
evidence set forth in this paper on our own vegetation is in 
favour of the eucalyptus being a fever-destroying tree ?"^-"(.E5wfly*, 
Victorian Catalogue^ Philadelphia Centenmal £adhitiony 1876, p. 
87-91.) 

The Baron von Mueller also liotices the properties of the 
Mallee scrub with respect to water ("Fragments," ii. 67), where 
be says, " Badix horizontaliter long^ procurrens largam aqu» 
pur» copiam retineat." In another of his valuable publications 
the Baron refers to Mr. Bosisto's experiments, and mentions also 
his own recommendations to that gentleman in 1854 to distil 
the euealiiptus oil, pointing out how greatly the growth of the 
trees which oui* settlers cut down indiscriminiately is now 
encouraged and adopted in Europe, America, Africa, and New 
Zealand. He points out the sanitary benefits arising from our 
gum forests, shows how invigorating, as well as cheernil, is their 
presence, in comparison with the treeless plains, and ends a most 
delightful essay with these weighty expressions ; " I regard the 
forest as an heritage given to us by ^Nature, not for spoil or to 
devastate, but to fie wiselv used, reverently honored, and care- 
folly maintained. I regara the forests as a gift intrusted to any 
of us only for transient care during a short space of time, to be 
surrendered to posterity again as an unimpaired property, with 
increased riches and augmented blesi^ings, to pass as^ a sacred 
patrimony from generation to generation. (" Forest Culture in 
its relation to Industrial Pursuits" : a Lecture delivered by Baron 
Ferdinand von Mueller, C.M.G., M.D., Ph. D., F.B.S., on 22nd 
June, 1871.") [See also Appendix No, 2.] 

In addition to the prece£ng remarks on the Mallee scrub, it 
may be proper to mention that there is a very useful paper by 
Mr. Cairns, in the Transactions of the Philosophical Institute of 
Victoria (vol. HI., 1858) on the Weir Mallee (a water-yielding 
tree) of Australia. This tree fully bears out all that has been 
said above. It has been long known to the Aborigines, to the 
eariy settlers, and to botanists, as capable of supplying, when the 
roots have been cut to lengths of from 20 to 30 feet, and placed 
upright in a vessel, a pint or quart of pure water, a wonderful 
provision for thirsty wanderers in the Dush. Mr. Eyre tells us 
that during his fearful journey along the coast of the Australian 
Bight in 1841, his two aboriginal lads procured him a third df a 
pint of water in this manner in a quarter of an hour, and says 
that " natives who, from infancy, have been accustomed to travel 
through arid regions, can remain anj length of time out in a 
country where there are no indications of water." (Central 
Expeditions into Australia, by Edward John Eyre, vol. I., p. 860.] 

We are not however to conclude that all Eucalypti will be as 
profitable as those mentioned ; but the facts are, 1 doubt not, as 
stated. 



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IDO EFFECTS OF FOBBST VEGETATION ON CLIMATE. 

Sakeastricta also supplies a small quantity of water intbe 
same way. [See Appendix No, 8.] 

I confess, howerer, I cannot understand statements made to 
me by more than one observer, that ring-barking trees is a 
greater source of water than allowing them to live. One friend 
has informed me that "within the last fifteen years about two- 
fifths of the timber in the watershed of the Hunter has, been 
destroyed by sapping or ring-barking, and that the number of 
cattle and sheep is three times as great as it was fifteen years 
ago, and that the chief result which has followed sapping, in every 
place and withotU exception, so far as his observations have gone, 
has been that the creeks which were formerly dry watercourses, 
only containing water for a few days after heavy rain, have be- 
come permanent streams and, even in last year's very drv weather, 
showed no signs of failing. This result was quite unfooked for 
by those who sapped the land. There are, he says, on his own 
run two creeks flowing from opposite sides of the same range. 
One which flows west used to have water except in very dry seasons, 
and was taken up by selectors twelve years since. The other 
flowing east had no water, and so was not taken by. selectors 
but was purchased by me, and all the timber in its watershed 
sapped. There is a strong stream of water running in it now, 
and has been for the last five years ; whilst last summer the 
selectors on the other creek were very short of water, and are 
now sapping the timber so as to cause a flow of it." 

It seems to me perfectly clear that there may be other physi- 
cal causes than the one suggested by my friend for the local 
alteration in the water supply. Admitting with him, as I do, 
that the forests at the head of the drainage, on the main 
ranges, have not been touched, and that the average rainfall has 
not been diminished; perhaps, in the increase of cattle and 
sheep spoken of, trampbng down the soil may have occasioned 
more water than of old to run off to the creeks instead of sink- 
ing into the soil. The solution suggested appears to me very 
much akin to the old logic respecting Tenterden steeple and the 
Qoodwin Sands, the former of which was facetiously held to be 
the cause of the latter. 

The mass of evidence supplied in the present paper from all 
parts of the world must, I humbly conceive, overbear any 
inference from unexamined actual phenomena brought against 
that evidence ; but it would be unwise to test the supposition by 
clearing away every stick of wood from the ground witl^ Yandalic 
extermination, which would be the only wise course if cutting 
down trees or killing them off whilst standing can really change 
dry gullies into living streams. 

It is not to be doubted that judicious clearing is a benefit, and 
it may be admitted that grass does not always prosper in imme- 



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EFFECTS OF- FOSEST TEOETATIOK ON CLIHrATE. 191 

diate peach of droppings from certain trees, but this, which is 
due to chemical action, is but a small drawback from the actual 
sanitary blessings we have bestowed on us by the abundant 
growth of forests in which these trees are the principal members. 
A careful perusal of Mr. Bosisto's paper before mentioned, 
and the learned treatise on " Air and Kain — ^The b^nnings 
of a Chemical Climatology, by Eobert Angus Smith, Ph. D., 
P.lt.S., F.C.S., 1872," will, perhaps, be sufficient to show 
that there is much which to the masses of readers and writers is 
a kind of terra incognita, which has as yet to be explored before 
we can dogmatize on some of the hidden operations of Nature 
in regard to vegetation. 

I will therefore now bring forward many good examples from 
foreign countries as to the effect of " forest vegetation on climate" ; 
and here I would remark that by " Climate" we are not to under- 
stand exactly what popular use makes of the word. " The single 
word * climate,' " says a writer whom I have before quoted, 
" expresses one of the most important relations of man to the 
natural world around him — a relation which concerns human 
existence in its every part. But this word climate, taken iu its 
largest sense, comprehends within itself all those elements* of 
matter and force, the mutual influences and actions of which 
produce the phenomena so familiar to us under the single 
expression." 

Dr. Daubeny (Lectures on its iiifluence on vegetation) defines 
"the climate of a country to be its relations to temperature, 
light, moisture, winds, atmospheric pressure, electricity, and so 
forth; but assigns to its first place heat and its distribution. 
The present object is to illustrate how one of these relations, viz., 
moisture, is affected by forest vegetation, the reverse of the action 
understood by the Professor. 

If the cutting down of a forest alter the atmospherical con- 
ditions of any spot, it may be said to affect the climate of that 
spot, and vice vend. 

If it have any effect on the supply of water to a river, then it 
affects its climate iu another way ; and in either case men's 
health or the advantages of life or animal existence in such spot 
may be affected. 

There is therefore propriety in using the expression " cUmate" 
to indicate such a condition of things as existed before changes 
that may take place. 

The late Professor Daubeny, whose work on Climate has just 
been cited, gives some useful illustrations of the effects I am 
ei^aged with. He quotes Boussingault's example of the Lake 
of Yalentia in Venezuela, which has no outlet, but receives water 
from rivers and creeks, and where, in regard to the fall of rain 
and the humidity of the district a change was produced affecting 
the province. 



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192 EPFECTS OF F0BB8T TEOETATION ON CUMi^TE. 

Humboldt's account of the lake was that its waters were 
lesaeniDg, so tiiat beautiful plantations of bananas and sugar- 
oanes hfMl taken the place of water — ^in some way Uke ihe cbm^ 
ihBi has occasionally alt«!*ed the condition of Lake George m 
this Colony. 

This falling off was occasioned by the felling of timber, occasion- 
ing a deficiency of water in the rivers. Twenty-five years 
idterwards, Boussingault visited the lake and found its dimensions 
increasing, owin^ to Hie War of Independence having occasioned 
a cessation of cWrings, so that less timber was being cut dowti, 
and rain fell in greater abundance than before. 

That this is the true explanation was shown by other lakes in 
the neighbourhood, which had undergone no change of level, the 
timber on the surrounding mountains having remained in the 
state of nature. 

The Ifl&es of Neufchatel, ffieime, Morat, and Geneva have been 
mentioned as examples of similar diminution by Humboldt and 
SausBure ; and Ghisparin has shown that duringthe last century 
the annual amount of rain was stationary at raris, Milan, and 
other places, leaving the infierenoe that the clearing of forest 
country had produced greater evaporation. 

The island of Ascension is next quoted as confirmatory ; for 
the only spring existing in the island was dried up by the removal 
of the trees, and on ttie restoration of the timber the lost water 
returned. 

This conclusion was, however, disputed by Boussingault, who 
contended that the trees impeded evaporation, because the island 
is too small to affect the rainfall. But Daubeny says, " It is 
enough for our purpose to substantiate the fact that by the 
removal of forests we have it in our power to modify the character 
of the country with respect to humiditj, whether this be brought 
about in one way or the other ; of which fact I apprehend there 
is abundance of proof." 

To the instance of Ascension Island I would add tiiat of St. 
Helena, which in 1606 was discovered to be entirely covered with 
forests, but when Dr. Hooker visited it a few years since he 
found five-dixths of the island barren, and the remainder occupied 
almost entirely by trees, shrubs, and other plants introduced from 
Europe, Africa, America, and Australia.' The destruction in this 
case wa^ by goats, and by the inroad of the new vegetation, 
supplanting the young shoots of native trees. In the days of ite 
first occupation abundance of springs were found to rise from 
the hilly igneous rocks of the interior. But the coimtry had 
become dry, and in some places waterless. In 1848, according to 



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EFrECTS OF FOBEST VEGETATION OX CLIMATE. 198 

the island Almanac of that year, the rain had increased, which 
was attributed to the increase of wood. Floods had also 
decreased during the last eight years. It is said that during the 
present century the rain&ll has nearly doubled. (Bombay 
Geogr. Society's Eeport, 1849-50, p. 55.) 

A gradual decay of Great Britain was predicted in the Times 
newspaper in 1862 from exhaustion of vegetable mould, and 
Liebig exploded the idea that such mould, with tillage and 
manure, will suffice to prevent exhaustion ; but Daubeny remarks, 
that many countries that once were fertile enough to maintain a 
large population are now barren and desolate admits no dispute, 
and he adds: — "Tome the cause of this deterioration appears 
obvious as arising from the denuded state of those countries as 
regards timber, for which we need not go further than to many 
of the islands of the Archipelago, to parts of Greece, and even of 
Italy." 

On the other hand, he maintains that where a country enjoys 
sufficient humidity, and the natural soil supplies suitable and 
sufficient mineral constituents, as proved by the Nile and by 
Naples, Tuscany, and even parts of Sicily, there will be no general 
exhaustion. Ajod where the reverse is the case, he attributes it 
rather to the aridity occasioned by the destruction of forests than 
to the exhaustion of the vegetable matter itself. 

Lastly, he cites Lower Egypt, where it has been usual to say 
no rain ever falls and the Nile does all the work ; but since the 
late Pasha took to the planting of trees heavy showers have fallen 
about Cairo and Alexandria and in other parts of Lower Egypt. 

As plague, locusts, and other vexations used to trouble the 
Egyptians when the Nile did not rise, it is surely as satisfactory 
to our medical as to our meteorological Section to know that an 
amelioration of the climate of Egypt has been partially effected 
through the instrumentality of trees ; and who can tell what 
would be the further effect upon sanitary methods if some of our 
£uealypti were brought as much into request in Egypt as, I 
understand, they have been in certain parts of Italy and else- 
where ? 

In addition to previous references to America, I may men- 
ti<m here that in Kentucky many brooks have become dry in 
summer which, for thirty years before the clearing of timber, 
were never known to fail ; and in New Jersey, where the clear- 
ings were more extensive, some streams entirely dried up. On 
the other hand there are examples of the contrary — but the 
explanation given by the writer, to whom I am indebted for this 
statement is, that tne tillage of the soil allowed the water to 
penetrate deeper, and cleared away the mass of leaves that caused 
the water to be more exposed to evaporation, though there has 
been no alteration in the rainfall. — [J. B. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1834.] 



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19 is EFFECTS OF FOEEST VEGETATION ON CLIMATE. 

Looking to South America we find that similar conditions may 
be traced to those in the northern part of the continent. For 
instance, the inhabitants of the country assured Humboldt that 
the extreme aridity of the plains in about latitude 9**, between 
the Orinoco and the Andes, was occasioned by a diminished fall 
of rain, and that since the arrival of the Spaniards the trees had 
been destroyed. He says it is well known that in Caraecas the 
climate was destroyed by the removal of the trees, and that 
rain formerly abounded where now there is none, and after some 
reasoning, adds — " It results that the destruction of forests, the 
want of permanent springs, and the existence of torrents, are 
three phenomena closely cojinected together." Dr. Duncan 
shows the same results for the Deccan. The Cape de Verds 
show the same connection. Many others instances are named 
by Dr. Balfour, and, as we read in the Eeport of the Bombay 
Geographical Society for 1849, " thousands of similar instances 
might be quoted." It would be inifair to omit to mention one 
of the most remarkable of them. I allude to that of the 
Mauritius, quoted by Von Mueller. Dr. Eogers very recently 
issued a report " On the eifects of the cutting down of forest* 
on the climate and health of Mauritius." In 1854 the island was 
resorted to by invalids from India, as the " pearl" of the Indian 
Ocean, it being then one mass of verdure. When the forests 
were cleared to gain space for sugar cultivation, the rainfall 
diminished even there ; the rivers dwindled down to muddy 
streams ; the water became stagnant in cracks, crevices, and 
natural hollows, while the equable temperature of the island 
entirely changed ; even drought was experienced in the midst of 
the ocean, and thunderstorms were rareiy any longer vntnessed ; 
the lagoons, marshes and swamps along the sea-board were 
no longer filled with water, but gave off noxious gases ; 
while the river . waters became impure from various refuse. 
After a violent inundation, in February, 1865, followed by 
a period of complete dryness, fever of a low type set in, against 
which the remedies employed in ordinary febrile .cases proved 
utterly valueless, pestilential malaria arose, exposed to which the 
labourers fell on the field, and, in some instances, died within a 
few hours afterwards." # ♦ ♦ ♦ # Dj.^ Eogers 
very properly insists that the plateaux and highlands of Mauritius 
must be replantod." — (Von Mueller, Lecture, 22nd June, 1871, 
reprinted at San Francisco.) 

Those who think the evidence afforded on the subject is not 
sufficiently scientific will hardly use that argument against 
Arago, who declares that "forests cannot fail to exercise a 
sensible influence on the temperature of the surrounding regions. 
The destruction of forests ought therefore to produce modifica- 
tion of our climates." He says also : " Gearing the wood from 



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EFFECTS OF F0BE8T VEGETATIOK ON CLIMATE. 195 

a mountain is the destruction of a number of lightning con- 
ductors equal to the number of trees felled ; it is the m^fica- 
tion of the electrical state of an entire country ; the accumulation 
of one of these elements indispensable to the formation of hail, 
in a locality where previously this element was dissipated by the 
silent and incessant action of the trees. On this point (he says) 
observations support theoretical deductions. Accordiiig to a 
detailed statistical account, the losses occasioned by hail in the 
continental states of the King of Sardinia, from 1820 to 1828 
inclusively, amount to the sum of forttf-six millions of francs 
(£1^916,666 sterling). Three provinces, those of Val d'Aoste, 
-the Valine de Suze, and Haute Maurienne, do not appear in these 
tables ; they were not visits! by hail storms. The mountains of 
these three provinces are the best tcooded. The warmest province, 
that of Genoa, the mountains of which are well covered, is scarcely 
ever visited By this meteor." # * * * " It is said to have 
been remarked in Italy, that in proportion as rice-fields multiply, 
the annual quantity of rain has gradually increased, and ^t 
the number of rainy days has augmented in proportion." Again, — 
** the wind exercises a direct action on vegetables, often very 
injurious, and which ought to be carefully distinguished from 
climatological action. It is against this direct a<;tion that 
curtains of wood, by forming a shelter, are especially useful. 
The direct influence of the wind on the phenomena of vegetation 
is nowhere more strikingly exemplified than in the Isle of 
France. The south-east wind, very healthy both for man and 
animals, is on the contrary, a perfect scourge to the trees. 
Pruit is never found on the branches directly exposed to this 
wind ; none is to be found but on the opposite side. Other 
trees are modified even in their foliage ; they have only half a 
head, the other has disappeared under the action of the wind. 
Orange and citron trees oecome superb in the woods ; in the 
plain and where they are without shelter they always continue 
weak and crooked." — Annuairepour Van 1846. 

Professor Laurent, of Nancy, instances Fontenay and Provence 
as places where the , felling of forests has affected the climate. 
Wells and pits have become dry on this account. In the whole 
of the Eastern Pyrenees and the Herault, the felling of timber 
has been attended by serious consequences. The temperature 
becomes higher, wells and watercourses diminished, and the dry- 
ness of the climate was much increased. He also quotes similar 
results in the Vosges, Department of Garde, Nismes, Bezieres, 
Isere, &c. — De Vi^uence de la Culture sur V Atmosphere, {fc. 

Professor Chaix, of Geneva, attributes the well-known floods 
and inundations of the Ehorie, such as those of 1603, 1810, 1811, 
1840, 1841, 1842, in part to the destruction of the great extent 



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196 EFFECTS OF FOBEST VEGETATION ON CLIMATE. 

of forest in the high lands of the basin of the river. He says the 
work of the axe was very extensive during the first twenty-five 
years of the present century. — Extracts Jrom a letter. J.B.0,8.^ 
XIV, 328. 

A very striking instance of the mischief of clearing a forest 
injudiciouslv was given to me by a correspondent in the West 
Indies, the late Hev. Landsdown Guilding, of St. Vincent, some 
of whose remarks I quoted in the year 1835, in a paper of similar 
kind to the present. Writing in May, 1830, he says : — " The 
inhabitants of Europe may well be astonished at the quantity of 
rain which falls in hot countries. I shall subjoin an account 
•of the quantitv measured in this island from 18^ to 1829 inclu- 
sive." [^See Appendix No. 4.] " This it must be remembered fell 
on the sea coast. If measured on the mountains it would exceed 
belief. I have several times slept on the high volcano of Mome 
Soufriere during a night of storm and thunder, when the water 
descended in a sheet, filling rapidly every empty wine bottle, and 
ploughing up the volcanic gravel into innumerable gutters, 
widening as they went into ravines of frightful deuth. The 
<;liinate nas been considerabl v affected by the continuea industry 
of man and his daily encroachment on the primeval forest. In 
the valley of Mariaqua, two fine cataracts which used to adorn 
the landscape and rush down the sides of G-rand Bon Homme, 
are now not visible after heavy rain ; and many portions of the 
cultivated lands in dry seasons suffer to a lamentable extent. 
So much has this change been felt, that laws have been passed 
to prevent the cutting down of timber in certain directions under 
heavy penalties. The planters in the suffering districts have 
long since seen with alarm the fatal mistakes of their predecessors 
in denuding the mountain ridges of their neighbourhood ; and 
have, for many vears, planted "these parts again. But, in their 
short-sighted folly, trees were selected which attained but a very 
moderate height, merely because the wood was useful for cart 
work. To have remedied the serious evil under which they and 
their descendants were to suffer they should have entered the 
forest and selected the seeds and saplings of these giant fi|^ and 
other fast growing native trees, which, though useless as timber, 
would soon bv their height and magnitude have attracted, 
detained, and broken the rolling clouds, which now pass over 
to the interminable and pathless woods." 

This \^luable letter contains not only additional evidence of the 
influence of forest vegetation on climate, but gives an excellent 
hint as to the proper course to be pursued to remedy the effects 
of injudicious aestruction of trees in a country subject to high tem- 
perature. In the 5th edition of LyelKs "Principles of Geology" 
(very much changed in the 10th eclitioii) we have many interest- 
ing particulars relating to . the subject in hand which will repay 
the trouble of re»ading. 



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EFFECTS OF FOBKST TEGETiiTIOJf ON CLIMi.TE. 197 

The following extract from t!ie ^Rmes, of 16th August, 1876, 
may tend to show that St. Vincent is not alone as sufltering from 
destruction of woods in the West Indies : — 

In reporting on the upicultnre and industry of the Danish West Indian 
Isliuid of St.C^ix, Cbnsiu Palgrave has to state that of late tiie gear's rainfall 
has harely averaged 34 inches, and in 1875 it was helow 27 inches in the 
Christiansted division, and was quite inadequate to secure a moderate si^gar 
crop for 1876. Mr. Palgrave says that the raipfaU was certainly much more 
copKms in former times. Traces of a tree-growth impossible with 'such a 
scanty moisture sn^y, of shranken or dried-up pools, and of stream 
channels where nothing now flows, exist ever^here throughout the island. 
This unfortunate climatic modification has, it seems, become normal, not 
in St. Croix alone but throughout the Virgin Islands and the northerly 
region of the Lesser Antilles tor the last fiftmi years or thereabouts. 

There are other instances wtich I would wish to bring forward 
on this occasion, the former of which, in September, 1835, 1 first 
noticed in the "Magazine of Natural History." I refer to the 
forest of Bialowieza in liihuania, of which a description was 
edited by the Baron de Brincken, Chief Conservator of the 
National Forests of Poland, and member of the Department of 
Forests. This work was published at Warsaw in 1826.* It was 
af^rwards, in 1845, briefly noticed by Murchison, De Vemeuil, 
and Keyserling, in their great work on the " Geology of Eussia 
and the Ural Moimtains," in connection with an account of the 
forest, as the abode of the Bos Aurochs or Zubr, supposed to be 
the Bos Frus, or Bos priscus of anti(^uitv, and a specimen of 
which was obtained and presented by Sir B. I. Murchison to the 
Eoyal College of Surgeons, for the investigation of Professor 
Owen, a description of which is to be found in the Zoological 
Sodely's proceedings for 1848, p. 12 to 18. 

Sir Roderick's notice of De ferincken was in connection with 
an " Account of the Forest of Bialowieza, the habitat of the 
wild Aurochs or Zubr. By Coimt de Kraskinski (in a letter to 
Colonel Jackson, Secretary of the Eoyal Geographical Society of 
London)." 

This forest was formerly a favourite hunting ground of the 
royal family of Eussia, and remained free from clearings much 
after the fashion of an American forest. It contained, to a late 
period, numerous wild animals of the chase, of which the Auroch, 
or Bison, or Zubr was the chief. 

"We need not go further into the history of its inhabitants, but 
may refer at once to the Baron de Brincken's statement. Indeed, 
I hiave only time to make a few slight quotations from my own 

*M^oire doscriptif sur la Fdret Imp^riale de Bialowieza en lithuame ; 
redig^ par le Baron de Brincken, Conservateur en Chef des Fdrets Nation- 
ales de Poloffne ; membre du D^XMU-tement dee Fdrets k la Commission des 
Finances et du Tr^sor, Chevalier de I'Ordre de St. Stanislas, 2mo classe ; 
Om4 de quatre grarure? et d*une carte. Varsovie. Chez Glucksberg, 1826, 
4to, pp. 127. 



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198 EFFECTS OF FOfiEST YSaSTATION OK CLIICATE. 

abstract of his work. This forest lies not far from Ork, and is 
bounded by the old frontier of Poland and Lithuania, where it 
is about 25 miles in circumference, being seven geographical 
miles in length and six in breadth, lying in latitude from 52° 29^ 
to62°6rN. 

It is flat and sandy with lakes ; the Abies picea occupies with the 
Finus sylvegtris four-fifths of the soil, of which the proportion 
of humus to the sand is sis 1 to 4. The other trees are Taxus 
baccata, Quercus robur, Carpinus betulus, Betula alba, Alnus 
glutinosa, A. incana, Salices, Tilia parvifolia, T. grandifolia, 
Populus nigra, alba and tremula : Pyrus mains sylvestris : P. 
pyraeter, Cerasus padus, Acer campestre, A. pseudo-platanus, 
Ulmus campestris, Fraxinus excelsior. There are also some 
shrubs which are enumerated in Gilbert's Floi'a Lithuanica 
(1781). 

Here, then, we have a country of forests without mountains, 
and its climate peculiarly cold and severe. All the region north 
of the Carpathians, as far as the Baltic, is etposed to the cold 
and dry north winds from the swampy forest plains of the 
deserts of Bussia and Tartary, whilst to the south of the moun- 
tains grow the grapes of Hungary and the fruits of the south. 
The mean temperature of Lithuania is about 44° F. Its 
weather is stormy, now cold, then intensely hot ; warm by day in 
summer, cold at night. Near the forest of Bialowieza the cold 
is greater, and the harvests later by eight or ten days than at 
some distance from it. So much so, that sledges are used on 
the snow, whilst the peasants a few miles away are preparing to 
till their land. 

Now, here we come into relation with the liver-producing 
power, like that of mountainous regions. It is the forest which 
causes the waters of the heads of the Narew and Bug that 
belong to the ^eat basin of the Vistula. The Narewka and 
Biala bear vessels even in the^r^^. And thus we find that high 
mountains and glaciers are not essential to the formation of 
rivers. 

Humidity and vegetation act reciprocally on each other, and 
the leafy trees which have the greatest share in the action upon 
the atmosphere grow in the marshy and damp spots of the 
Forest of Bialowieza. 

The value of this example will be seen if we refer to such 
principles as have been maintained respecting climate by such 
writers as Lyell and Daubeny. Malte-Brun also argues that 
the west winds in Poland, which blow for three-fourths of the 
year, are humid, the north are also moist though cold as are 
the south, and the east the coldest of all. Globes of fire, par- 
helia, falling stars, the Aurora borealis, and violent storms 
characterise roland. 



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XPJSCTS OF POBEST YEOETATIOIT ON CLIMATE. 199 

Sir Boderick Murchiflon (Busaia and the TTral, p. 578) has these 
remarks : — '* The hands of man have also produced and are still 
effecting considerable changes in large tracts of Bussia, by the 
destruction of her forests andtheconyersionof her northern marshes 
intoarable lands. A few centuries only have elapsed since northern 
Bussia was a dense virgin forest, with vast intervening marshes 
and lakes, but now her gigantic pine trees are felled, lakes and 
marshes are drained, an4 the culture of com is extended to the 
latitude of the White Sea. The natural recipients of so much 
moisture having been destroyed, we may (exclusire of the great 
spring ddhdcle, which in an extreme climate m&y have been 
always nearly the same) in great measure account for the sen- 
sible diminution of late years in the waters of the Volga and 
other great streams, whose affluents rise in those very countries 
where large tracts are now drained. For our own part, we 
can scarcely refrain from thinking that the axe of the miner (for 
wood is the chief fuel of the Bussian miners) has been the cause 
of the increasing drought ; an opinion which we formed in the 
Ural Mountains, whence the Elama and the greatest feeders of 
the Voka proceed, and where the inhabitants complaining of the 
annual decrease of water invariably refer this effect to the clearing 
awa^ of their forests." 

dan any other result, then, be anticipated for similar districts in 
New South Wales, of which an example may be found in the 
neighbourhood of the Icely Copper Mine, near Orange, where 
every stick of available timber has been destroyed, and fuel cannot 
be procured for a distance of six or seven miles, \_8ee Appendix 
No. 5.] 

Africa has also furnished examples which must not be neglected. 
Mr. James Fox Wilson, whom I mentioned before, has stated with 
ffreat clearness and many details the case of the " Water Supply 
m the Basin of the Biver Oraiige or 'Gkwriep, South Africa, ' in 
the Journal of the Boyal Geographical Society, vol. XXXV, the 
perusal of which will confirm much that has been already stated. 

He points out that a p^eat change in the external physical 
characteristics of the entire region between the Orange and the 
'Ngami Lake has taken place smce the country was first explored 
by Europeans. 

He says the traditions of the natives carry back these changes 
to more remote periods, " when the country was far more fertile 
and better watered than at present ; when the Ku'ru'man and 
other rivers, with their impassable torrents, were something to 
boast of. Moffat says the accounts of floods of ancient times, 
of incessant showers which clothed the very rocks with verdure, 
and of the existence of giant trees and forests which once covered 
the brows of the Hamhona hills, are wont to be related by gar- 
rulous elders to the utter astonishment of their younger listeners. 
In those ancient days the lowing herds walked up to their necks 



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200 EFFECTS OF FOREST TEOETATIOIT OK CLIICATE. 

in grass, and, filling their owners' milk-sacks with rich milk, mode 
every heart to sing for joy. 

''But trarellers have before their eyes, in the immense 
numbers of stumps and roots of ^lormous trunks of i^ 
Acacia giraffe, where now scarcely a living specimen is to be seen 
raising its stately head above the shrubs, and in the ancient bed» 
of the dried-up rivers Matlaurin, Mashua, Molapo, and others — 
positive demonstration of the departed former fertility of the lands 
of the Bechuana nation. In &ct, the whole country north of the 
Orange Biver, and lying east of the K4]ah£ri Desert, presents to 
the eye of a European, to use the words of the missionary just 
quoted, ' something like an old neglected garden or field.' '* 

Mr. Wilson shows next that this e^ct cannot be due to 
cosmical changes, but to '' the characteristics of the region and the 
customs of its inhabitants." 

The natural aridity of the soil, and irregularity of the rains 
(chiefiy thunder-showers), with some other peculiarities, concur 
to produce occasional, if not periodical droughts, and that of 
1862 is described in terms that recall to mind our Australian 
droughts somewhat intensified, and might be taken to describe 
the latter. The picture drawn by Mr. Wilson is one which in 
its main features may be easily recognised, and these, I may add, 
are features of drought in all countries lying within certain 
geographical limits with similar geological featiures. And so it 
has ever been since history has l^n written ; witness the facts 
mentioned prophetically by sacred writers, especially the author 
of the book oi Joel, in his first chaper, verses 4, 7, 10, 11, 12, 
17, 18, 20. 

The visitation of 1866 brings to Mr. Wilson's recollection Dr. 
Livingstone's statements respecting the drought he experienced 
on the Kolobeng River, in the Bakwain territory, during the first 
years of his mission work. 

He goes on to answer the question, " Is there tmy eauee, hendes 
the interior posiiion of the country and the natural aridity of the 
soil, which occasions the advance of droiwht .^" He puts in large 
capital type the foUowing words—** WE ASSEET THERE IS," 
and adds—" and that the effects of that originating cause ore eon- 
trollablcy and indeed to a large extent preventable.*^ He then again 
puts in large capitals this sentence— " THE NATIVES HAVE 
FOR AGES BEEN ACCUSTOMED TO BURN THE PLAINS 
AND TO DESTROY THE TIMBER AND ANCIENT 
FORESTS." The Bechuana, especially the Batlapi and neigh- 
bouring tribes, are a nation of forest-levellers, cutting down 
every species of timber, without regard to scenery or economy." 
We need not consider the purposes for which the timber is 
amropriated, but may take Mr. Wilson's conclusion as sufficient. 
"By this means the country for many miles around becomes 



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SFFECTS OF FOBE0T VEGETATION ON CLIMATE. 201 

eutirely cleared of timber, while in the more sequestered spots, 
where they have their outposts, the same work of destruction 
goes on. Thus, of whole forests where the giraffe and elephant 
were formerly wont to seek their daily food, nothing is now left 
but a few stumps of the camel thorn, which bear a silent testi- 
mony to the wfMtefiilness of the Bechuana. » * # # 

"It appears certain that the further we proceed westward 
from the mountains of Natal and Kaffirland the less becomes 
the amount of rain bestowed by the clouds. The more denuded 
of trees and brushwood, and the more arid the land becomes, the 
smaller the supply of water from the atmosphere. The greater 
the extent of heated surface over which the partially exhausted 
clouds have to pass, the more rarified the vapour contained in them 
necessarily becomes, and the higher the position which the clouds 
themselves assume in the atmosphere under the influence of the 
radiating caloric ; consequently the smaller the chance of the 
descent of any rain on the thirsty soil beneath, and the more the 
short-sighted colonist and ignorant natives bum the grass and 
timber, the wider the area of the heated surface is made ; the 
further the droughted region extends, the smaller become the 
fountain supplies and the more attenuated the streams, till they^ 
finally evaporate and disappear altogether. Thus the evil 
advances in an increasing ratio, and unless checked inu€t 
advance, and will finally end in the depopulation and entire 
abandonment of many spots once thickly peopled, fertile, and 
productive." 

" lA the case of the fountains at Griqua Town as having 
f ormerljr poured forth an abundant supply of water, the accidental 
destruction of whole plains of the wild olive tree by fire near the 
town, and the removal of the shrubs on the neighbouring heights, 
are known to have preceded the diminution of rain, and sub- 
sequent diminution of springs, the subterranean caverns which 
acted as reservoirs in the bowels of the earth ceasing to be 
supplied frpm the clouds. There can be no question that, 
hitherto, vegetation, like animal life, has, in South Africa, been 
wastefuUy and ignorantly destroyed, in direct violation of physical 
laws, which can never be broken with impunity ; and if we. com- 
pare what is now taking place there with what has transpired in 
other arid coimtries, our conviction must deepen that it is not so 
much to the waywardness of Nature as to the wilfulness of man 
that we must assign the recent extension of the Kdlahdri 
Desert." 

To those remarks the author adds references to other regions 
beyond Afiica, some of which have not yet been mentioned by 
myself. For instance he names a case (^mentioned in Chambers's 
Jounud, July 4, 1863), where 400 springs in one small province 
of Persia, had failed ; ** the fatal consequence of permitting the 



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202 EFFECTS OF FOBEST VEOETATIOIT OK CLIMATE. 

destruction of timber for fuel without making provision for a 
fresh growth." 

He cites also " the British Colonies of Barbados (*), Jamaica (*), 
Penang (*), and the Mauritius CO [^^ for the latter the note 
below*] where the felling of forests has been attended by a diminu- 
tion of rain." The Punjaub, the Dekkan, Steppes of Tartary, 
Algeria, Texas, New Mexico, testify the sam^ fact in aJl 

garts of the earth, that " trees are the true rain-makers." " But," 
e says, '^ we must not stop here, the evil is of such magnitudje, 
and likely to bear so abundant a harvest of misery in the future, 
that the authority of law, wherever practicable, should be invoked, 
in order to institute preventive measures. 

'VNot only should fuel be economized, but the real interests of 
the British Colonies, for many long years to come, would most 
certainly be consulted by the passage of stringent enactments 
which should, in the first place,' forbid, at any season and under 
any circumstances whatever, the firing of grass on field or moun- 
tain. Those Colonial Acts on this subject are not sufficiently 
stringent to be of much service." . 

In conclusion of his paper, Mr. Wilson points out the neces- 
sity of re-planting, and introduces among the trees recommended 
for planting along the courses of rivers by the late -Dr. Harvey, 
Professor of Botany at Dublin (whom I remember to have seen 
in this Colony on a visit), some of the dwarfer and more leafy 
Eticaltfpti ; and suggests the formation in ravines of artificial 
reservoirs and damming of watercourses as in Australia, recom- 
mended by Mr. Francis Galton. To this I would offer the^ 
further suggestion of planting near such reservoirs, as it is now 
discovered that such reservoirs as the Tan Yean for instance, if 
repeated, would collect all the drainage of a country only to 
expose their surfaces to greater evaporation than the water was 
subject to in its natural channels. 

Speculation has recently turned its conjectures as to the 
possibility of creating a new inland sea in Northern Africa. 
In an abstract of a report relating to it, written in August last, 

(1) Phil Trans, ii. 294. (2) Joamal of Indian Archipelago. (3) Thoro- 
ton'a History of India. (4) Baude*8 Algeria. 78-81. 

* The following is a report from the Mauritius correspondent of the 
Sydney Herald ^ published in the Echo of 25th July, 1876 : — 

" The Legislative Council has had its usual number of sittings during the 
month. At one of the last of these the subject of re-wooding the island by 
the purchase by Oovemment of land and planting of forest trees was again 
brought on the tapis. 

Our forests have been ruthlessly destroyed, in some cases with the object 
of planting sugar-canes, and in others with the mere yiew of selling firewood, 
and now the result is apparent in continual droughts, and in the disappear- 
ance of the streams which were formerly abundant in every part of the 
island.*' 



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* E7PECTS QF FOBEST TEGBTATION ON CUMi^TE. 203 

we find the following remarks, showing the effect of forest 
destruction in creating a desert : — 

" Vice-Consul Dupuis, in his report this year on the tradd of 
the port of Susa, Tunis, makes remarks on the subject of the 
project for submerging the region of Djerid by constructing a 
canal at Qabes, and so creating an inland sea. He considers 
that the recent surveys confute the idea of their having been 
formerly a connexion with the MediteiTanean, and of the choking 
up of the passage for the waters, an idea perhaps based upon 
the inferiority of level to that of the sea ; but in his opinion the 
observations made seem to endorse the fact of all tne region 
having been under water. Arab writers unite in describing the 
country at the date of their conquest as having been very wooded 
and abundantly supplied with streams of water. The wood was 
cut down to facilitate the subjection of the tribes, who for above 
a century fought desperately for their independence, and whole 
regions are now condemned to sterility (save, perhaps, an oasis 
here and there), which were formerly rich in pastures, and inter- 
spersed with towns. The desert has been gradually extended in 
the district between Tripoli and Egypt, covering parts once 
fertile, and has in like manner encroached on the Tunisian 
southern frontier between it and Tripoli. The diminished heights 
and lowering of the Atlas let in the sands driven by the southerly 
winds, to which the more elevated and uniform heights of the 
mountain system oppose a barrier in more favoured Barbary 
States westward. In Morocco these winds are so tempered in 
their passage across the intervening heights as hardly to be 
recognized as the same which in Tunis dry up and parch the 
land in pummer. Their action upon the sands accumulated by 
them at the foot of and in the passes of the mountains south- 
ward, where they sink into the plain, is the same as that seen at 
street comers, but on a large scale, and the sands are whirled 
and spread over the southern provinces. A form of this in- 
draught and encroachment is seen in the winds which predomi- 
nate in the fall of the year and fill the air with a minute and 
impalpable sand, very injurious to the sight ; this sand, on exami- 
nation of collections of it, is found to be very fine, while that 
around and in the valleys generally is coarse, the one being 
foreign or sands drifted from long distances, and the other indi- 
genous or formed on the spot. It is presumed that the disap- 
pearance of the waters is due to the encroachment of the desert 
caused by the action of these winds during a long succession of 
centuries, aided by absorption and by evaporation occasioned by 
the presence of the vast scorching desert on the south, and also 
by the substances brought down by streams diminishing the depths 
and spreading the waters, and thereby helping in the work of 
desiccation. This was accelerated also by a decrease in the 



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204 EPPECT8 OP FOREST VEGETATION Of CLDIATE. ' 

water supply in consequence of the disappearance of medi»Tal 
forest, cleared away by the Arabs on and after their conquest. 
Hence the periodical rains, which once fertilized the conntry, 
have been replaced by heavier but rarer falls, which rush down 
the slopes and disappear in the sands or mix with the noxious 
waters of the lagoons before they can saturate the soil to any 
depth, washing away the earth and exposing naked rock on hill 
sides or high grounds." 

We shall further gain considerable information by also con- 
sidermg the evidence offered by the East Indies : — 

One of our recent Governors, Sir William Denison, whilst 
G-ovemor of Madras, wrote thus to Sir Eoderick Murchison, on 
17th October, 1861 : — " On coming down by the railway to the 
west coast we passed through a gap in the Western Ghauts, 
about fortj miles in width and 1,200 feet above the sea. The 
Neilghemes rise 8,500 feet to the north of this ; the Anamullays 
6,000 to 7,000 feet to the south. The space between is a brown 
dry plain. After passing over about twenty miles of this, on a 
gradual descent, we, all of a sudden, plunged into the richest 
possible tropical vegetation, there being no chance in the soil. 
On inquiring into the cause of this, I was told l£at the line of 
jungle marked the limit of the south-west monsoon, but why the 
monsoon should stop there I canno^ tell. People informed me 
that a quarter of a mile was the amount of disputed territory 
between moisture and. drought ; that I mi^ht stand at one place 
and get but a slight sprinldinff of rain, while a movement west- 
ward of a hundred yaras would bring me into a tropical downfalL 
I have seldom seen anything which struck me as more remarkable. 
Why should not the wind sweep the rain up the plain, seeing 
that it has brought it thus far ? I am dealing in questions, but 
in point of fact, these apparently trifling questions are most 
diflScult to answer." — (Varieties of Vice-regal Life, vol. 11., 
p. 131.) 

Whether Sir Roderick was able to give, or did give any answer 
to the question does not appear in the correspondence printed 
in the book Quoted from ; but the question is not without answer, 
for with no direct allusion to Sir William it has been made in a 
valuable account of the "Sheets of Forest Destruction in Coorg. 
By George Bidie, M.D., Ac. ;" read before the Eoyal Geogra- 
phical Society of London on 25th January, 1869, and published 
in the 39th volume of the Society's Journal. 

Coorg is near the centre of the western Ghauts, and not very 
far from the Neilgherries. The height of 5,000 feet is attained 
by the crest of the hills, to the east of which the country con- 
sists of low long-backed ranges with deep valleys, gradually 
subsiding in the table-land of Mysore, the average elevation 
being 3,000 feet. The Cauvery Kiver runs through in a wide 



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EFFECTS OF,FOEEST TEGETATION OV CLIMATE. 206 

banin with but little forest, but it is considered that fonnerlj 
foresto corered the whole province. It is still den»e and lofty to 
the westward, and continues so for 10 miles from the crest of 
the Ghauts, whilst at 12 miles occurs the bamboo district, with 
smaller and more open jungle. Dr. Bidie says : " The nature of 
the forest, and also the kind of the trees found in it, form pretty 
accurate indices of the amount of rainfall." By a subjoined 
table by Mr. Bichter, of Verajendrapetta, I find the means of 
seven years calculated monthly give a general mean of 111*66 
inches of rain, with a temperature for four years of 66** 38 F. 
But Dr. Bidie states that in the dense jungle tract the rain&ll 
varies from 120 to 150 inches, and in the bamboo district from 
60 to 100 inches ; whilst in two or three months, in January, 
February, and March of each year (according to the table) none 
&lls. The characteristic trees in the dense jungle are — ^Michelia, 
Mesua (ironwood) ; Diospyros (ebony and other species) ; Calo- 
phylhim angustifolium ; Cedrelatoona (white cedar); Chickraesia 
tubularis (red cedar); Dipterocarpus, Ghircinia, Artocarpus, 
Canarium strictum (black dammer tree) ; Euonymus, Cinnamo- 
num iners, Mynstica, Myrtacesp, Yacciniomi Melastomacese, three 
species of JKubus, and a Bose. In this forest there is a dense 
undergrowth of moisture-loving plants, with splendid orchids on 
the branches of many of the trees. The bamboo traet is some- 
what different, ihe line of approach being marked by the^absenee 
of ferns and the prevalence of a smaU Ardisia. The bamboos 
send up their branches in all directions, and in the eastern por- 
tion are teak and sandalwood. This forest is not continuous, 
but has grassy glades, and imder the shade are good pasture 
grasses ami gay annuals in the rftiny season. 

The rain in Coorg is almost entirely derived from the south- 
west monsoon — chiefly between 1st June and the end of Septem- 
ber. The winds come loaded with rain, which deposit their 
freight on the Ghauts and the lower regions to the west. This 
rain is from condensation of the warm ocean vapour on the 
colder hills ; and Dr. Bidie says there can be little difference 
whether the mountain slopes are bare or clothed with dense 
forest. He regards the forest on the high lands not as the 
parent, but as the produce of the rain, as the latter diminishes 
to the eastward. 

As no regular records have been kept for the last fifteen or 
twenty years, he says there is not sufi^cient evidence to srnpport 
his opinion that '^ the annual rain&ll can be sensibly diminished 
by the destruction of the forest that has taken place." Yet the 
natives complain that their country of late years has become 
hotter a'nd drier from want of rain, and that rice crops have 
been diminished or lost from failure of water in streams that 
used to run fhroughout the year. These changes they attribute 



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206 EFFECTS OF FOBEST VEGETATION OIT CLIMATE. 

to the cutting down of forests on coffee estates ; and, there- 
fore, he proceeds to "inquire what effects the destruction of 
forests actually maj have had on the climate and streams of the 
country." 

He is led to admit that it is only twelve years since the felling 
of the forests in Coorg has taken place extensively, and that the 
effects are only gradually perceived, but do go on till they acquire 
a disastrous power. In Coorg there are 20,000 acres denuded 
of forest to make way for coffee, and the clearings are partly in 
the bamboo, chiefly in the dense jungle tracts. These clearings 
are along the banks and crests of low hills and the slopes and 
passes, which are densely wooded, and well supplied with 
springs, forming numerous streams. He then shows how these 
streams percolate the soil and are preserved by the forest and the 
matted soil. At the same time the ishade of the forest prevents 
evaporation, the trees exhale much, and a portion is returned in 
dew or fog to be wafted away. 

His information, during his tour in Coorg and Mysore, con- 
vinced him that "the facts elicited on the whole go to prove 
that the tropical forest is the alma mater of springs and streams. 
" Various instances," (he says) " have been brought to my notice 
of springs and small streams having become nuite dry since the 
forest was cleared away in their neighbourhood, while in numer- 
ous cases those that used to be perennial only' contain water now 
during and for a short period after the monsoon. Similar results 
have been found to follow the destruction of forests growing near 
the source of streams in all parts of the world." He next shows 
from Major Sankey's report on*public works in Coorg for the 
official year 1865-6, that " great damage has been done to roads 
and bridges resulting from forest clearance, by the removal of the 
binding influence of tree roots to keep the banks" of the nullahs 
in position. 

The remainder of Dr. Bidie's paper is occupied by reasoning 
to show the injury to the atmosphere, producing malaria ana 
increase of heat, the forest always breathing " soft land airs" 
from the junde, and to " these land winds is due the coolness of 
the nights, which will generally admit of sound slumber"; and in 
these words he quotes from Cameron, on the Tropical Possessions 
in Malayan India, — " That the cutting down of forests in Coorg 
has rendered both earth and air drier is shown by perennial 
streams having become periodical, by many plants perishing that 
used to flourish during the dry season, and by other remarkable 
changes in natural phenomena. He Anally points out the 
effects of clearings on animal life, and the introauction of new 
and troublesome plants from other regions." 



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EFFECTS OF F0BE8T YEOETATION ON CLIHATE. 207 

To complete the evidence from that portion of India aUuded to 
by Sir Wm. Denison and Dr. Bidie, we must, in conclusion, turn 
to the valuable dissertation of Mr. G. S. Markham, E. S. A., 
Secretary to the Boyal Geographical Society, " On the Effects 
of the Destruction of Forests in the Western Ghauts of India on 
the Water SuppW^ (published in the Society's Journal, vol. 
XXXVI., 1866). 

The author introduces the district of Coorg, but does not con- 
fine himself to it. He says : '' The destruction of forests has 
been one of the chief agents in effecting changes in the earth's 
8ur&ce, and the best methods of counteracting evil which may be 
caused by these extensive clearings is one of the most important 
questions that occupy the attention of phvsical geographers.'' 
This agent is now at work in the "Western Ghauts of India, those 
rich and beautiful moimtain-districts forming the backbone of 
the Indian Peninsula, and containing the sources of a water- 
supply on which the prosperity — indeed, the very existence— of 
mufions depends." It is of an area of fully 7,000 square miles, 
to which the above remark refers ; and it incluaes Wynaad 
plateau, which to the south borders Coorg, and is about 50 miles 
trom the feet of the Neilgherries. 

Wynaad is drained to the eastward by rivers that join theCau- 
very ; these are fordable in the dry season, and become furious 
torrents, 200 feet wide, rising thirty feet, dashing along with 
tangled branches and uprooted trees. In these respects they 
form a parallel to the rivers of Australia that descend from 
similar average height of 8,000 feet ; the rocks are honiblendic 
granite and syenite, with basalt and quartz. 

Coffee-planting commenced in 1840, and in 1866 there were 
192 estates, covering 14,613 acres. . 

Passing the gap, mentioned by Sir W. Denison, in which the 
railway runs, rise ** the glorious Anamullays and Pulneys, and 
the hms of Travancore, and these run on with breaks and peaks, 
under various designations, to Cape Comorin. The Pulneys were 
described by Mr. Markham, in his " Travels in Peru and India." 
The AnamuJlays were described by Dr. Cleghom. 

The rainfall on the Ghauts which is given above as about 112 
inches, according to Mr. Markham decreases towards the south 
from 248 inches per annum at Mahabuleshwar, near Bombay, to 
65 at Trivanderum, and to 80 inches at Cape Comorin. 

At Mercara, at the centre of Coorg, it is 145 inches ; at Nuggur, 
about 100 ; the mean of Nuggur, Coorg, Wynaad, and the Koon- 
dahs " receiving the whole force of the monsoon" have a rainfall 
of 200 inches ; the aspects giving at Chumbra hill to the west 
186 inches, and a few miles to the eastward 154. 

On the highest peak of the Neilgherries, from 1847 to 1865, 
the average annual fall was 8613 inches, the maximum being 



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208 EFFECTS OF FOBEST VEGETATIOK OX CLIMATE. 

102*83 in 1847, and tbe minimum 6599 in 1848. " Although tbe 
rain&ll thus Tarie^- according to local circumstances, eyerr 
particle of moisture is 'wrung out of the clouds in their passage 
from the Indian seas by the intervention of the mountains;"* and 
so far as this is the case, "the forests," sap Mr. Markham, " which 
clothe their sides and fill the valleys and ravines on their plateaux, 
have the effect of regulating the flow of water to the eastward, but 
I cannot see that t&ir presence or absence can have any influence 
on the actual amount of rain which fells on the hills." Of course 
this is sound reasoning, applicable to all very lofty mountains, 
whether in India or Australia, and probably so long as the 
primeval forests remained the supply in the rivers would con- 
tinue at the usual average amount in a series of years. This 
consideration meets the argument that though in New South 
Wales the smaller streams have been partially or nearly alto- 
gether dried, as in the Illawarra, yet in the larger rivers, where at 
p^sent the forests at their sources or on their banks have not 
yet been destroyed, the apparent body of wator may be nearly 
the same as of old, thougn this is altogether conjectural in the 
absence of past or present measurements. - 

But the argument itself " will not Uld water''^ any more than 
the river channels when destruction of the regulating forests is 
taken into account. Let us attend to the eye-witness before us. 
What, after his admissions, does Mr. MarkKam say ? — 

" The settlement of planters on the hills has £v«n rise to 
wide-spread destruction of the primeval forest. The planters 
are occupied chiefly in the cultivation of coffee, to which has 
been recently added tea, and the quinine-yielding cinchona of 
South America. These three products give rise to the felling 
and clearing of forests in the formation of plantations— -making 
a total of ^,000 acres of forest destroyed. Nor has the process 
by any means reached its limit, and a CTeat change is taking 
place m the physical condition of the hill districts. 

** One obrvious consequence of the destruction of the forests is 
an increased rapidity of surface drainage, giving rise to sudden 
and destructive floods at the outlet on the plains, where the 
change of slope causes a diminution of velocity, and to injurious 
freshes in the irrigating rivers after they liave reached the 
plains." 

" The effect of vegetation is undoubtedly to retard elevation 
and to check the rapidity of drainage ; and the removal of forests 
of course has an opposite effect. The hiU districts of India are 
now affording proofs of this law of Nature. The floods caused 
by the monsoon rains are yearly increasing in size and violence." 
He gives several instances, and adds : " All this is clearly due to 
the extensive clearance of forests, owing to which the ram-water 
rushes off the surface instead of sinking into the earth and 



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EFFECTS OF FOBEST TEOETATIOK ON CLIMATE. 209 

forming springn." Again : " Major Sankey is of opinion that 
the original form of the hills may be permanently altered. The 
only remedy seems to be to preserve a broad fringe of trees and 
bushes above the road. Equally disastrous consequences arise 
from clearing below the roads which pass along a mountain 
side." ♦ ♦ ♦ " Major Sankey, therefore, strongly urges 
the necessity of preserving a belt of jungle both on the upper and 
lower slopes of a mountain road. For the last twelve years a 
svstem of forest conserving has been established in the Madras 
Presidency, under the able and zealous superintendence of Dr. 
Clesbom, with a view mainly to the preservation of valuable 
timber and of frewood, and to the retention of belts of forest 
near the sources and along the courses of streams. The con- 
struction of public works is hj far the most important part of 
our mission in India, and their completion wiU term the chie^, 
if not the only, justification of our occunation of that vast 
empire. As a branch of the Public Works Department, a forest 

rkcy is very necessary, both for the supervision of felling and 
ting on a proper system, so as to ensure an adequate supply 
of. timber for public works and of fuel for railways, and for the 
conservaiicv of forests, to obviate the disastrous eSects of indis- 
criminate telling on bridges, roadways, and irrigation works. 

" It must be remembered that one of the three products, the 
cultivation of which is now extending so rapidly in the hill- 
districts, will have the effect in a few years of supplying the 
place and performing the functions of the original forest. The 
beautiful foliage of the cinchona-trees, which after four years of 
growth are 20 feet high, will be as elEective as the trees they 
have supplanted in preventing evaporation, regulating drainage, 
and receiving the moisture which is wrung out of the passing 
clouds. • ♦ 

" In the end of 1866 there were upwards of 1,600,000 cinclfona- 
plants in the Government plantations on the Neilgherry hills, 
besides many others under cultivation by companies and private 
individuals. It is the intention of Govomment to plant 1,200 
acres with cinchona-trees, and to keep another 1,000 acres as a 
reserve for further planting, if it should be considered desirable 
hereafter. #♦###**♦* 

" Still many square miles will be bare which once presented an 
unbroken sur&ce of foliage. The forests will to a great extent 
disappear, and it is necessary th^t some other agency should be 
found to perform their duties, which are those of regiilating and 
economising the drainage of the rain-water. * ♦ * * 

" It must be remembered, however, that the destruction of 
forests is very far from having reached its limit, that the rapid 
surface-drainage caused by it already effects much mischief in 



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210 EFFECTS OF FOBEST VEGETATION OK CLIMATE. 

the hill districts, and that as the felling proceeds these conse- 
quences may eventuallj be felt even in the Cauvery delta." * ♦ 

He suggests " the extensive plantinc; of cinchona, teak, cork, 
vengay, hUck- wood, ^fM^raZian and otner valuable trees''; and 
concludes with naming other countries in which destruction of 
forests has been attended with injury. He quotes the TJral in 
EuBsia, Cura9oa in the West Indies, Hissar in Northern India, 
and the Orange Eiver, in Africa, giving, the names of reporters 
on each. 

The preservation of forests in the Northwest Provinees of India 
was also long before the dates last-mentioned subject of earnest 
inquiry. The late Dr. Falconer, Colonel Cautlev, and others, 
addressed the Government as to the necessity of active inter- 
ference, and succeeded in inducing some vigorous measures for 
repressing the evil ; so that for nearly forty years the value of 
forest vegetation has been recognized, and its reckless destruction 
condemned. In closing my argument, I think I needed nothing 
more satisfactory than the proofs furnished by Dr. Bidie and Mr. 
Markham, of the " Effects of Forest Vegetation on Climate," 
and of occasional injury by its Destruction. 

But before I conclude,*it may be useful to offer a few practical 
remarks as applicable to this Colony; indeed, I should be surprised 
if some of the preceding remarks had not already been accepted 
in that direction. 

Not wishing to leave the question undefended or without satis- 
factory evidence as to its truth, I hare endeavoured to strengthen 
my own conclusions by calling in a host of witnesses, who have 
shown by examples gathered from the East and West Indies, 
North and South America, Northern and Southern Europe, and 
Africa, that " Forest vegetation " has considerable effects on 
what in the extended sense is called " Climate'' ; that it exerts a 
protecting influence as well as an assisting power in preserving 
and increasing the supply of water, and that it is of vast impor- 
tance to an arid region that such an influence should be encour- 
aged and maintained. 

Partly from these considerations, as well as from motives of a 
commercial kind, Commissions have been appointed and Legis- 
lation called into play, in some of our Australian Colonies, and in 
various other countries, especially in British India, for the conser- 
vation of the Deodar and other forests, and this has been a 
subject of discussion for a quarter of a century. (See Dr. Cleg- 
horn's notice in British Assoc. Eeports for 1865, p. 79.) Now, 
there are many circumstances connected with climate in this 
Colony which seem to pai*allel some of those which distinguish 
the physical character of India in relation to its floods and 
droughts. It may appear singular, but it is held by many close 



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EFFECTS OF FOEEST TEGETATION 05 CLIMATE. 211 

observers aBd by hydraulic engineers, that floods are sometimes 
occasioned by the destruction of forests, as I have intimated 
already in allusion to Dr. Bidie, who holds the opinion that 
under certain conditions such clearings greatly extended will 
produce effects far beyond their immediate umits. 

The peculiar vegetation of Australia, its geological structure, 
and the nature of its rocks and soils, may seem to be exceptional ; 
but its droughts and floods have much in common with those of 
other countries where the physical conditions are not widely 
different: and even should our tentative conjectures as to periodicity 
ever become established facts, we should have then something 
more, and that something more reliable, to rest upon in our 
endeavours to benefit the natural conditions of our climate. The 
very close resemblance between it and that of Palestine justifies 
- a brief quotation from Dr. Tristram's work on the " Natural 
Historv of the Bible." He says, " There is every probability 
that when the country was well wooded and terraced, and those 
terraces clad with olive trees, the spring rains were more copious 
than at present. Many light clouds which now pass over from the 
west would then be attracted and precipitated in rain over the 
highlands. At present, without any effort to utilize the bountiful 
supplies of Providence, three-fourths of the rainfall are wholly 
wasted." (p. 33.) 

Is not this equally true respecting even those parts of this 
Colony that enjoy the greatest abundance of the " former and 
latter rains" in their season ? 

Ought it to be allowed, that in addition to neglect, there 
should be added wilful waste ? 

It has been my privilege at one time or another during my 
various journeyings to visit the sources of almost every important 
river and stream in this Colony, ana it was not without some 
dread of the future that I have seen the possibility of the 
country becoming greatly deteriorated as to its water supply. 
At a time when the whole community is, or ought to be, excited 
as to such supply, would it not be wise in the Government and 
Legislature to make provision against wilful destruction of the 
woods and forests that border the courses of our rivers; to 
prevent clearing and ring-barking, except under regulations, the 
latter, as some times practised, being one of the most suicidal of 
schemes for the injury of posterity, as will be found, perhaps, at 
no distant date ? 

It may be said that our clearings bear but a small proportion 
to the timber that is left ; but the difference increases in a 
geometrical ratio, and as population continues to arrive and 
spread, the land will gradually lose its protection of forest 
vegetation, and become year after year more and more arid and 
waterless. This, let us remark, is independent of effects from 



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212 EFFECTS OF F0BE8T TEOETJLTIOK OX CLIMATE. 

the trampling of flocks and herds. Having noticed that manj of 
our streams and rivers rise in sv^^amps that lie in hollows of our 
hard, fissured, and dry rock formations, I ventured, in my Report 
to the Government, in October, 1851, to siiggest that " it would 
be worth the attention of the Legislature, how best to preserve 
the integrity of the swamps,'* '* satisfied that the greatest injury 
that coiud be inflicted upon the pastoral and other rural occupa- 
tions of the colonists would be the introduction of the system of 
swamp drainage.** 

Perchance some may think it to be a stepping out of my 
propw province to repeat that warning, and may remind me of 
the old 8a3ring, *' Ne sutar ultra crepiSofti.'' But something is 
required to be done at once if our waters are to be conserved 
for times yet future, when manufacturing industries will 
extend; Not only ought the present destruction of timber 
that goes on in various parts of the country to be checked 
and regulated by law, but provision should be made for the re- 
planting of many a naked tract of former forest vegetation. I 
might appeal to the Surveyor General on this subiect, as he well 
knows that in some of our auriferous area« the whole of the timber 
has been ruthlessly cleared awa^. Similar practices have been 
employed bv diggers in Yictona, and large areas have been 
completely denuded without any replanting, much (as I believe) 
to the vexation of that eminent botanist and public friend of the 
sister Colony, Baron von Mueller, whose laoours in botanical 
science have earned him a name surrounded with enduring 
respect. 

The views expressed by that learned and ever-active philoso- 
pher, in one of his elaborate treatises on Australian ve^tation, 
fully bear out tlie testimony offered by so many other indepen- 
dent authorities as to the effects of " lofty and wooded ranges 
originating springs and rivulets for the formation of larger 
rivers.** Nor is his language too enthusiastic when he says : — 
" On this I wish to dwelF—that in Australian vegetation we pro- 
bably possess the means of obliterating the rainless zones of the 
globe ; to spread at last woods over our deserts, and thereby to 
mitigate the distressing drought, and to annihilate perhaps even 
that occasionally excessive dry heat evolved by the sun's rays 
from the naked ground throughout extensive regions of the 
interior ♦ ♦ * * ♦ Even the rugged escarpments of tfie 
desolate ranges of Tunis, Algiers, and Morocco might become 
wooded; even the Sahara itself might have the extent of its 
oases vastly augmented ; fertility might again be restored to the 
Holy Land, and rain to the Asiatic plateau or the desert of Ata- 
cama, or timber and fuel be furnished to Natal and La Plata. 
An experiment instituted on a bare ridge near our metropolis 
(ir. Melbourne) demonstrates what may be done.** The Baron 



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ETJFfiCTS OF FOREST VEGETATION ON CLIMATE. 213 

suggests in this not the indiscriminate clearing or ring-barking 
of trees, but "the mere scattering of seeds of our drought- 
resisting Acacias and Eucaljrpts and Casuarinas at the termination 
of the hot season along any watercourse, or even along the 
crevices of rocks, or over bare sands or hard clays after refreshing 
showers." Surely this would be far better than sowing the seeds 
of thistles, as was done years ago by one of the early settlers 
wherever he went — the origin of so much injury to his successors. 

The paper from which my extracts are taken is one of the 
"International Exhibition Essays" of 1866-7, and will well 
repay a careful perusal. Nor is our New South Wales botanist 
of celebrity, the Bev. Dr. WooUs, less clear in the sound opinions 
he expressed in his recent lecture to the Horticultural Society 
of Sydney, not two months ago. He then pointed out in unmis- 
takeable terms the mischief done to the community and to indi- 
vidual landed proprietors by the careless destruction of the 
forests, and the " murderous process" of ring-barking those won- 
derful Sucalypii which the providence of the AH- wise Creator 
has planted m the great Australian garden— living types, as it 
were, of a tree " the leaves of which are for the heabng of the 
nations " — and which, though too often foolishly rooted out or 
suffered to stand ghastly monuments of the covetousness of 
Australians, have found favour in Spain, in Italy, in America, 
and Northern Africa. Indeed, I now call to mind that the very 
first assemblage of living Australian trees that I ever beheld was 
in the plantation of a Dutch Baron in Southern Africa. 

Showing the extent to which this practice is carried, we may 
find in the Sydney Serdld of this very morning mention of 
seventy Chinamen employed in ring-barking on a single run, 
near iJbury. 

Bespectinff the value put upon the growth of Euealypti in 
other countnes, I need only reier to a volume published in San 
Francisco, entitled " Forest Culture and Eucalyptus Trees, by 
Ellwood Cooper, 1870," in which he repeats the substance of many 
o£ the publications of Baron von Mueller, and strengthens them 
by references to other writers. [8ee Appendix No.Mj] 

Surely, whilst in other lands Australian trees are considered 
of so much importance as to have been dignified with the title 
of " The Trees of the future," it does seem strange that in 
Australia they should be held of comparatively little value. 

So far as our water supply is concerned, a whole code of pro- 
visions is required, and the establishment of officers who in this 
Colony should have the same duties and powers as belong to the 
Conservators of woods and forests in other parts of Her 
Msnesty's dominions, and in foreign countries also. 

The Director of the Botanical Gardens could furnish a list of 
such trees and plants as would protect and encourage the water 



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214 EFFECTS OF FOBEST YEOETATION ON CLIMATE. 

supply of our rivers, and perliaps assist the elements in 
gradually ameliorating the severity of siich a drought as many 
of our brethren are still passing through ; for though we have 
been blessed on part of the sea-board with refreshing showers, 
there are even now thousands of sheep travelling in search of 
grass and water, while most of the runs throughout the country 
are occupied to their full capacity. 

There are also spots along our coasts which should be planted 
to prevent the inroad of drifting sand. The cutting down of a 
natural scrub on the cliffs of Newcastle was followed by an in- 
road of sand which maintains its position ; and a graveyard near 
WoUongong has been partially if not completely covered with 
sand, as is the case in numerous places on the eastern coast of 
England, and of which there are given some excellent illus- 
trations in the late Sir Charles Lyell's " Principles of Geologv" 
(vol. I., chap. 20). 

The late Dr. Mitchell has been heard to say that, on his arrival, 
in the Colony, the sands that now exist as formidable dunes 
between Sydney and Botany had scarcely advanced beyond the 
shore. Should they continue their march, the flood of sand mav 
threaten the burial of as many buildings as lie hidden beneath 
the undulating wastes of the Atlantic coast of France ; but they, 
and even the sand-hills of Central Australia, may be made to 
obey the same law as the billows of ocean itself — " here shall 
thy proud waves be stayed" — by the careful and well directed 
employment of the means furnisned by Him who gave that com- 
mand of old; for Man, to whom the dominion of this lower 
world is given, is able by the simple use of natural contrivances 
not only to protect the flowing streams of water, but to shackle 
and enchain the desolating floods of harder material that have 
entombed churches and houses, and driven out inhabitants of 
many a seaside town and village in Europe. 

If any apolo^ be needed for introducing at such length the 
subject just discussed, let it be pleaded in the words of the 
poet: — 

Rura mihi et rigui placent in vallibus amnes 
Flumina amem, silvaaque in^Iorius * "* 
* * O ! qui me gelidis in ^-allibns Htemi 
SisUt et iiigenti ramonim protegat umbra ; 
Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoecere oausaa 

[Geor. a, 43.-.1 



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APPENDIX. 215 

APPENDIX. 



The main portion of this paper having been, struck off, before 
I had time to introduce some additional matter which I had 
intended to incorporate therewith, it has been deemed advisable 
to introduce it under several headJs in an Appendix, together with 
the meteorological observations of the Eev. L. Guildmg, in St. 
Vincent's Island, West Indies, mentioned in the text. 

No, 1 (p. 2). — Bing-barking, 

This process is defended on the ground that it enables a little 
more grass to be grown at the roots of trees that are dead, and 
that it does no harm to clear away useless scrub. Unfortunately, 
however, it is proved (See Chambers's Journal, part 158, Sep. 30, 
1876, p. 501) that gum-trees do not lessen but assist the deep 
supplies of water ; and the objection I have expressed is not to 
the clearing off of useless timber, but to the destruction of iron- 
bark and others of our most valuable timber-trees, evidence of 
which is easily collected, not only from the dead forests of thirty 
or forty years existence, but from what is still going on in 
hundreds of fresh localities. At present no statistical returns 
have been made ; but it would be useful to know how many 
thousands of acres have thus been disfigured, and what is the 
annual rate of destruction, and in what ratio the evil has been 
counteracted by re-plantation. Might not these be fit items 
in the Registar General's annual Returns ? 

The time is fast approaching when the future occupiers of land 
that cannot for ever be held as much of it now is, will be loud 
in their complaints respecting wood for fencing, bridges, railway- 
sleepers, and other wood-consuming ingenuities, to say nothing 
of fuel, where coal is not, and the demands of mining industries, 
which are insatiable, will be loud in denouncing the want of 
foresight in their predecessors. 

The clamour has already been begun, and it will not cease till 
it makes itself unpleasantly heard. 

No injustice is nitended to the sheep-farmer by such remarks 
as these. But sheep-farming may be carried on without injury 
to the forests, by the act of re-planting judiciously to compensate 
land now injudiciously laid bare or disfigured by some who arc 
killing the bird that lays the golden egg. 

No, 2 (p, II),— Use of Ibreats. 

Let us notice what a writer in a popular English work (edited 
by AVilliam and Robert Chambers) entitled "Information for the 
People," 5th edition, 1874, on Arboriculture (vol. 1, p. 593) has 



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216 APPEia)ix. 

to say on the subject. " Arboriculture, or the cultivation of 
trees and shrubs, is one of the most interesting and important of 
the rural arts. It is a branch of industry which is daily becom- 
ing a subject of great national importance, not only as regards 
Britain, but also her Colonies and Indian Empire. Science has 
proved that the cultivation of trees and shrubs exerciees a most 
benign influence on the climate, and on the health and death-rate 
of a country, as well as on its prosperity. Hence more attention 
is now being paid to the better conservation and management of 
forests, both at home and abroad. While a^culturiste are 
continually carrjring on a warfare of extermmation with the 
straggling hedgerows of scattered trees that are yet common in 
many of the finest cultivated districts, they are fully alive to the 
importance of the shelter derived from trees when properly 
arranged on the exposed parts of their fields, or around then* 
homesteads ; whilst the profusion of trees and shrubs cultivated 
around suburban and villa residences, as well as in town squares 
and public parks, clearly shows how much agriculture is an 
object of delight and pleasure to the people. ♦ # ♦ ♦ ♦ 

At no former period has the demand been so great as during 
the present century. Within that neriod the landscape of Gr^at 
Britain has undergone a complete cnange, and many of her bleak 
and barren hills and waste lands are now covered by thriving 
plantations. Thus the adjoining lands have become more fertile 
and valuable, and the food production of the country has thereby 
greatly increased.*' 

In Messrs. Chambers's Journal, part 153, Sept. 80th, 1876, will 
be found an essay ** On the use of Forests," which may be cited as 
beM*ing direct testimony to the truth of the views maintained by 
myself. The author points out four distinct effects of forest 
vegetation on climate and rainfall, and shows how theory and 
experiment agree. The &ct8 and reasoning employed in this 
paper would have been quoted in the text if they had fallen 
under my notice before it had been committed to the press. 

No, 8 0>. U).-'Wattrfr<m Plante. 

We have the testimony of the late Commodore Goodenough 
to a similar fact in Figi. He says in his Journal (Dec. 10, 1873): 
" Walked up to the top of Ovalu. * * ♦ It is not much 
over 2,000 feet, but very steep and rugged ; in some places 
a climb hands and feet up the face of a rock. The foliage is 
beautiful as alwa^rs. In one place a sort of strong creeper ^ws 
as thick as my wrist ; one cuts off a foot of it, and on squeezmg it 
out come several good mouthfuls of pure, clear water. At another 
place a lot of tall leaves collect water and carry it down the 
juicy stem of a tree which is, to look at, like a banana. One 
pierces the stem at the junction of the stalk of the big leaf, and 



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APPENDIX. 217 

out comes a jet of pure water. The buds pf the wild ginger hold 
water too, but not so much, and it has a decided taste. And all 
this is not in the ravines, but on the ridge along which we walked 
all the time." (p. 211). 

M, 4— iSf^. Vincent's. 

The following tables of temperature and rain fall in St. 
Vincent-s, during the period mentioned (at p. 18) from 1828 to 
1829, were forwarded to me in 1835. They have never been 
published till now. With them came a memorandum which 
1 here copy. "Prom the little variation of the temperature 
there is much deviation from the laws observed in more variable 
climates. Our plants are less affected by the seasons than by the 
soil, the elevation and the exposure, and are therefore developed 
veithout regularity The Demerara Indians are said to date the 
progress of their seasons from the flowering of certain plants, 
commonly known. I have before mentioned the fall of rain in 
St. Vincent; a journal of the Barometer would be of little interest. 
Its range on tlie coast is very trifling, and the column will remain 
for weeks without altering the convexity of the mercury. How- 
ever, when taken to the summit of mountains it experiences very 
extensive changes, and accordingly I have been able vnth one of 
Dollond's instrmnents to measure our higher lands with all the 
necessary accuracy. On the coast of St. V incent, the instrument 
rarely foretells anything but some violent hurricane." — [L. G., 
May 1, 1830.] 



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218 



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APPBIfDIX. 

1826. 



.221 



Month. 



Thermometer. 



InKingstowiL 



Lowest 
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mean. 



Rain, in inches. 



In Kingstown. 



1825. 



1826. 



January . . 
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June 

July 

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September 
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82 


76 


86i 


77 


87 


77 


86 


79 


m 


77i 


87 


76J 


m 


78 


87 


76 


88 


76i 


87 


7617 


86-29 



81-70 
78-90 
77-62 
80-08 



8178 
81-86 
82-37 
82-81 
82-56 
82-10 
81-55 



81-27 



318 
216 
3-87i 
2^ 
6-63 

1013i 
5-85 
5-81 
9-61i 
8-67 

11-82 
9-90 



6K)6 
7-26 
4-01} 
1-51 
8-08 
10-81 
7-64 
8-86 
8-96 
783} 
6-47} 
518 



78 -94} 



76-62} 



^ Lowest observation for some years.— Wind N. 

1827. 





Thermometer. 


Pluviaueter. 


Month. 


In Kingstown. 


<)nantHy of Rain, in inches. 




Lowest 
at Sun- 
rise. 


Highest 
at 2 P.M. 


Monthly 
Mean. 


Mean, 
1826. 


InKiagskywn. 


In Charaib oountry.j 




1826. 


1827. 


1826. 


1827. 


January 

February 

March 

April 


73 

75 
75 

77 
78 
78 
78 
77 
78 
78 
78 
74 


86 
85 
86 

87 . 
86} 
87 
8^ 
87 
•88} 
88 
87} 
86 


80-21 
79-66 
80-85 
81-49 
8210 
82-30 
82t)5 
81-93 
88<« 
82-02 
82-46 
80-66 


8170 
78-90 
77-52 
80-06 
82-02 
8178 
81-86 
82^ 
82-81 
82-56 
82-10 
81-55 


6-06 
7-26 
4-01} 
1-51 
8-08 
10-81 
7-64 
8-86 
8-96 
7-88} 
6-47} 
6-13 


411 

370 

4-61 

1-89} 

2-88 

10-61 

16-89 

1414 

671 

11-20 

8-36 

5-91 


7-84 
6-14 
5-44 
2-09 
3-68 
8-96 
7-26 
7-56 
7-61 
18-49 
6-82 
9-S4 


4-42 
8"93 
4*81 
2-41 
6*65 
18-46 
12-08 
16-60 
7-85 
21-96 
9-48 
9-67 


May 


June 


July 


August 

October.... •.... 

November, 

December. 


Year 


76-68 


8675 


81-50 


81-27 


76-52} 


88-41} 


86-02 


108-62 



The mean state of the Thermometer, at an elevation fai the mountains, during the month 
of October, was 73*58 ; and the lowest observation taken there on any one day 65', at sunrise 
on the 17th December ; the highest at sunset, 77. 



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222 



APPENDIX. 



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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



22^ A£P£KDIX. 

Abstract of Montblj Means at Kingetown, St. Vincent's. 



Year. 


Tempemture. 


Rain iu indies. 


1823 


alio 

8110 
82-21 
81-27 
81-50 
81-48 
81-54 


68-990 
85*500 
78-945 
76-526 
88-415 
77-700 
65160 


1824 


1825 


1826 


1827 


1828 


1829 « 

Mean of seTen years 


81-45 


77-31 





N.B. — ^The above tables, which, hare been carefollj co{)ied from the 
originalty seem to contain some discrepancies ; but as the rariations between 
the giren means and some of them, as deducible from calculation of the 
giyen figures, do not appear to diSfer rerj considerablj, and as no check can 
now be put on them, and the^ can only be taken as approximations, thej may 
yet serre to gire a general idea of the climate, and as such they are here 
recorded. 

ITo. S (p. 21). -^Wallaroo, 8, Australia. 

*^ This is the barest, driest spot conceivable ; since Valparaiso 
I have seen nothing so dry. There was once scrub and prass ; now 
there is a relic of each, and much dust. All the timber having 
been taken off for fuel, for miles and miles, all is red-hot and 
dusty." — Commodore Goodenough's Journal, p. 263, Jan. 27, 
1875. 

Ifo. (p. B5.)^Value of BoresU. 

Mr. Ellwood Cooper, after pointing out how great climatic 
changes have taken place within the period of human history, iu 
many eastern countries, once highly cultivated and densely 
peopled, but now arid wastes, and this " by the improvident 
acts of man in destroying the ti*ees and plants which once clothed 
the surface and sheltered it from the sun and the winds" — goes 
on to point out that " in European countries, especially in Italy, 
Germany, Austria, and France, where the injunes resulting froin 
the cutting off of timber have long since been realized, the 
attention of the Governments has been turned to this subject by 
the necessities of the case, and conservative measures have in many 
instances, been successfully applied, so that a supply of timber 
has been obtained by cultivation, and other benefits resulting 
from this measure have been realized." # # # * 

" The preservation of forests is one of the first interests of 
society, and consequently one of the first duties of Government. 
All the wants of fife are closely related to their preservation ; 
agriculture, architecture, and almost all the industries seek 



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APPEFBIX. 2251 

therein their aliment and. resources, which nothing could replace. 
It is from thence that commerce finds the means of transpor- 
tation and exchange, and that Governments claim the elements 
of their protection, their safety, and even their glory. 

" It is not alone from the wealth which they offer by their 
working, under wise re^;ulation, that we may judge of their 
utility. Their existence is of itself of incalculable benefit to the 
countries that possess them, as well as in the protection and 
feeding of the springs and rivers as in their prevention against 
the wasting away of the soil upon mountains, and in the bene- 
ficial and healthful influence which they exert upon the at- 
mosphere. 

Large forests deaden and break the force of heavy winds that 
beat out the seeds and injure the growth of plants ; they form 
reBervoirs of moisture ; they shelter the soil of the fielcts ; and 
upon the hill-sides, where the rain-waters, checked in their 
descent by the thousand obstacles they present by their roots 
and the trunks of trees, have time to filter into the soil and only 
find their way by slow degrees to the rivers, they regulate, in a 
certain degree, the flow of the waters and the hygrometrical 
condition of the atmosphere, and their destruction accordingly 
increases the duration of droughts, and gives rise to the injuries 
of inundations which denude the face of the mountains. 

" The destruction of forests has often become to the country 
where this has happened a real calami^ and a speedy cause of 
approaching decline and ruin. Their injury and reduction below 
the degree of present or future wants is among the misfortunes 
which we should provide against, and one of those errors which 
nothing can excuse, and which nothing but centuries of perse- 
verance and privation can repair." 

But there is another and a more cheering era in this history. 
This is when civilization has advanced, and man, under the safe- 
guard of laws, sets about reforming the desolated forest. 

• • • • 

We must make the people familiar with the facts and the 
necessities of the case, it must come to be understood that a 
tree or a forest planted is an investment of capital. • • The great 
masses of our population and land-owners should be inspired 
with correct ideas as to the importance of planting and preserving 
trees, and taught the profits that may be derived from planting 
waste spots with timber, where nothing else will grow to advan- 
tage." 

• • • • 

The author then refers to statistical returns, and says that 
" In 1874, there was in the New England, Middle, and Western 
States, an average of thirty-three per cent, of wooded land. In 



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223 APPEiroix. 

France and Gremiany it has been estimated that at least one- 
fifth of the land should be planted with forest trees, in order to 
maintain the proper hygrometric and electric equilibrium for suc- 
cessful farming. Mirabeau estimated that there should be retained 
in France thirty- two per cent, of land in wood. In the state of 
Texas; it is represented that there is an area four times that of 
the State of Pennsylvania, without a tree or a shrub. In Califor- 
nia there is only four-one- tenth per cent. It is to this State I 
call your attention, and to this people my lecture is directed. 
We have, perhaps, the most healthful, most equable, the best 
climate on this globe, and the only objections that can be urged 
are the prevailing high winds, and an uncertain, as well as an 
insufficiency of rainfall. Moderate the winds, increase the rain, 
and we have perfection." 

• • • • 

" How is this to be done ? How are we to obtain this result r 
By planting forest trees.'* 

• • * « 

" It is known and proved that the three-fourths of the surface 
will produce more, if protected by ti*ees planted on the other 
fourth, than the whole would without the trees and without the 
protection.'* 

Here we have the opinion of a man well able to judge, and who 
appeals to statistics to confirm his views. What would be his 
opinion of a people who are found destroying some of the most 
valuable of the timber in any given country, without provision 
for the re-production of forest vegetation — sacrificing, as is the 
case in Australia, acres of such trees as the ironbark, white and 
blue gum, and other valuable ornaments of the country— and 
without regard to the wants of the present or future settlers, 
under the plea that it is advantageous to have a little more grass, 
and without considering others are coming after them, who have 
rights of which no individual is justified in depriving them. 

Mr. Cooper adds to his arguments this — *'What we have, 
therefore, to do as indi\iduals, is to begin at once to plant. It is 
an obligation wo owe to the possessory title to land ; and finan- 
cially we will be rewarded for our labours.'* 

{No. 7.) — Forest Vegetation on the Coast, 

The following extract from a letter to myself, under date of 
16th November, 1876, by a friend whose powers and habits of 
observation are of a high order, and to whom our Society is 
indebted for a valuable communication on the connection of 
forest vegetation with geology, is worthy of consideration by 
those who doubt the influence of trees upon the atmosphere. 
" The effects of forest vegetation on climate are most marked in 
the Coast district, about the heads of the Macleay, Bellinger, 



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APfEMDIX. 227 

and Clarence Elvers, where dense scrubs containing very large 
trees occur. In those localities it is almost continually raining. 
About three years ago I made a survey of one of the heads of the 
Clarence River and the watershed between that river and the 
Macleay, and was five weeks in the scrub region. During the 
whole of that time, although the inhabitants there told me the 
weather was no wetter than usual, there were only four days in 
in which we were not drenched to the skin. That the weather 
was in its ordinary state was proved by the colour of the water 
in the streams, which, although copious, was not turbid, as it 
would have been if they had been in fresh. But in the more 
open country, twenty or thirty miles inland from those localities, 
the rainfall is not nearly one-naif. This must be owing to the 
dense vefi;etation a great deal more than to the fact that the 
steep and high escarpment forming the edge of the table-land 
catcnes the rain-clouds : for when on the top of Point Look-out 
(5,100 feet high, by aneroid) the sun was shining on us, whilst 
we could distinctly see the rain pouring in torrents several 
liundred feet below, and though the place on which the raia was 
falling was not half-a-mile away, it was more than twenty minutes 
before it reached the peak. It travelled uptoardsy and it was 
quite as interesting to watch its approach as it was unpleasant 
when it arrived." 

(liTo. 8.) — Forest Protection in the Sandwich Islands, 

To complete the evidence from all parts of the globe, the fol- 
lowing extract from the Hawaiian Gazette published at Honolulu, 
13 Sept., 1876, is appended : — 

" A Bill has passed the Assembly which at first sight may be 
thought to be a step in the direction of forest preservation and 
•increase; — a measure for want of which the Islands have becSi 
suffering for many years, and will, we fear^ continue to suffer as 
long as the present indifference on this subject continues. 

" What is wanted here is a system of forest culture and con- 
servation similar to those which various European nations have 
found themselves forced to adopt or forfeit their national 
existence. We must adopt a system whose comer-stone is the 
axiom, * The greatest good to the greatest number.* If history, 
and experience, and science have thoroughly demonstrated any 
one thing in the world of material things, it is that forests are as 
necessary to the life of a land as lungs are to the life of the 
animal. When a land is shorn of its forests, its green fields 
become barren wastes, its rivers become dry in summer, and 
raging, destructive torrents in winter. Its innabitants diminish 
in numbers, and it finally becomes a desert, fit only for the abode 
of owls and bats. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



228 APPENDIX. 

" Thia dismal condition is undoubtedly in store for us unless 
wc avert it by prompt and energetic action. And no half-way 
measures will suffice. If we would make sure of success we must 
boldly inaugurate a system which will in all probability meet with 
strong opposition from real-estate owners ; — a system which may 
be regarded by the few as a violation of personal rights, but 
which nevertheless must be enforced in the interests of the many. 
There should be a Forester-in-chief appointed for the whole 
country, whose business it shall be to supervise and direct the 
operations of the Bureau. 

" Every man owning ten acres or more of land should be com- 
pelled to devote one-half of his land to the cultivation of treee, 
and all forests now existing should be maintained in vigorous 
health and growth, and their limits gradually increased year by 
year. 

"Since the above was written, we notice An article on the 
same subject in the Advertiser, from the pen of Mr. Gibson, 
which presents some new ideas on this subject, worthy of 
consideration." 



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DISCUSSION. 229 



Discussion. 



Mr. Chables Moobe (Director of the Botanic Ghirdens) said 
they were much indebted to their Vice-President for this elaborate 
paper. It was a subject on which he (Mr. Moore) had thought 
a good deal. There were difficulties m the way of a general 
conclusion, so far as Australia was concerned, which he could not 
get orer. He had been a resident in this Colony for nearly thirty 
years, and knew the vegetation of it better perhaps thaif any 
other living man. He had known about Woilongong what he 
might call a "jungle vegetation" — a vegetation with dense under- 
growth, producing palms and tree ferns of enormous size. That 
extended from about 60 or 70 miles south to the extreme north ; 
and was generally produced on the Coast Ban^e. That was the 
kind of vegetation spoken of as inducing moisture and holding 
moisture. 

But the whole of that vegetation had been nearly destroyed. 
The patch ^Ir. Clarke referred to at Woilongong was very 
beautiful. Three years ago, he (Mr. Moore) made notes of every 
plant there. 

It was a notorious fact that the dense vegetation of this 
country had been almost wholly destroyed. In addition to the 
effects of ring-barking and other known causes, whole tracts had 
been destroyed without any apparent cause ; perhaps from a root 
disease. It would follow from this, on Mr. Clarke's theory, that 
the climate must have become drier. But he (Mr. Moore) 
ventured to say the climate had not become drier. There was 
no apparent effect, except that where rivulets were formerly 
almost continually running they were dried up. The large rivers 
had not been affected. He spoke of Wingecarribbee. There, 
fourteen years ago, all the rivulets were running ; a few years 
ago all these riviuets were dry. So with lUawarra. A few vears 
ago nothing in the world was more beautiful than the forest 
vegetation and rivulets of Illawarra : now many of the rivulets 
-vere dry. 

Now the main rivers of the Colony contain as much water as 
at any time within our knowledge. Tliey did not find that where 
thev destroyed forests they created deserts. They had grass ; 
and that presented almost as great a sur&ce to catch moisture 
as the trees did. With regard to stories about trees producing 
water, he thought they were fictitious. There was, indeed, a 
night-breathinff or perspiration of plants. But about *trees 
" weeping" he nad much doubt. His predecessor, when lost for 
three weeks, between Moreton Bay and Gayndah, kept himself 
idive by sucking the moss of a climber. The pitcher-plant 
contains water, but that is distilled. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



280 DiscirssTOK. 

Within the last thirty years a vast extent of country has been 
cleared, and the climate has not been affected by it. Generally 
the rirers have as much water as ever. In the South of Europe 
ikej have sown the seeds of pine-trees, and the effect has been to 
dry up the former moisture. As for marshy places, undoubtedly 
the treading of cattle causes them to dry up. The lagoon at 
WoUongong has been thus dried up. It would be right for the 
G-ovemment to protect these places. 

Bev. W. 6. Cl/lbeb said many of our rivers had not yet been 
cleared of timber. The Murray, and other rivers had never been 
deared at the heads of them. But the system of ring-barking 
was the most serious part of the question. As to the amount of 
water, no data existed as to what it was thirly years ago ; but 
floods are recorded to have exceeded those of the present time. 

[The debate was then adjourned to the next monthly meeting 
of the Society.] 

The discussion on theSev. W. B. Clarke's paper entitled " Effects 
of Forest Vegetation on Climate" was resumed, 6 Dec, 1876. 

Mr. C. MoOBE restated the points he had previously advanced, 
as follows : — 1. " That the dense jungle vegetation, which of all 
others is supposed to attract and hold moisture, and which for 
about 400 miles was so general within the coast range, has been 
almost wholly destroyed during the last thirty years. 2. That in 
addition to this, miUions of acres of more open forest have been 
destroyed during the same period. 3. That, notwithstanding 
Hiis tremendous destruction of trees, no drier climatic effect has 
been experienced. 4. So &r as my knowledge extends, the only 
observable effect has been that in some districts in which the 
forest has been destroyed small rivulets usually tK>ntained water, 
but in many instances are now dry. 6. That now the larger rivers 
of the Colony show no diminution in breadth or dcmth. 6. That 
the rainfall, mstead of decreasing, as might have been expected 
from the destruction of so mnch forest, has been of late years 
more regular and greater than formerly. 

Mr. W. A. Bbodbibb complimented the writer of the paper on 
his able performance, and agreed with him on the main poinfo he 
brought forward. It was most necessary that our useful timber 
'should be preserved by legislation. The red gum was being 
destroyed on the rivers. Then there was the pine, in the Riverine 
country, valuable for buildings and fences, that should be pre- 
served ; and there were the stringybark, the cedar, and various 
other timbers that should be protected. He considered though 
that our scientific gentlemen made a mistake in drawing com- 
parisons between the forests in the southern and northern hemi- 
spheres. The forests in the northern hemisphere shed their 
leaves to the depth of twelve or eighteen inches, which formed a 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HTBCUBBIOV. S31 

mantire that supported the trees in spring. In the southern 
hemisphere the torests took everything out of the ground and 
gave nothing to it. He was not opposed to barking the trees to 
get rid of tkoBe that were useless. Much of the forests of 
Australia was totally useless. What a wretched forest there 
was on the road to Bowenfels — ^perfectly useless to man and 
beast. If it could be removed and English trees planted, there 
would be a far different state of things in the locality, as the 
timber which absorbed the moisture that fell from the heavens 
would be away. 

Dr. Neild read from a report by Mr. iVyar, an owner of 
estates in Antigua, upon the effects of forest destruction in the 
island of Mauritius. The effect of the destruction of forests 
in B tropical island like Mauritius would be followed, the writer 
stated, by a decrease of humidity, an elevation of temperature, 
and a diminution in the rainfall. 

Mr. Dixow stated his experience after a residence of seventeen 
months 6n Maldon Island, in the Pacific. No rain fell on the 
island during that time, though rain could be seen falling to the 
north and to the south ; and as soon as clouds came over the 
island they disappeared. At one time the island was inhabited, 
and must have had forests upon it ; but while he was there only 
two or three small patches of trees existed, and it was evident 
that the scarcity of timber caused a want of rain. 

The Eev. W. Scott explained that clouds over-saturated with 
moisture passing over a diy island like the one mentioned would 
be no longer over-saturated when they met with the heated air 
rising from the island, and therefore no rain would fall; but 
when the clouds passed beyond the island they might meet with 
a cooler current of air, and, again becoming over-saturated, rain 
would fall. 

Tlie Chaibhak replied to the points advanced by Mr. Moore, 
and challenged him to produce data in support of his 6th and 
6th propositions now brought before the meeting. He referred 
to tne letters from Mr. De SaHs which appeared in the Seraldy 
and, proceeding, said : — I cannot see that in characterising ring- 
barking as it has been practised in these Colonies as I did, and do, 
I have anything to retract. Mr. De Salis admits in his second 
letter " that ring-barking worthless scrub is the legitimate use of 
ring-barking, but to ring-bark a forest of well-grown or well- 
growing trees is its abuse." If this were all that I intended, we 
might have, doubtless, been spared the necessity of alluding to 
the practice at all. I maintain, however, that "well-grown and 
well-growing trees" that are not "useless scrub," have been ring- 
barked in various parts of the country to a great extent — and 
that some of the most useful and valuable timber trees have 
been ruthlessly killed, and it wa«» to this wanton use of the axe 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



282 BISCUSSIOK. 

I objected, and do still object. About ten days ago, I asked m 
fencer of great experience, who was then putting up a fence 
more than a hundred miles from Sydney, whether lie had ever 
known ** ironbark trees to be ring-barked," and his reply was, 
'* hundreds of acres of that and other valuable timber.*' And I 
know from other sources to which I haye applied for information, 
in the desire to find out if I had in any way misstated the fact, 
that such timber is still being ring-barked. My first objection 
to ring-barking is, that it is a practice of a slovenly and a greedy 
kind, and is adopted to save the expense of clearing and stumping 
the ground. It is what, to use the language once heard in the 
British Parliament, is merely a " breeches pocket " policy, though 
some think it is of national advantage to keep a few pounds in, 
or to add a few pounds to the purse of an individual, without 
reference to future conditions or the claims of posterity, and this 
is the only argument yet advanced to us to justify the practice. 
I give these gentlemen full credit for their patriotic determination 
to do what they can for the good of their adopted country, and I 
hope we are all, even the un-acred members of this Society, aiming 
in our respective occupations at the same end. Kor have I 
denied that if a dead tree does allow more grass to grow than a 
living one, some advantage for a time may be gained ; but when 
the dead tree decays and scatters its branches over more ground 
than it covered before, would that be an advantage or a disad- 
vantage ? And must not that eventually be the case, and so 
injury be done to the future occupant, or free selector who is 
now, by law, entitled to all the advantages of occupancy ? It is 
very well to talk of "worthless scrub oji dry ranges "; but what 
is to be- said respecting full, well-grown, useful timber on plains 
or gently undulating ground ? I am challenged to " figures," which 
are to convert " theory into science." Now, as I have before 
said, the figures are only to be found in the possession of 
those who profit by them, and so the science of the question 
cannot be submitted as a sum in addition or subtraction ; it 
must therefore rest on other experiences, and as yet we have 
no data to appeal to beyond the experience - of persons in all 
other parts of the world, and to those I have already appealed. 
There are no published data in this Colony as to the advantages 
even alleged to have been gained by ring-barking of worthless 
" scrub on dry ranges." Figures founded on unknown daia or on 
imperfect premises may prove anything or nothing, and have 
not even the value of the theory which is said to be founded 
on "five columns" of what has been called "inconclusive 
quotations," I repeat, let "all the figures be imported, as 
well as the momentary profits" of ring-barking. This is for 
the assertor of those profits to do. And till this has been 
done the figures have only a one-sided value. But the other 



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DISCUSSIOK. 233 

side of the ledger must be filled in (till the data have been 
produced) by experiences — and in such ca«e the experience 
of the whole world, I may say, is no mean representative. This, 
therefore, represents wliat I have to say agaiast the injudicious 
destruction of forest vegetation. And if it be not enough to 
satisfy commercial interests, it ought at least to satisfy common 
sense and unbiased judgment. "The faceti© as to creating 
water" are founded on what I would not like to call ignorance of 
physics, but certainly on a want of recollection. What is rain — 
what is snow — what is hail — ^what is fog — what, dew ? All are 
but various forms of precipitated or condensed vapour ; nor can that 
vapour become or be created rain till the vapour has been sub- 
jected to some process, visible or invisible, by which the atmo- 
sphere which holds the vapour has by some agency been forced to 
part with it. If forests act as an agency of the kind, he who 
plants trees or preserves trees, capable of performing sluj portion 
of this agehcy, is ft creator of water ; and however ridiculous it 
it may seem to a sceptical opponent, reason will teach us that if 
the statements I have quoted are reliable, " foffest vegetation" is 
an agency in "creating water." I have quoted the case of 
Ascension Island in the midst of the Atlantic Ocean, as well as 
other oceanic islands, in order to show how, even in the midst of 
the ocean itself, rain ceased when vegetation was destroyed, or 
passed suspended as vapour over the speck of land, and that it 
again resumed its fall when re-plantation had taken place, and 
singularly enough some of the chief plants introduced to efiect this 
return to former deposition of moisture were our Australian wat- 
tles. In this instance, at least, trees were condensers of vapour on 
a mere speck of land surrounded by the ocean waters, which 
refused to contribute to a naked surface. Similar instances occur 
even on the edge of or within a desert, and the report of Vice- 
Consul Bupuis to the British Government on the condition of 
the desert country in the neighbourhood of Tunis may be referred 
to in confirmation. We are told what Elihu Burritt says of the 
loss of £8,000 by allowing one hedge oak tree to stand (when 
perhaps according to some, it ought to have been ring-barked or 
better cut down). But does any one in his senses believe that 
that tree did not spread moisture around it, keep vegetation 
greener in the vicinity, suck up nutriment, or Supply it to deep 
strata, and shed its leaves to nourish the soil ? It may have been 
three centuries before the farmer took up his land, and if he pre- 
ferred the handful of' grass that could grow where it stood, he 
might, in all probabili^, have found space enough elsewhere in 
some unoccupied patch of ground on his farm for a similar quan- 
tity. If an oak by ita root* carries down moisture to deep 
cracks in the underlying strata, and so adds to springs ; or, if 
even a gum-tree, whose roots run along just below the surface, do 



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284 piscussioK. 

the same to a less extent, they, each in its own way, contribute to 
the general growth of other kinds of vegetation ; and we have 
instances enough in Australia of the effects of even an ordinary 
drought on pastures to bid us be cautious how we rashly cut away 
all chance of nourishment so produced from the roots of grasses 
themselves. "We all know how long it takes to revive pastures 
that have once been scorched into a state near to destruction. 
I am given to understand that Mr. Brodribb himself, Mid his 
relation Mr. Desailly, in Victoria, had sad experience of it 
Can we believe that the dead roots of trees are more available 
for such a process than living roots, or that the whole order 
of nature does not show that it was the will of the Creator 
that the earth should be replenished Jby arboriculture and agricul- 
ture as w^ll as by the culture of grasses, seeing that trees and 
grasses all came in together in the same natural e^och, and 
nave ever since thriven together in luumonious union? To 
suppose a continuance of this does not imply the neglect of 
judicious clearing of land — ring-barkinff does not clear it — and 
some land must be cleared, if ^e hoped for influx of population 
should take place. But, unless men oe contented to live without 
the shelter and other benefits of trees, and will not provide them 
where needed by fresh plantations, they can only inhabit, like 
the nomadic races, a half -desert region, where there may be only 
dry river beds and wells that hold no water. I would ask those 
who are doubtful, to carefully peruse the documents from which 
I have quoted in my original paper, and to weigh well the words 
of a writer in a late number of Ohavnbwi'i Journal : — " Whilst 
extensive forest clearings have been made, reckless of conse- 
quences, in India, the United States, and other portions of the 
globe, France was the first country to awake to tne folly of the 
system. The old seigneurs loved woods ; the peasant &nner 
Imtes them. In the south, where the land has been more cut up 
into small properties than in other parts, the trees have be^i so 
cleared off that there are whole communes without any — moun- 
tain communes, which, owin^ to the now unchecked action of the 
rains, bid fair to be nothing but bare rocL The peasant grubs up 
a tree, and thereby gets a few more square yards for his rye 
or lucerne ; but also he helps to keep on the gentle rains, and 
to bring about destructive droughts, alternately with no less des- 
tructive floods. That, at any rate, Was the conclusion to which 
years of study and observation led M. Becquerel, who, a quarter 
of a century ago, published his book on the Effects of ^Forests 
on Climate.'"^ (30th September, 1876, p. 691.) I may add th^t I 
very much regret never having seeuM.Becquerers work, as I doubt 
not I could have f oimd in it many corroborations, as strong as that 
last quoted, of the justness of the views which I have now en- 
deavoured to enforce and illustrate. Lastly, to meet an argu- 
ment which I have heard in favour of ring-barking and clearing 



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DISCUSSION. 285 . 

on aoeouiit of the Having of moisture for the lenser vegetation, T 
M ill venture, in a final brief extract, to refute it in the words of 
the same writer in Ohamhera^s Journal, just referred to. " Of 
course, since rain comes, because the air is too cool to hold its 
moisture any longer in solution, there ought to be more rain in 
a wooded than in a treeless district ; and so there is, from 6 to 8 
per cent., as M. Faudrat found by putting up several rain-gauges, 
some in a forest seven yards above the tree-tops, others on tree- 
less ^ound, some two hundred yards off. ... It may be 
said if the trees bring more rain, they use up more than the tree- 
less ground, for their roots drain the soil, and their leaves drain 
the atmosphere. Not so ; though w^ood is more than half water, 
the amount of water contained in all the wood in a forest is the 
veriest trifle compared with the rain that falls on it during a 
year. Moreover, a series of experiments seems to show that the 
amount of water decomposed by an acre of forest is very much 
less than that required by an acre of cabbage, or wheat, or clover. 
Again, because pines and other trees (notably the blue gum, 
iEitcaltfpt us globulus, which is being planted by the million in 
Algeria) dry up marshes, it has been argued that trees must les- 
sen the water supply. But. here again experiment comes in and 
proves that this drymg up is not due to evaporation through the 
leaves or to the water being in any other way sucked up by the 
trees. All the trees that liave this property can and do thrive 
also in hungry soils ; they drain the soil by virtue of their spread- 
ing roots, winch enable the water to run into the lower strata, 
and this meets the observation of my friend Mr. Brodribb (whom 
I am glad to meet here to-night after twenty-five years' acquaint- 
ance, as a member of our Society), that the trees on the road to 
Bowenfells are perfectly useless to mnn and beast — for they are 
not perfectly useless in another way, as they supply water to the 
deep creeks which are the feeders of the Nepean and Hawkesbury. 
If any further argument is required, it may be well to refer to 
the experiments carried on in Prance during the last twelve 
years, and to leave opponents to be i^efuted as the Directors and 
Inspectors of Porests refuted the misunderstandings of Louis 
Napoleon and M. Eould. 

But if gum-trees, as well as others, produce accession of water 
to the earth below, is it not suicidal to ring-bark trees, destroying 
the capacity to do what nature demands ? If trees are to do 
what experiment suggests, and what ring-barking indiscriminately 
carried on altogether prevents, wiU it not hereafter be found to 
be foUy, when too late, whatever the temporaiy profits be at the 
moment ? Lastly, I would ask why in the neighbourhood of 
ring-barked areas the natural forestry loses its vigour, and 
. appears to suflfer from a want of nourishment ? 



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M7 



FOSSILIFEROUS SILICEOUS DEPOSIT FBOM THE 
BICHMOND MYEB, N.S.W. 

Bt Abchibald Ltvebsiboi, Professor of (Geology and Minendogj 
in the UniYersity of Sydney. 



iSead h^fi>f ike Sc^al SocUiy qf N.8.W,, 6 Ikomber, 1876.] 



Host of tiie specimens of this material whicli I haye had the 
opportunity to examine, exhibit many of the appearances which 
are usually presented by the deposits thrown down from hot 
springs or geysers. 

Although no such hot springs or geysers are known to exist at 
the present day in the Colony, yet I understand from Mr. W. 
Wilson, of Monaltrie, to whom I am indebted for my specimens, 
that the district in which they occur presents many features 
which lead him to consider that it has been the scene of com- 
paratively recent (».«. in a geological sense) active volcanic 
phenomena. 

The district has not, I believe, been examined in detail hj any 
trained and experienced geologist ; but judging from Mr. Wilson^s 
account it must be one of remarkable interest. 

Basaltic and trachytic rocks are the principal surface rocks 
occurring in the neighbourhood. The basalt is remarkable for 
oontainiDg very large and well developed amygdaloids of 
chalcedony, agate, arragonite, and certain of the commoner 
Eeolites. Of the amygdaloidal and other minerals, together with 
specimens of the matrices, Mr. Wilson sent a laige series to 
the Commissioners for the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition — 
the collection of which must have entailed the expenditure of 
much time and labour. 

In the interior of the mass, the ^ceous deposit is usually of 
A more or less pale wax coloiur, and in certain respects closely 
resembles toood opal. Wood opal is actually present, and in parts 
streaks of true opal, although not of the precious variety, occur. 
OccasionaUy, on breaking open a specimen, jet-black patches 
are met with; the colounng matter apparency contains carbon, 
as it is slowly burnt off in the blow-pipe flame. 

On the surface, the mineral weathers white, and the decom- 
position passes in to a depth of from i to i inch. 
2b 



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288 



FOtSILIFBROrS 8ILTCSOV8 DSPOSIT 



ChEMIOAL AKALT8I8. 

Weathered portion. 

Moisture, given off at. 100° . . . 
Combined water (loss on ignition) 

Insoluble silica 

Soluble silica ^ 

Alumina and iron sesquioxide 

Lime ... ^. 

Magnesia 

Loss 



Specific gravity, 2046 at 66° Fah. 
Adheres strongly to the tongue. 

Unweathered portion. 

Water, given off at 100° 

Combined water (loss on ignition) 

Insoluble silica... 

Soluble silica ... 

Alumina and iron sesquioxide 

Lime 

Magnesia 

Loss 



416 

1-78 

89-74 

•47 
113 

'48 
1-98 

•26 

100-00 



408 
-48 
91-67 
•30 
1-66 
•86 
•65 
•90 

100-00 



Specific gravity, 2-330 at 66° Fah. 

The composition shows that it answers to the common siliceoiu 
sinters pr geyser deposits. 

It will be seen tnat the weathered specimen has a lower 
specific gravity, and contains rather more water, also more lime 
and magnesia. 

In places the structure is more or less distinctly lamellar, 
evidently due to the manner of its deposition is successive layers. 
The fracture is more or less distinctly conchoidal across the 
planes of deposition, but where the lamellar structure is less 
strongly marked or altogether obliterated, the fracture i6 con- 
choidal in all directions. 

The weathered surface is usually marked with the remains of 
ferns, which stand well out in rebef ; with the ferns and stems 
are the fruits and seeds of other forms of vegetable life. 

Within the substance of the mass occasional layers of a 
brilliant white colour are met with, and along these layers it 
splits into flakes and slabs with more or less ease ; these whit9 



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Lll¥[Cl^'iO©©[EA 






^ 






<^' 



Fifl- I 



'gVI 





F.gV 




Fig II 



Fig. lU 










.mm 



W Fio VllI 



r ^^s 



Fig VU 



Y\Q iV 



.V 




•-/"/ CNA rofn^i Dt, 



iglX 



J T UlCm CT II'"' . 



iliV Poeii Md Unified 5 Linries 

Hi Socd Not .size i^^ t 

iV Leaf . Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

\'a liCdf Mdiin 5 limes 



FROM TUE RICHMOJTD BITEH, X.S.W. 239 

layers arQ much softer than the other portionsi and they are 
found to be composed almost exclusively of the casts of vege- 
table tissue ; the fern fronds and stems are especially well pre- 
served. Also scattered irregularly through these layers and the 
solid substance of the mineral, the remains of certain fruits and 
seeds are met with. 

These latter were submitted to the Baron von MiiUer, C.M.G., 
M.D., F.R.8., the highest authority upon Australian Botany, 
who at once pronounced them to belong to a new genus; I 
now beg to append his description, and at the same time to 
tender to him my best thanks for his ever ready assistance in all . 
questions relating to botanical matters. 

Deter iption of Fossil Fruits in Siliceotis Deposit, Richmond River. 
By the Baron Von Muller, M.D., U.M.Q., F,RS. 

LlVEBSIDGEA. 

Fruit divided into four (or perhaps more) turgid lobes ; each 
division outward free and dorsally rounded, the cells filled with 
a plicate substance. 

Placental parietal. Seeds several (or perhaps many) im- 
bedded in the folds of the inner substance, turgia-oval towards 
the one extremity, thence gradually attenuated to the almost 
pungent point oi attachment. Testa thin and pale ; nucleus 
very smooth and^ shining ; chalaza somewhat lateral, close to the 
turgid extremity of the seed, rather large, orbicular-oval. 

Liversidgea oayspora. 

Diameter of fruit \ to nearly 1 inch. Seeds from 2 to 3 lines 
long, the inner portion homogeneous from infiltration of silicic 
acid, with no trace of original * cotyledonar division, hence the 
embryo probably minute, within a copious and equable albumen. 

In tracing the aflBnity of this vegetable relic, we are reminded 
as well of Sie aurantiaceous tribe of Rutacea as of Outtiferce^ 
from both of which the exterior placentation would already 
separate it, while by this the alliance to Capparidem and Bixacece 
is indicated, but from the material hitherto obtained the precise 
ordinal position of this new generic type dedicated to the learned 
discoverer cannot yet be affirmed. 

The form of the seed is remarkable, and gave rise to the 
specific name. 

There is one impression of a leaf with these fruits, and this leaf 
probably belongs to the plant the fruits of which are now 
described. 

See plate, figures I to V. Figures VI to IX represent the 
feniB accompanying the fossil fruits. 



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240 

The 80-called Msebschaum from the Bichvono Bim, 

N.S.W. 



I TAKE this opportunity to mention also that there is a deposit 
of very white and porous hydrous silicate of alumina on this 
river, which has often been sent down te Sidney as meerschaum. 
Probably this is partly due te its low specific gravity, for when 
first immersed it floats upon water. It is sometmies said to 
contain leaf impressions ; colour, dead white ; breaks with more 
or lest) well-marked conchoidal fracture ; shows traces of 
stratification ; very porous, and adheres strongly to the tongue ; 
H = about 2 ; can be scratehed by the thumb-nul, and leaves a. 
mark on cloth, but not readily. 

Sp. gr. after immersion in water for some time = 1*163. 
Before the blowjpipe blackens slightly at first, and becomes 
harder after ignition ; it is infusible,, and yields a blue mass when 
i^ted after moistening with cobalt nitrate ; this at once dis- 
tinguishes it from meerschaum, which would under those circum- 
stances afEord a pale pink-coloured mass. 

Anah/sis, . 

Water, given off at 100^ 8*28 

Combined water (loss on ignition) . . . 4*84 

Insoluble silica 6r35 

Soluble silica 'H 

Alumina 87*72 

Iron sesquioxide '46 

Lime '84 

Magnesia 1*25 

Alkalies... traces 

Carbonic acid r54 

100*89 

The low specific gravity is a most remarkable characteristic of 
this mineral, but in other respects it answers to eimolite, the 
KtfuaXia of Theophrastus. 



[Pluto.] 



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241 



ON A REMARKABLE EXAMPLE OF CONTORTED SLATE. 

Bt Archibald Liveesidge, Professor of Geology and 
Minerftlogj in the University of Sydney. 



[Bead before the Roifol Society o^ N.S.W., 6 December , 1876.] 



The specimen of more or less imperfect slate which I now have 
the pleasure to lay before the Society is, I think, a most remark- 
able example of true contortion, accompanied by slaty cleavage, 
but contortion on such an extremely small scale that it in certain 
aspects appears to resemble the well-known cone-in-cone structure 
seen in coal and many rocks. 

The specimen was obtained by Mr. Fielder from the Peelwood 
Copper Mine, near Tuena. Mr. Fielder succeeded in detaching 
this most interesting and beautiful example from a projecting 
point of weathered rock, but only after the expenditure of much 
time and trouble, for the slaty rock was far too toughi and also 
too fissile, to admit of its being broken off in large blocks by 
blows from a hammer or pick, so he had to saw it off— a very 
tedious and laborious operation. 

It will be equally observable in the specimen and the photo- 
graphs which I lay before vou, that some of the plications are not 
more than, even if so much as, an eighth of an inch across, whilst 
the widest of them do not exceed two inches, and the depth of the 
largest cleavage plane in the specimen barelv reaches three 
inches ; its extent in the direction of from beiore backward I 
have no means of telling, as the specimen sawn off had a thick- 
ness of but about two inches. The dark lines /, m^ n, and u, v, in 
plate II, represent fractures in the specimen, and their plications 
beautifully indicate the cleavage planes io which they are 
parallel. Whether the cleavage planes extend over any length 
of country I do not know, as I have not visited the locaBty 
whence the block was brought, neither have I been able to 
obtain particulars on this point. The contortion is probably of 

r' ';e a local character, as it does not appear te have been noticed 
where in the district. 
The rock or slate has the appearance of the grey killas of 
Devon and Cornwall ; it is in all probability of Devonian age. 



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242 

As I Imve before mentioned, the specimen has somewhat the i^- 
pearance of the &miliar cpne-in-cone strilcture (see figures, two- 
thirds of natural size — No. I shows the weathered surfaice, and No. 
II a smooth and imperfectly polished one) . The surface, which has 
been carefully rubbed down and smoothed, presents a series of 
alternating light and dark bands, similar to the banded or rib- 
boned appearance exhibited by a well-kept English lawn cut by 
a mowing machine which has been worked in lines alternately 
up and down the length of the lawn. 

This banded effect is due to the manner in which the light is 
reflected from the cut edge of the cleavage planes. "When held 
in one position the smooth surface presents a fairly uniform 
grey tint, but at a certain angle to the light it appears to be 
made up of alternate light and dark bands, and when rerersed 
in position the light bands become the dark ones and vice vend. 

Thus, in one position the bands a, h, c, d, e, /, ^, h, f , j\ appear 
light ^rey, but when the specimen is turned upside down they 
e^ibit a dark grey shade. 

Bren if subsequent examination made on the spot should prove 
ijiis to be a case of cone-in-cone structure, the specimen will 
still, I think, be of equal value and interest. 

The chemical composition of the slate is as follows : — 



Anatyne, 



Hygroscopic moisture 
Combinea water (by 


...00-48 •) 
dif- 




f erence) 


... 8-373 




Silica 




... -22" 




Alumina ... 




... 3-63 




Ferric oxide 




... 4-47 




Lime 




... 19 


^Soluble in acid 


Magnesia 




traces 




Soda ... 




... 116 




Potash ... 




... •84j 




Silica ... 




...67-64-) 




Alumina ... 




...16 77 


* Insoluble in acid 


Ferric oxide 




... 1-23, 





885 



10-61 



85-64 



10000 ' 

Sp. gr. z= 2*75, given by small fragments which had been 
immersed in water tor some time, at 75^ F. 

[Two platee.] 



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PROCEEDINGS. 



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PROCEEDINGS 

07 T9S 

ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 



WEDNESDAY, 8ed MAY, 1876. 



The annual conversazione was held in the Masonic Hall ; many 
interesting and valuable examples of optical, electrical, and 
pneumatic apparatus ; geological and other collections ; maps, 
photographs, rare prints, booKs, and other objects were exhibited 
by rarious members of the Society. 

The exhibits, many of which were microscopes, bordered close 
upon one hundred in number. 

Including the members and their friends, the number of guests 
amounted to nearly four hundred. 



WEDNESDAY, 17th MAY. 1876. 

Ordinary monthly meeting of the Royal Society of New 
South Wales, held in the Society's Rooms, Elizabeth-street. 
The Rev. W. B. Clarke, V.P., in the Chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society : — 

Francis Henry Wilson, Union Club. " 

John Usher Cox Colyer, A.S.N. Co., Sydney. 

Per^ Williams. 

Cecil West Darley, Newcastle. 

Arthur Dight, Richmond, 

Seventeen new candidates were proposed and seconded. 

2c 



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246 PBOCEEDIKOS. 

The meeting then balloted for the officers for the ensuing jear, 
and the following gentlemen were duly elected, viz. : — ' 

PRESIDENT 

HIS EXCELLENCY SIR HERCULES ROBINSON, K.C.M.a., 

&0., &0., Ao. 

VICE*PRE8IDENT8 : 

R«v. W. B. CLARKE, M.A., F.R.S., F.a.S. 

H. C. RUSSELL, B.A., F.RA.S. 

HONORARY TREASURER: 

Rev. W. SCOTT, M.A. 

HONORARY SECRETARIES: 

PBorESflOB LIYERSIDaS. Db. ADOLPH LEIBIUS. 



COUNCIL: 



LORD, Tot Hon. F., M.L.C. 
MANNING, JAMES. 
MOORE, CHARLES, F.L.S. 



ROLLESTON, CHSIBT0PK8B. 
SMITH, The Hon. J., M.D., LL.D. 
WRIGHT, H. a. A., M.R.C.S. 



The Honorary Treasurer read the following Finandal State- 
ment for the year ending 80th April, 1876 : — 

RBCEIPT8. 

To Balance in the Unkm Bank on the 30th April, 1875 £90 

„ SubflcriptioQs and Entrance Fees 222 11 

£812 11 



Dl8Bt7B8BMBNT8. 

By Rent of Rooms from 1st May to 81st JTanony, 1876 £ 87 10 

„ Office Keeper (Mrs. Casey) 8 

„ Office furniture and effects 84 16 6 

„ Refreshments for monthly meetings 10 16 7 

„ Stationery and Printing Account 27 1 

„ Adrertisements 8 8 6 

„ Postage and Petty Cash Account 17 8 1 

„ Assistant Secretary's salaiy from Ist Jan. to 81st Dec., 1875 40 O 

„ Balance in the Union Bank on 30th April, 1876 98 16 4 

£812 11 



Aflsxn. 

To Balance in the Union Bank £ 98 16 11 

„ Furniture, books, and pictures 160 

„ Subscriptions due 13 13 

£262 9 4 



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PBOOSEDDres. 247 

IiTA HI f «ITilB. 

By Rentof Rooms to 30th April £ 12 

„ Periodioals ordered , 80 

„ Assistant Secretaiy's salary from l«t January to 80th April... 18 

„ H. W. Ingram (Collector) — Commission 4 

„ Office Keeper x 2 

,, Balance of Assets oyer Liabilities 199 



10 











6 


8 


19 


9 


6 


6 


6 


6 



£262 9 4 



The Treasurer r^narked that the expenditure had been larger 
last year than usual, in consequence of the Society haying had to 
provide the necessary furniture for the rooms. 

Mr. Wm. Neill moved the adoption of the Balance Sheet, and 
ecmgraiulated the members on the present very satisfactory posi- 
tion of the Society. 

Mr. Joior AxeEB seconded the motion, and in so doing asked 
whether the books and picture belonging to the Socie^ were 
insured. 

The motion having been put from the Chair was carried, and 
the question of insurance was referred to the Council. 

The Chaibmak announced that fifty donations had been 
received during the recess. 

The Anniversary Addreiw by the Bevd. "W. B. Clabke, F.B.S., 
Vice-President, was then read by the Bevd. Wm. Scott, at the 
reauest of the Bevd. W. B. Clarke. 

Mr. Alfbbd Bobebts asked what order it was proposed to take 
m the formation of the Sections suggested in the Address. 

Professor Lxvebsidge said, that at the next Council meeting 
a definite scheme would be drawn up — some suggestions might 
now be thrown out. 

Mr. Alpbed Bobebts suggested that the Chairman of each 
Section should be ex officio a Member of the Council of the Society. 

Co^es of correspondence with respect to the exchange of 
scientific publications was laid before the members, viz. : — 

In Jane last the Hon. Secretaries forwarded copies of the following circular 
to the Foreign Consuls resident in Sydney, accompanied by a request that 
they would exercise their interest to bring the same before the notice of the 
ranous Scientific Societies in their respective Countries : — 

[OIBOULAB.] 

THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

The Society's Booms, Sydney, 25 June, 1876. 
The Boyal Society of New South Wales desires to enter into correspond- 
ence with similar Sdentifio Societies and Institutions in other Countries, 
for the purpose of making a friendly interchange of information and publi- 
cations. The annual Transactions published bj the Society consist of original 
scientific articles, which usually relate to the Geography, Geolo^, Mineralogy, 
Natural History, Meteorology and (General Resources of the Colony of New 
South Wales. Communications may be addressed to one of the Hon. 
Secretaries* 



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248 PBOcsEBuras. 

In fiddition to the above, there wm appended a list of the Officers for 
the current fear, and a copy of the Fundunental Rules of the Sodetj. 

To this circular faTourable repliee were returned, with cordial oifers of 
oo-operation. 

Since the distribution of the circulars, the following communications have 
been receiyed : — 

Copy^ of letter received by the American ConsuL 

THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 

Washington, 20 NoTember, 1875. 
J. H. WiLLUVS, Esq., U.S. Commercial Agent, Sjdneir, N.S.W. 

Dear Sir, — ^Your letter of September 11th, with the accompanjing 
circulars from the Bojal Societj of New South Wales, was dulj received ; 
and after haying endorsed the circulars in a note calling special attention 
to them, and an offer to be the medium of exchange between their recipients 
and the Boyal Society, we duly distributed them to some of the principal 
Institutions of this Country. This Institution has charge of the Ifatlonal 
Museum, and is desirous of enriching it with specimens of Ethnology and 
Natural History from New South Wales. Anything, therefore, belonging 
to those branches of Science would be thankfully receiyed, and the fayonr 
reciprocated by specimens from this Country. 

I remain, etc., 

JOSEPH HENBY, Director, S.I. 

SndorsemeiU on Royal Society circfdark. 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 

" Washington,, D.C., November, 1875. 
" The Smithsonian Institution begs leave to call special attention to this 
circular, and to suggest that it wiU cheerfully take charge of any packages 
■ which you may desire to send to the Boyal Society of New South Wales." 

JOSEPH HENRY, SecreUry, S.L 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 

Washington, 18 November, 1875. 
Dear^ir, — ^Your letter addressed to Mr. Williams, Consul of the United 
States to New South Wales, was referred to this Institution, and it givee ma 
pleasure to inform you that we will cheerfully co-operate with you in effecting 
an exchange between Societies in this Country and the Royal Society of 
New South Wales. The Smithsonian Institution, as you are probablj 
aware, has established a greftt system of international exchange, through 
wliich most of the scientific publications of the United States, of CaiM&, 
and of South Central America, are distributed to different parts of the 
world. Our intercourse with Australia is through our Agent in London, 
Mr. W. Wesley, 28, Essex-street, Strand, to whom we would request yon 
to send, addressed to us, anything you may desire distributed in the 
American Countries abovementioned. Besides publications, we are desirona, 
on our own part, to obtain objects of Natural History and Ethnology. 
Your circular will be distributed to the leading Scientific Societies of this 
Country, and especial attention will be called to it by an accompanying letter. 
Respectfully and truly yours, 

JOSEPH HENRY, Director, S.I. 

PBOfESSOB LlTEBSIPGE, 

Hon. Secretiiry, Royal Society, N.S.W., Sydney. 



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PBOOEEPINOS. 249 

CONSULATE OF THE aBBMAN KMPIBE. 

Sydney, 10 May, 1876. 
Sir, — ^With reference to your letter of 6th July, 1875, in which you inf onned 
zne that the Boyal Society of New South Wales was desirous of being 
placed in communication with similar Scientific Societies and Institutions in 
Germany, and in which you forwarded to me copies of the Fundamental 
Rules and o^er information relatine to the Society, I haye the honor to 
hand to you herewith translation of a letter bearing on this subject, which I 
Teceiyed from the Foreign Office, Berlin, in reply to my report, and also beg 
to forwai'd you 167 voliunes, and two charts, as particularised in the list, 
enclosed herewith. The communication which has thus been established 
through the diplomatic channel between the Boyal JSociety and the 
l^iding scientific Societies of Germany, will I trust be a permanent one, and 
of mutual adTantage. 

I hare, &c., 

CABL L. SAHL, Imperial German OonsuL 
Pbofessob Litbbsidge, 

Hon. Secretary, Boyal Society, Sydney. 

FOREIGN OFFICE, BEELIN. 

1 March, 1876. 
Sir, — Beferring to your report of 9th July, 1876, in which you intimate 
that the " Boyal Society of New South Wales" wishes to enter into closer 
connection with Scientific Societies and kindred Institutions, for the purpose 
of interchanging publications of scientific tendencies, I hare the honor to 
inform you that I nare brought this under the notice of the GoTemmcnts of 
Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Wurttemberg, Baden, and Sachsen Weimar, and 
now acquaint you with the result, so that you may take any further steps 
necessary. 

WUh reference JirH to the SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS of Prussia, 

•*The Boyal Academy of Science" here (KOnigliche Akademie dor 
Wissenschaften) has resolved to forward to the "Boyal Society" 
their Monthly Beport from the year 1860. 

"The Boyal Society of Science in Gdttingon" (KSniffliclie GhjscJlBchaft 
der Wissenschaften in Gdttingen), which is already exchanging 
publications with the Boyal Society of Victoria, in Melbourne, is 
ready to enter into similar relations with the Royal Society of 
New South Wales, and from its publications it has sent in " The 
Communications of the Society of Sciences and the George Augustus 
University" (Nachrichtcn von der Gkscllschaft der Wissenschaften 
und der Qcorg August UniTcrsitSt) for 1875, which contain 
principally transactions of their meetings, and communications on 
subjects of Natural Sciences and Mathematics;, and of Historical 
and Philological interest. 

"The Society of Natural History in Gdrlitz" (Naturforschcndc 
Gtesellschaft in G^rlitz) has also declared itself willing to exchange 
publications, and for this purpose has sent in three volumes of its 

?)resent Beport of Proceedings, as well as three volumes from a 
ormer period- 
" The Society of Natural Histoir of Prussian Bliinelands and Westphalia 
in Bonn (Naturbistorische Yerein der Preussischon Bheinlande und 
Westphalens in Bonn) has some time ago expressed its readiness 
to Dr. LxiBius of the Boyal Society, through its Secretary, Professor 
Andrfi, to exchange t)ubli cat ions, and has sent in a packet of pub* 
iications imdor his aadress. 



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250 PBOCEIl)£Br08. 

" The Society of PhTsios and Agriculture in Ednigsberg in PruBai&" 
(Die PhjsikaliBdbL-oeconomische Gksellschaft in XOnigsberg i/Pr.), 
as well as the "Q«omphical Society in Hambui^' (die 
seographische Ghesellschaft in Hamburg), have abo deekred 
themBerres ready to exchange publications, and the latter has 
sent in its two first Annual Reports of the year's proceedings. 

"The Sencltenberg Society of Natural History in Frankfurt a/M/^ 
(Senckenbergische naturforschende Gesellsohaft in Frankfurt a/M) 
will enter into direct negotiations with the^Boyal Sodety, and 
fulfil their wishes. 

From the ROTAL BAVARIAN GOVERNMENT, 
I haye been informed that the ** Royal Academy of Science in Munich" 
(KOniglische Akademie der Wisscnschaften in Munchen) is prepared Uy 
connect itself with the Boyal Society, and to exchange with it its 
publications referring to Mathematical and Physical subjects (mathematisoh 
physikalische Elasse). As to the other Scientific Societies of Bayaria which 
publish scientific books, the following nine are mentioned, and the Boyal 
Society can, if they deem it advisable, put themselyes in direct communica- 
tion with them : — 

1. "The Society of Natural History in Augsburg" (der Naturhistorisdis 

Yerein in Augsburg). ' Publisnes reports. 

2. "The Society of Natural History in Bamberg" (die Naturforschende 

Gesellsohait in Bamberg). Publishes reports. 
8. " The Polliohia in Deidesheim, Bayarian Palatinate *' (die PoUiohiain 

Deidesheim, Bayer. Pfalz). Reports. 
4. "The Botanical Society in Landshut" (der Botanischo Yevein in 

Landshut). Reports. 
6. "The Sooietnr of Natural History in Nilmberg (die Natufhistondbe 

Gksellschaft in Niimberg). Reports. 

6. " The Botanical Society in Regensburg" (die Botanische Geeellsdiaft 

in Regensburg). Botanical reports. 

7. "The Zoological and Mineralogical Society in Regensburg" (der 

Zoologisch-mineralogische Yerein in Regensburg). Paper for cor- 
respondents and reports. 

8. "The Society of German Anothecaries in Speyer" (der Deutsche 

Apotheker Yerein in Speyei^. Yearly yolnme for Pharmacy. 

9. "The Physical-Medical Sode^in WOrrburg" (die Physikalisch- 

Medizinisohe Gesellschaft in Wurrburg). Reports. 



Aeayrdiiuf to a communication from the ROYAL GOVERNMENT OF 
WURTTEMBERO, 
"The Society of Natural Science in Wiirttemberg" (der Yerein fiir 
YaterliUidisohe Naturkunde in Wiirttemberg), at Stuttsart, is prepared with 
pleasure to connect itself with the Royal Society. This Society publishes 
eyery year three editions, with plates of subjects interesting to Natural 
History, and is prepared to exchange the publications from the year 1866, if 
the Rg^ Sociefy will send its publications from the year of its foundation, 
1866, and further annual publications. If the Royal Society should like to 
exchange obieots of Natural History or dispose of them by sale, the Royal 
Cabinet of Natural History in Wurttember^ (Kdniglich Wdrttembergisches 
Naturalien Kabinet) would be glad to enter into negotiations. 



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PBOCSBDIN&0. ' 251 

Also the Boyal Bureau for Statistios and Topogcaphy aft Stutteart 
(Efiniglioh Statistich-Topographifloliee Bibreau zu Stuttgart) is prepared to 
connect itself with the IU>jal Society, Mod exchange publications. This 
Society is principally concerned with Statistics and Meteorology, and the two 
publications sent herewith give further information. 



Ihm Ma MOYAL aOVBRNMENT OF SAXONY, 

I haye reoeiyed a list of the following Societies which would be willing to 
be connected with the ** Boyal Society :"— 

" The Oeneral Directorship of Boyal CoUeotions for Arts and Sciences 

in Dresden '' (General-Direction der KtoigliBhim Sammlungen fur 

Kunst und Wissenchaft su Dresden). 
" The Statistical Bureau of the Ministry of the Interior at Dresden" 

(das Statistisdie Bfbreau des Ministeriums des Innem su Dresden). 
** The Imperial Leopold Caroline German Academy of Natural History 

at Dresden" (die Kaiserlich Leopoldmisch-Carolimsch Deutsche 

Akademie der Naturforsoher zu Di«sden). 
"The Aeademy of Mines at Freybwg" (die Berg Akademie su 

Inreibeirg). 

Of the collection of publications bearing on Natural History, which the 
General Directorship or the Boyal Ck>llection8 intend to send regularly in 
future to the Boyal Society, a number of publications haye been sent, as per 
list herewith. 



^ the GRAND DUCHY of BADEN there are four SoeieUee tf Nakural 



1. "Society of Natural Science atOarisruhe" (Naturwissenschaftlicher 

Yerein su Carlsruhe). 

2. " Society <^ Natural Science" at Mannhehn (Maanheimer Yerein 

f&r Naturkimde). 
3 "Society of Natural Science" at Freiburg (Naturforsohende Gesell* 

schaft su Freiburg). 
4. "Society of Natural History and Medicine" at Heidelburg 

(Naturhistorisch Medicinische Gesellschaft su Heidelberg). 

Only the first and third of the aboye Societies have so far decided to eon- 
neet themselyes with the Boyal Society, and the Beports for the years 1870-73 
of the Society of Natural Science are sent herewith. 

Finally, I wish to mention that the " Society of Medicine and Natural 
Science, at the Uniyersity of Jena (die Medizinisch Naturwissenschaftliche 
Gesellschaft der UnirersiUit Jena) has resolyed to send to the Boyal Society 
TOffularly a oomr of their Jena Pamphlet for Natural Science, (Jenaische 
Zeitsohrift fur Naturwissenachaft), and thus enter into the desired connection 
with tiiat Society. 

Thb Chanosllob, 

By order, 

B. BULOW. 
To Casl L. Sahl, Esq., 

Imperial German Consul, Sydney. 



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252 PBOCEEI>IN&S. 

LIST OF BOOKS FOR THE ROYAL SOCIETT. 

" Kouiglicbe Akadcmie der Wissenschaften, Berlin." Monthly report* 
from 1860. 146 Tolumes. 

*' Nachrichten Ton der Gesellscliaft der Wiwenschaften, and der O. A. 
Universit&fc, 1876." 1 Tolumc. 

" Naturforschende Q-eaellschaft in CKJrliti." 6 volumes, 2 charts. 

" Qeoffraphische Gcscllsclmft, Hamburg." 2 reports. 

** K5mgUch fltatistisch-topographisches, Biureau." 2 reports. 

*• Natui-forschende Gksellschaft, Freiburg." 4 Reporto 1870-73. 

"General Directorsliip of Rojal Collection for Arts and Science, Dres- 
den" : (1) Die XJmenf elder Ton Streblen. (2) Geologie tod 
Sumatra. (3) Der Arabiscbe Himmelsglobus. (4) BiittbeilnnKen 
aus dem EdnigL GeoL Museum, Dresden. (5) Mittheilangenuber 
die Sammlungen des KOni^. Mathem-Physikal. Salons. (6) S^atalog 
der Sammlungen der K5nigL Mathem. Pnjsikalischen. Ss^ons. 

167,Tolumes and 2 charts. 
Qerman Consulate, CARL L. SAHL, Consul. 

Sjduej, May 10, 187?. - 

MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Paris 27, Januaiy 27, 1876. 
A letter from Professor E. ChUTBEVL, Director, acknowledging the receipt 
of eight Tolumes of the Transactions of the Royal Society of N.S.W., from 
1867 to 1874, and promising to transmit to the ^Society a collection of ethno- 
logical photographs which is in preparation.- 

The Eev. Wm. Scott referred to the su^geBtions in the 
Address of the Chairman, as to seeking a grant m>m the GoTem- 
ment : they were entering on enlarged expenditure, and would 
need help. 

Mr. K. C. El'ssell thought they might obtain Grovemment 
aid if they represented the case properly. There was no Library 
in the Colony that might be called a Scientific Library ; that wai* 
one of their requirements. A Committee should be appointed 
to form a deputation to the Government on the subject. 

Mr. Tee BECK recommended the appointment of such depu- 
tation, and suggested tliat an annual endowment would be more 
serviceable than a large sum. 

Mr. Bens u SAN thought that they should now ask for a fixed 
sum to stock their Library. 

After some further discussion, it was moved by Mr. H. C. 
Russell, seconded by Mr. Wm. Neill, and carried : — That the 
following members of the Society, viz., The Hon. Francis Lord, 
M.L.C., the Hon. John Hay, M.L.C., Rev. Dr. Lang, Rev. W. B. 
Clarke, Professor Liversidge, Dr. Leibius, Rev. Wm. Scott, John 
Squire Famell, Esq., M.P., Charles Moore, Esq., and the mover, 
be appointed a Committee to seek assistance from the Grovemment, 
and that the manner in which this assistance will be asked shall 
be left to the Committee. 

It was then decided that the Committee should meet at the 
Rooms on Monday next, at 4 p.m. 



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PB0CEEDIN6S. 253 

WEDNESDAY, 7th JUNE, 1876. 
Ordinary monthly meeting of the Eojal Society of New South 
Wales, held in the Society's Booms, Ehzabeth-street. 
The Eev. W. B. Clakke, V.P., in the Chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society, viz. : — 

Bev.-W. F. Eoberts, B.A. A. S. Webster. 

George Evans. Houlton H. Vosb. 

W. F. McCarthy. Henry James Brown. 

The Hon. Saul Samuel, John Bales. 

C.M.G., M.L.C. John y. Dalgamo. 

H. E. Southey. W. H. M*Quire. 

Eev. E. M. Saliniere. Walter Hugh Tibbits. 

H. Arding Thomas. Eev. P. F. Mackenzie. 

W. A. Murray. J. M. Marsh, P.M. 

Twelve new candidates were proposed and seconded. 
The Chatbman reported to the members that the Committee, 
appointed at the last meetinc^ for the purpose of seeking assistance 
from the Government, had waited as a deputation upon the 
Honorable the Minister for Justice and Public Instruction on 
the 26th inst., and had submitted a request to be communicated 
to the Government for the sum of £2,500, for the erection of a 
suitable building, and £300 annually for the ordinary purposes 
of the Society. 

The deputation was courteously received, and the Minister 
promised to bring the matter before his colleagues. 

Memobakduh subsequently forwarded to the Honorable the 
Minister for Justice and Public Instruction : — 

Seasons for the Application foi* Assistance, 

1. Popular scientific lectures — ^To enable the Societj to institute courses of 
popular scientific lectures. 

2. Working Sections — To permit the establishment of working Sections of 
the Society for the promotion of special branches of science. 

3. Scientific librarif — To enable the Society to form a library of standard 
scientific works. 

4. To collect and dietrihute pMications — To found a central institution in 
New South Wales for the exchange of scientific publications between the 
Institutions of this Colony and those of ot her countries. Recent experience has 
shown that the Transactions of this Society will be receiyed as an equiralent 
for the publications of most of the leading Societies of Europe and America. 

5. Sctentifie investigations — In England similar scieutific Societies afford 
toluable information to the Gktyemment on many subjects. The Boyal 
Society of Sydney has done something in the past, and is anxious to do more 
in the future. 

6. Insufficient J^nds — The monjy at its disposal will not permit the Society 
to maintain even its present relations with the public and other Societies, 
end it is totally inadequate to carry out the contemplated extended scheme of 
usefulness. 



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264 PBOCXBDINOS. 

7. £5,000 stibsorihed — Asnsianee $oughl — Since its oommenoement, the 
Society has subscribed upwards of £6,000 for the promotion of science aod 
higher education in the Colonj, and the undersigned now respectfully ask in the 
name of the Society for assistance from the (foremment, in order that tbej 
may make their i»st labours and present capabilities of more use to the 
public. The principal English scientific Societies are prorided with suitable 
accommodation, Burlington House hayine been recently rebuilt at great cost 
expressly for this purpose ; and the Boyal Society of London has large sums 
of money annually placed at its disposal by the Goremment. 

Other Societies receive aid — ^They feel that they are justified in making this 
request, because other Societies estaUished here to eaucate and instruct the 
puolic receiTe grants of money and assistance. 

Societies in other Colonies — ^The corresponding Societiee in Y ictona, New 
Zealand, and Tasmania, are liberally supported and prorided with suitable 
buildings by their respectire G-OTemments. 

Under these circumstances the undersigned members were 
' appointed a deputation to wait upon the Minister for Justice and 
Public Instruction to req uest him to take the case of the Boyal 
Society of New South Wales into his favourable consideration, 
and to obtain for it an annual grant equal to ihe subscriptions, 
and to provide it with suitable buildings, or a money g^nt to 
help in securing such building or other accommodation for 
lecture-rooms, library, and offices : — 

Signed :— W. B. Garke. A. Lang. 

H. C. Eussell. C. Moore. 

Erancis Lord. A. Leibius. 

J. S. Pamell. A. Liversidge. 

The new Bye-laws brought forward by the Council were read 
seriatim by the CHAXBMjiN, and were adopted. 
Several donations were laid upon the table. 
A letter was read from Mr. Ellery, Government Astronomer of 
Victoria, acknowledging the honorary membership conferred 
upon him. 

It was then decided that the preliminary meetings of the 
various Sections should take place in the Society's Booms on the 
following dates, at 8 p.m., viz. : — 

Section A — Astronomy, &o June 19 

„ B — Chemistry, &o „ 20 

„ C — Geology, Ac, Temp. Amal. with B „ 21 

„ D — Biology (To be arranged.) „ 22 

„ E — Microscopy „ 28 

„ P— Geography „ 26 

„ G— Literature and Fine Arts „ 27 

„ H— Medical „ 28 

„ I — Sanitaiy and Social „ 29 

Mr. H. d EusssLL then read a paper entitled ** Notes on some 
remarkable errors shown by Thermometers." 

Mr. H. C. Eussell also exhibited an improved form of Helio- 
stat for signalling. 

After a few remarks from the Eev. Wm. Scott the meeting 
adjourned until the 5th July. 



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PsocEiD]arG8. 265 

WBDNBSDAY, 6th JULY, 1876. 
Ordinary montlily meeting of the Boyal Society of New 
South Wales, held in the Society's Soome, mizabeth-Btreet. 

The Bev. W. B. Claeke, V.P., in the Chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society, viz. : — 

William George Tayler,F.E.C.S., London, 219, Ktt-street. 

W. H. Eldred, 119, Castlereagh-street. 

Archibald Atcheson, North Shore. 

William Hedley Drake, Commercial Bank, Inyerell. 

The Hon. Alexander Campbell, M.L.C., Woollahra. 

W. A. Brodribb, Eiverina. 

W. O. Gilchrist, Union Oub. 

James Osborne, Wollongong. 

William Forde, 4 Carlton Terrace, Wynyard Square. 

Henry Heron, WiUiam-street South. 

Thomas S. Parrott, Ashfield. 

John Leo Watkins, B.A., Bandwick. 

The certificates of thirty candidates were read. 

The Honorary Treasurer drew the attention of members to 
the 15th Bye-law, providing for the posting up in the Booms of 
the Society of the names of members who are in arrears with 
their annual subscriptions, and stated that he had not prepared 
the list for this meeting because the new Bules were only passed 
in June, but that in futoe this Bye-law would be strictly embrced. 

Professor LiYEBsrooE then gave an account of the meetings 
of the several Sections according to appointments made at the 
last meeting of the Society. Section C, on Qeology and Palieon- 
tology, had been amalgamated with Section B, on Chemistry and 
AOneral^y. It had also been decided by the Council that 
Section H should include Medical Science only ; and that Section 
I should include Sanitary and Social Science and Statistics. 

Professor Livebsidge further reported that the following 
gentlemen had been elected officers of the undermentioned 
Sections, viz. : — 

Section A — Astronomical and Physical Science. — Chairman : 
H.C.BusseU, B.A.,r.B.A.S. Comn^ttee: G. D. Hirst, 
H. A. Lenehan, Bev. W. Scott, M.A., and Dr. Wright. 
Secretary : J. McDonald, F.B.A.S. . 

Section B— Chemistry and Mineralogy, with which is incor- 
porated Section C— Geology Ac. — Chairman : Professor 
Liversidge. Committee : S. L. Bensusan, J. W. 
M'Cutcheon, J. S. Sleep,. W. F. Tulloh; Secretary, W. 
A. Dixon, F.C.S. 



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256 PBOCEEDINGS. 

Section E — Microacopj. — Chairman : A. Boberte, M.E.C.S. 

Committee : Dr. Milford, Dr. Belgrave, W. MacDonnell, 

Hugh Paterson. Secretary : G. D. Hirst. 
Section P — Geography, Ac. — Chairman : E. Du Eaur, 

P.E.G.S. Committee: Hon. L. De Salis, M.L.C., J. 

Manning, C. L. Sahl, A. S. Webster. Secretary : W. 

Forde. 
Section G — Literature and Pine Arts. — Chairman: E. L. 

Montefiore. Committee : Hon. L. De Salis, M.L.C., E. 

DuPaur, F.E.G.S., W. G. Murray, C. A. MoreU. 

Secretary : H. A. Lenehan. 
Section H — ^Medical Science. — Chairman : A. Hoberts, 

M.E.C.S. Committee: Dr. Milford, Dr. Morgan, Dr. 

Cox, H. G. Wright, M.E.C.S. Secretary : Dr. Sydney 

Jones. 
Section I— Sanitary and Social Science had not yet met to 

elect officers. 

Twelve donations were laid upon the table by the Chairman. 

The Eev. De. Lang then read his paper — " On the Origin and 
Migration of the Polynesian Nation, and their ori^nal discovery, 
possession, and settlement of America ; with a critical examina- 
tion of Mr. Bancroft's work upon the Native Eaces of the Pacific 
States of North America." 

Mr. H. C. BussELL, the Government Astronomer, exhibited a 
clock with an appliance for correcting the time every hour, by 
means of an electro-magnet connected with a regulator. This 
method had been invented by Mr. Eussell for the purpose of 
regulating the clock at the Eailway Terminus, Bedfern, by the 
standard clock at the Observatory. 



THURSDAY, 20 JULY, 1876. 

Extra Meeting of the Eoyal Society of New South Wales, 
held in the Society's Eooms, Elizabeth-street. 

The Eevd. ^V, B. Clabke, Y.R, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary Members 
of the Society, vi4. : — 

Arthur Todd Holroyd, M.D., M.B. (Cantab), F.L.S., F.E.G.S., 

Sherwood Scrubs, Parramatta. 
The Hon. Wm. Graham, M.L C, Union Ciiih, Sydney. 
Alfred Cadell, Vegetable Creek, New England. 
J. T. Toohey, Melroae Cottage, Cleveland-street. 



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PBOCEEDDTOfl. 257 

James Burleigh SHarpe, J.P., Ya88. 

Rev. Frank Krth, N-ewcastle. 

George Foster "Wise, BarliD^hurst. 

Budolf ScHutte, M.D., Univ, G-ottingen, Lie Soc. Apoth., 

Lend., 10, College-street. 
Thomas HenryGilman, M.D., Queen's Univ. Irel., Mast. Surg. 

Queen's Univ. Ire., Lie. Mid, K & Q. Coll. Phjs. Irel., 

College-street. 
Wm. Gillett Sedgwick, M.E.C.S. England, Newtown. 
Thos. Stackhouse, Commander RN., Australian Club. 
Henry Norman Maclaurin, M.D., Univ. Edin. Lie. B. Coll. 

Sur. Edin., Lie. Mid. E. ColL Sur. Edin., 187, Macquarie- 

street. 
Fredk. Norton Manning, M.D. Univ. St. And., M.S.C.S. Eng., 

Lie. Soc. Apoth., Lond., Gladesville. 
Louis Thos. Laure, M.D., Surg. Univ. Paris, 181, Castlereagh- 

street. 
Allan Bradlev Morgan, M.RC.S., Eng., Lie. Mid. Lie. E. Coll. 

Phys., lidin., Burwood. 
Fredk. Harrison Quaife, M.D., Univ. Glas., Mast. Surg. Univ. 

Glas., Piper-street, WooUahra. 
Wm. Conder, Survey Office, Sydney. 
W. C. Windeyer, M.A., M.L.A., Ejng-street. 
F. H. Trouton, A.S.N. Company's Offices, Sydney. 
Chas. Kinnard Mackellar, M.B., CM. (Glas.), Lyons' Terrace. 
George Marshall, M.D., Univ. Glas., Lie. E. Coll. S.; Edin. 

Lyons' Terrace. 
Andrew John Brady, Lie. K. &, Q. Coll. Phys., Irel., Lie. Mid. 

K. & Q. Coll. Phys., Irel, Lie. E. Coll. Sur., Irel., Sydney 

Infirmanr. 
Charles M*Kay, M.D., Univ. St. And., Lie. E. Coll. Surg., 

Edin., Church Hill. 
Thos. Wm. Keele, Harbours and Eivers Department, Phillip- 
street. 
Michael Joseph Clune, Lie. K. & Q. Coll. Phys. Irel., Lie. E. 

N Coll. Surg. Irel., 4 Hyde Park Terrace. 
Benjamin Fyffe, M.E.C.S., England, Castlereagh-street. • 
John Wilson Alston, MB., Edin., Mast. Surg. Edin., 455, 

Pitt-street. 
Wm. James Barkas, Lie. E. Col. Phys. Lon. M.E.C.S., Eng., 

Bombala. 
Henry William Jackson, L.E.C. Surg., Edin., Lie. E. Phys., 

Edin., 130, Phillip-street. 
John Cash Neild, M.D., Sydney, M.E.C.S., Eng., Lie. Soc. 

Apoth., Lon. 

The certificates of nineteen new candidates were proposed and 
seconded. 



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208 YBeoxnmref. 

In reference to tlie boob and periodicals of the Societj, tii« 
Chairman announced to the meeting that the Council had passed 
the following minute, m. : — ^^ That the books and periodicals of 
tiie Eo jal Sociely of New South Wales can not be o;>en to the 
members genersdly until the Society has rooms of its own in 
which proper oonyenienoe for reading can be provided." 

Professor LiTEXsmoB reported t&t Section I — Sanitaiy and 
Social Science — ^had been established since the last meeting, and 
that the following gentlemen had been elected officers of the 
Section, yiz. : — C&urman, A. Boberts, M.B.C.S. ; Committee, 
J. Ot. Bedford, M.B.C.S.,Dr. Morgan, W. Tarleton, H, H. Voas; 
Secretary, Harrie Wood ; and that ihe days for the sectional 
meetings would be as follows : — 

Jcdj. Aug. SoBtb Oct Hot. Dae. 

Section A— ABtTonomy, &0. Wednesday... 26 80 27 25 29 27 

„ B— Chemistnr, Ac. Wednesdajr 12 9 18 11 8 18 

„ — Geology, fto., Temp. AiiMJ.tmhB. 
„ D — Biologj (To be arranged). 

„ B— Mkiofloopy. Wednesday 19 16 20 18 U 20 

„ F— Geography. Monday 17 21 18 16 20 IS 

„ Gh— Literature & Fine Arte. Monday 24 28 26 28 87 26 

„ H-*-MedioaL Thureday 10 14 12 9 14 

„ I— Sanitary and SooiaT. Tneeday... U 8 12 10 14 12 

Twenty donations were laid upon the table. 

The Keyd. Db. Lak0 then read the concluding nortion of 
his paper *' On the Origin and Miration of the rolyneoan 
Fation,and the Original Discovery, Possession and Settlement 
of America, with a critical examination of Mr. Bancroft's work 
upon the Native Baces of , the Pacific States of North America." 

The Bey. W. B. Clabke then read a paper *' On Deep Sub- 
marine Depressions off Moreton Bay.'' 

Mr. H. C. EnssBLL exhibited and explained one of Crooke's 
Eadiometers which he had just received from England. 



JTEDNMSDAT, 2 AUGUST, 1876. 

Ordinary monthly meeting of the Boyal Society of New 
South Wales, held in the Society's Boom's Elizabeth-street. 

The Bev. W. B. Claeke, V.P., in the Chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary Members 
of the Sode^ : — 

W. E. Langley, Herald Office, ^dney. 

Benjamin BacKhouse, Elizabeth Bay. 

J. Waterhouse, M.A. (Sydney), Newington CoU^e, 

Parramatta. 
Thos. B. Icely, Carcoar. 



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P1IOOSSBIV00. 259 

Sichard Lewis Jenkiira, M.IUC.S., Nepean Towers, 

Douglass Pai^. 
Douglas Dixon, Australian Club. 
Bichard Erean, Sydney Infirmary. 

Myles Egan, Surgeon, 2 Hyde rark-terrace, Liverpool-st. 
Wm. Edmund Strong, M.D., Liverpool. 
Andrew Bobertson Cameron, Physician, Bichmond. 
W. Lyons, "Woollongong. 
Chas. Henry Myles, Wymela, Burwood. 
C. Bussell Watson, Surgeon, Newtown Bead, Newtown. 
Owen Spencer Evans, Surgeon, Darling-street, Bidmain. 
Bichard P. Jones, M.D., Ashfield. 
James Douglas, Surgeon, Glebe Boad, Glebe. 
Gordon Davidson, M.D., Goulbum. 
Isaac Waugh, M.B., T.C.D., Parramatta. 
Allan Campbell, Surgeon, Yass. 

The certificates of nineteen new candidates were read. 

A letter was read from the Literature and Eine Art Section, 
which that Section intended to address to the Colonial Secretary, 
urging upon the Government the desirability of introducing 
the Woodbury process of Photography into this- Colonv, for the 
purpose of keepmg an authentic and permanent record oi Colonial 
maps and scenes. It was stated that the process could be 
obtained for £800. 

Mr. H. C. Bussell said it was thought that the letter would 
have more weight if it were signed by the members of the Sodeiy 
generally, and it was accordingly brought to the meeting for that 
purpose. 

Twenty-eight donations were laid upon the table. 

Mr. G. D. HntST then read his paper, entitled " Notes on 
Jupiter during his opposition, 1876, which he illustrated with 
numerous drawings. 

The Eev. "W. B. CLABKslaid on the table, for the inspection of 
the members, one of the curious chipped stones supposed to have 
been shaped by the primitive inhabitants of Europe, and which 
had been sent to him from Belgium. 



WEDNESDAY, 6th SEPTEMBER, 1876. 

Ordinarv monthly meeting of the Boyal Society of New 
South Wales, held in the Society's Booms, Elizabeth-street. 

The Bev. W. B. Clabke, V.P., in the Chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 



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2G0 PBOCBSDnfos. 

The f ollowiilg gentlemen were duly elected ordinary Membeit 
of the Society : — 

B. G. Tennant, M E.C.S.B., Orange. 

ThoB. Cecil Moi^an, Lie. E.C.S.E., L.M.E.C.S., Ireland, 

Australian Club. 
F. B. G-ipps, Strathspey House, Macquarie-street. 
George Goodie, M.B., Univ. Btib., Camden. 
W. F. Bassett, M.RC.S.E., Bathurst. 
Chas. Parbury, Union Club. 
John Shields, M.E.C.S., Ed., Bega. 
W. H. Quodling, Burwood. 

Eey. Henry Shaw Millard, Newcastle Grammar School. 
Henry Sharp, G-reen Hills, Adelong. 
Eev. George Martin, Newtown. 
E. H. C. Bristowe. 

A. H. M'Culloch, jun.. 165, Pitt-street. 
Wm. Smith Thomas, M.B.C.S.E., Wollongong. 
James Aberdeen Jones, Lie. E.O. Phys., Edin., Balmain. 
John Fredk. Codrington, M.E.C.S.E., Lie. EC. Phys., L. ; 

Lie. E.C. Phys., Edin. 
Siml. Fredk. Tollett Milford, M.E.C.S.E., M.B. Univ. 

Heidelberg, College-street. 
J. P. Josephson, 253 Macquarie-street North. 
Samuel Bennett, Little Coogee. 
The certificates of four new candidates were read. 
Fourteen donations were laid upon the table. 
The first of a series of papers by Mr. Barkas, M.E.C.S., " On 
the genus Ctenodus of the Coal Measures of Great Britain," was 
read by Mr. Edward Bamsay, in the absence of the author. 
The paper was iUustrated by drawings. 

Professor Livebsidoe then read his paper " On the formation 
of Moss G-old," which he illustrated by numerous specimens. 

Teeth of the Ceratodus from Wibtemberg were exhibited by 
the Eev. W. B. Clarke. 

WEDNESDAY 4th OCTOBER, 1876. 

Ordinary monthly meeting of the Eoyal Society of New 
South "Wales, held in the Society's Eooms, Elizabeth-street. 
H. C. EussELL, V.P., in the Chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society, viz. : — 

Wm. Hoxton Hay%, M.E.C.S., Ed., Goulbum. 

Clarendon Stuart, Upper William-street, South. 

Chas. Mardhall Fisher, 173, Pitt-street. 

Thos. Pickburn, M.B., Aberdeen, College-street. 



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PROCEED^IfGS. 261 

Seventeen new candidates were proposed and seconded, 
including seven members of the Sydney Botanical Society. 

Communications from the Sections. 
Section A. Astbonomt. Mr. H. C. Etjssell read extracts 
from the Oazette of Thursday, June 30th, 1836, from the 
Oohnist of Thursday, 30th June, 1836, and from the Australian 
of Tuesday, July 5th, 1836, in reference to a heavy fall of snow 
in Sydney, on Ihiesday morning, the 28th June, 1836. 

Section I. Sanitabt and Social Science. Mr. Alfbed 
SoBEBTS submitted a Report from the above Section, which, as 
the result of its deliberations, had adopted the following resolu- 
tion, viz. : — 

That the Eoyal Society of New South "Wales be invited by this 
Section to wait upon the Government by deputation and 
urge it to introduce during the next Session an efficient 
General Public Health Act, and to appoint a Central 
Board with ample powers to enforce its provisions. 
In pursiiance of the above resolution, Mr. Alfbed Eobebts 
movea. 

That a deputation of this Society, consisting of the follow- 
ing gentlemen, viz. :— 

The Yice-Presidents and the Secretaries. 
Alger John, Esq., Lloyd G. A., Esq., M.L.A. 

Allen The Hon. George Manning James, Esq. 
Wigram, Esq., M.L.A. Mansfield G. A., Esq. 

Belgrave Dr. Milf ord Dr. 

Burton Edmund, Esq. Morgan Dr. C. "W. 

Cox Dr. Murray W. G., Esq. 

Dangar F. H., Esq. M*Lauren Dr. 

Dibbs G. E., Esq., M.L.A. Neill Wm., Esq. 

DeSalis The Hon. Leopold Neild Dr. 

Fane, M.L.C. Pell Professor, B.A. 

Fairfax The Hon. John, Smith Professor, M.L.C. 

M.L.C. Scott Rev. W., M.A. 

Famell J. S., Esq., M.L.A. Spencer W., Esq. 

Qoodlet John H., Esq. Eoberts Alfred, Esq. 

Hay The Hon. John, M.L.C. Trebeck P. N., Esq. 
Holt.TheHon.Thos.,M.L.C. WardJ)r. 
Jones Dr. Sydngr Weigall A. B., Esq., BA. 

Knox Edward, Esq. White Hon. Jas., M.L.C. 

Lord The Hon. Francis, Wood Harrie, Esq. 

M.L.C. Wright H. G. A., Esq. 

And such otlter members as shall be willing to attend, be 
appointed to wait upon the Government to urge it to 
introduce during the next Session an efficient General 
Public Health Act, and to appoint a Central Board with 
ample power to enforce its provisions. 
2d 



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262 PBOGEEPuras. 

The abore resolution wae seconded by Mr. Wm. Neiiji, and 
carried. 

Ninetv-sevon donations^were laid upon the table, and thanks 
were ordered for them. 

A Paper " On the Microscopic Structure of the Teeth of 
Ctenodus" by Mr. Babeas, M!S.C.8., was read by Professor 

LlTERSTDOE. 

Mr. S. L. BENsrsAK then read his paper " On recent Copper- 
extracting Processes." 

A paper by the Rev. J. E. Tenison Woods, RG-.S., F.L.8., 
" On some Tertiary Australian Polyzoa, illustrated by Drawings," 
was read by Professor Liveesidoe. 

The Chairman then exhibited a Thermo-Electric Battery, and 
illustrated its utility by a variety of experiments. 

The reading of Mr. Eussell's paper " On Meteorological 
Periodicity" was postponed until the 13th of October. 

The meeting then adjourned until the 13th instant. 



FRIDAY, 13th OCTOBER, 1876. 
Extra meeting of the Eoyal Society of New South Wales, 
held in the Society's Eooms, Elizabeth-street, 

The Eev. W. B. Clabke, V.P., in the Chair. - 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society, viz. : — 

F. Ratte, Noumea, New Caledonia. 

Henry Toller Wilkinson, Department of Mines. 

Thomas Brown, Eskbank, Bowenfels. 

Rev. Dr. J. A. Quirk, O.S.B., LL.D., Sydney, Lyndhurst 

College. 
J. H. Heaton, Pitt-street. 
Fredk. C. Jarrett, 292, Gkorge-streot. 
Dr. Rowling, Mudgee. 

Wm. Henry Suttor, J.P., Cangoura, Bathurst. 
Clement A. Benbow, 24, College-street. 
James Henry Brown, Moncur-street, Woollahra. 
R. S. Smith, Surveyor General's Office. 
J. D. Reece, Surveyor General's Office. 
Arthur J. Stopps, Surveyor General's Office. 
R. D. Fitzgerald, F.L.S., Surveyor General's Office. 
Aroid Nilson, Department of Mines. * 
W. D. Armsb^ong, Surveyor General's Office. 
F. B. W. Woobych, 38, Cumberland-street. 

The certificates of four new candidates were read. 
Two donations were laid upon the table. 



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p&ocsEDiKaa. S6d 

Mr. H. C. BussELL then read his paper on ^^ Meteorological 
Periodicity." 

A discussion ensued, in which Professor Smith, the Hon. 
Leopold Pane de Salis, Mr. Du Eaur, Dr, Belgrave, and the 
Chairman took part. 

WEDNESDAY, Isf NOVEMBER, 1876. 
OrdinaiT monthly meeting of the Eoyal Society of Now 
South Wales, held in the Society's Booms, Elizabeth-street. 
The Bev. W. B. Clabke, V.P., in the Chair. 
The nunutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society, viz. : — 

W. B. Gteo^ge, 172, Castlereagh-streot. 
Ernest Docker, Macleay-street. 
Bernard Austin Freehill, 180, Elizabeth-street. 
George Frederick Dansey, M.B.C.S., London, York and 
Margaret Streets, Wynyard Square. 
Five new candidates were proposed and seconded. 

Public Health Act. 

Mr. H. C. BusBELL stated that at the last meeting a deputa- 
tion was appointed by the Society to wait on the Colonial 
Secretary, for the purpose of urging him to introduce some 
measure for the improvement of the sanitary condition of the 
city. The deputation saw the Honorable the Colonial Secretary 
on the Slst October, and he informed them tliat if the Society 
would undertake to prepare a Bill he would assist and if possible 
get it passed. Mr. BusseU further stated, that though this was 
not a subject that he had thought much of, he considered the 
Society ought to do all in their power to get a Bill passed that 
would remove ail offensive things from their streets. It might 
be thought that in framing a Bifi the Society would be taking 
upon thdsm in some sort a political duty. That was a matter that 
ought to be carefully looked at. But still he felt so much the 
desirability of pressing the matter forward that he would move 
the following resolution : — ** That the request of the Honorable 
Colonial Secretary, conveyed through the deputation which 
waited on him on the Slst ultimo, to urge the necessity for 
passing a Public Health Bill be complied with, and that a Com- 
mittee, consisting of the Chairman and Secretaries of the Medical 
and Sanitary Sections, "W. Q-. Murray, Esq., and the Honorary 
Secretaries of the Society, be aippoinled to pepare, with the 
Parliamentary Draftsman, a Public Health Bill ; and that such 
Committee be empowered to sit during the prorof^ation of the 
Society's session, and to submit such BiU to the Colonial Secre- 
tary when completed." 



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264 PBOCEEBIKGS. - 

Mr. BoBEBTS said that the Colonial Secretary had offered the 
Society the services of a Parliamentary Draftsman and of the 
Ghovemment Printer to aid them. That appeared to him to show 
the Colonial Secretary's earnestness in the work, and he for one 
felt that he could see the way clear before the Society to do a 
great good to the community. He saw the diflSculty mentioned 
by Mr. Bussell ; but this appeared to him to be an exceptional 
case, and one that was hardly political in its character. He 
thought they might perhaps get over the difficulty by appending 
to Mr. Russell's resolution words in effect disavowing any poli- 
tical object on the part of the Socieir^, and stating that it was 
onlv in view of the sad condition of the Colony, and in the cause 
of humanity, that it determined to take the work up. The work 
would no doubt be very arduous. It required special knowled^, 
and there was no other body that he was aware of equallv 
capable of dealing with it, except the Sewa|;e and Health Board. 
He should personally be glad to be relieved from the work, but 
he would not shirk it if it were felt to be desirable. 

The Honorable Fbajtcis Lobd seconded the resolution. 

Dr. Belqbate and Mr. Murray spoke in favour of the reso- 
lution. 

Mr. Chables Moobb and the Rev. Wm. Scott opposed the 
resolution. 

Professor Livebsidoe did not think the Society should inter- 
fere in any way whatever with legislation. They might give some 
general suggestions to the Government, and what was done had 
better be done by the Sections of the Society — by the Committees 
of the Sanitary and Medical Sections. 

The Chaibmait also thought that the matter had better be 
left with the Sections. 

The Rev. Mr. Scott moved, as an amendment, the omission of 
all the words after the word "be," with the view to insert the 
following words— "requested to draw up a series of suggestions 
to be submitted to the Government with a view to the prenara- 
tion of such BiU." F F ^ 

Dr. Neild seconded the amendment. He thought that what- 
ever was done by the Sections of the Society woulS be regarded 
as done by the Society itself. ^ 

Mr. Roberts said, that if they confined their action to merely 
giving a few suggestions the matter would fall through. 
i.ni «® amendment was then put to the meeting from the Chair, 

ir ^ ""^^ and the resolution was carried. ' 

dirked t^^V^^^®^^/.^^®?,T^^' "^** *^® Secretary be 
Son^^'''^ *^^ ^^T*^ Secretary of the foregoing reso- 
apSteT^!^.'^.!??* *>* ^ Parli/mentaiy Draftsman be 

¥}^^^ act with the Committee." 

^ne motion was seconded by Dr. Belobave, and carried. 



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PEOCEEDINGS. 265 

Three donations were laid on the table, and the thanks of the 
Society ordered for them. 

The following papers were received from Mr. Barkas, M.E.C.S: 

" On the Microscopical structure of the Teeth of Ctenodus," 
Part 3 ; and 

" On the Dentary, Articular, and Pterygo-palatine Bones of 
CtenoduB," Part 4. 

The Eev. "W. B. Glabke then read his paper " On the effects 
of Forest Vegetation on Climate." 

A discussion ensued in which Mr. Charles Moore and j;he 
Chairman took part, and the further discussion of the paper was 
adjourned until the next meeting. 

Exhibits. 

Mr. W. M*Donald exhibited and explained the action of Tate's 
new form of air-pump. 

Mr. Coljer exhibited a specimen of coral, which was of special 
interest, inasmuch as it had been found by the cable-ship ''Edin- 
burgh," adhering to the cable laid between Port Darwin and 
Banjowangie, about 270 miles from Port Darwin, and taken from 
a depth of 150 feet. The coral was three or four inches in 
thickness, and bore the marks of the cable, which it had overgrown 
to the extent named. 

WEDNESDAY, 6th DECEMBER, 1876. 
Ordinary monthly meeting of the Eoyal Society of New South 
Wales, held in the Society's rooms, Elizabeth-street. 
The Eev. W. B. Clabkb in the Chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary Members 
of the Society, viz. : — 

George B. Montefiore, 5, Gresham-street; 

John Martin, !l^de. 

Wm. Christie, U.S., Hawthorn Lodge, Glen Innes. 

A. W. Scott, ]i.A. (Cantab), Pemdale, New South Head 

Bead. 
Alfred Chandler, Post Office-street. 

HoKOBAHr Membbbs: — 

In accordance with a recommendation from the Council, Pro- 
fessor L. G. De Koitinck, M.D., of the Universiiy of Liege, and 
Sib James Cockle, M.A., P.E.S., Chief Justice of Queensland, 
were duly elected Honorary Members of the Society. 

The certificates of two new candidates were read. 

Donations were laid upon the table. The Chairman announced 
that the Council intended to make arrangements next year to 
open the office as a Beading Eoom on three nights a week, in 
audition to Wednesday afternoon as at present. 



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266 PBOCEEBINGS. 

SoCIAIi AUD SaHITABT SB«TIO]r. 

Fbopessob LiTEBSiDaE read & letter from tlie Social and Samtarj 
Section of the Society, requesting the co-operation of liie Society 
with the Agricultural Society for the exhibition of articles tending 
to promote sanitary science, and to improve sanitary appliances. 

Moved by Mr. H. C. Eitssell, seconded by the Hot. Wic . 
Scott, and carried, — ^That the above letter be referred, to the 
Council of the Society. 

PuBLXtJ Health Bill. 

A letter was read from the Colonial Secretary's Department^ 
acknowledging the receipt of a letter from the Society requesting 
the appointment of a Parliamentary Draftsman to act with 
the Committee deputed by the Society to prepare a Public Health 
Bill, and stating that although what was set Torth in the resolu- 
tions of the Society concerning a request of the Colonial Secretary 
was incorrect, the Premier Q&. Bobebtsoi?) was not unwilling to 
arrange that the assistance of a Draftsman be given to the Society 
in the work it had in view, and he would accordingly make 
arrangements to that end. 

Notice of Motion : — ^The Eev. "Wm. Scott gave notice that at 
the May meeting he should move, — " That in future no motion be 
made, of which notice has not been given at a previous meeting, 
excepting motionsxjf adjournment or others of a formal character. ' 

Mb. Chables Moobe then read a paper by Mr. "W. Chbistk, 
" On the Forest Vegetation of Central and Northern New 
England, in connection with Geological Influences." 

The discussion on the Bev. "W. B. Clabb£*s paper entitled 
" Effects of Forest Vegetation on Climate,** was resumed. The 
following gentlemen took part in the debate, viz. : — Mr. Charles 
Moore, Mr. Brodribb, Dr. Neild, Mr. Dixon, Bev. Wm. Scott, Mr. 
BusseU, and the Chairman. 

The Chubman brought before the notice of the meeting an 
American publication " On Forest Culture," intended to encourage 
the* cultivation of the Eucalyntus in America. 

The following papers were then read by Professor LiVEBsmeB, 
viz. :— 

1. On Fossili&rous Silicious Deposit firom ihe Bichmond 

Biver, and * 

2. '' On a remai^able specimen of contorted Slate." 
The papers were illustrated oy geological specimens. 

Mr. Makin exhibited specimens of shiJe and coil from the 
Berrima District, and stated that he would read at some future 
meeting a paper " On the mineral productions of Berrima.'' 

The meeting then adjourned until May. 



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267 



ADDITIONS 



TO THS 

LIBBARY OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 



I)OirATIOKS-1874 



The names of the Donors tire in Italics. 
Bbfobts, Obsestatxons, &o. 

Apmlatdb !~Sopth Australian Institute, Annual Beport, 1875-6.— 

The Inttitute. 
AxBAirr, N.Y. : — Manual for the use of the Legislature of the State of 

New York, 1871. 
C^yil List and Forms of the Colony and State of New York. 

Fifty-fifth, Fifty-sixth, and Fifty-seyenth Annual Report of 

the Trustees of the New York State Lihrary. 
Twentieth, Twenty-first, QVenty-seoond, Twenty-third, Twenty- 
fourth, and Twenty-fifth Annual Report of the Regents of tho 

Unirersity on the condition of the State Cabinet of Natural 

History ; with Plates. 
Report of the Regents of the Uniyersity on the Boundaries of the 

State of New York. 
Catalogue of the New York State Lihrary, 1872. 
Meteorology 1826-1860, and from 1850-1863. Second ^enes.—The 

State Library t Albany , N.Y. 
BsBLiN : — Kdnigliche Akademie der Wissensohaften, Berlin. Monthly 

Reports, from 1860. 16 yols. — The Academy. 
Nachricnten yon der GTesellschaft der Wissensohaften, uud dor 

G". A. Uniyersitat, G5ttingen, 1875. 
Kdnidiche Statistisch-topographische Bureau. Two Beports.-^ 

The Bureau. 
Bomf: — ^Yerhondlungen Naturhistorischen Vereines der Prcussischen 

Bheinlande und Westphalens. — The Society. 
Calctttta : — Records of the Geological Survey of India. Vol. VIII, 

Part 1, 2, 8, and 4, 1875. 
Records of the Geological Suryey of India. Vol. IX. Part 1. 

1876. 
Memoirs of the Geological Suryey of India. Vol. X. 
Memoirs of the Geological Suryey of India. Vol. XI. 
PalaM>ntologia Indica; being Figures and J)e8eription8 of the 

organic Remains procured dunng the progress of the Geological 

Survey of India. 
Palffiontologia Indica. VoL I. 4. 
Jurassic Fauna of Xutch. Vol. 1, 2, 8er. IX. The Cephalopoda 

(Ammonitidae). ByWm. Waa^n, Ph. D. With Plates.. 
Do., do., do., Ser. IX. The BelemnitidsB and Nautilidie. 

—Thos. Oldham, LL.D., F.M.S.i Superintendent of the Geo- 
loyical Survey of India. 



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268 ADDITIONS TO LIBBABT. 

Cakbbidob, U.8.A. -.—Annual Beport of the Trustees of the Museum of 
Comparatiye Zoology at Harrard CoUege, in Cambridge, together 
with the Beport of the Committee on the Museiun for 187t. — 
The Trustees. 

Oablsbtthe : — ^Verhandlungen des Naturwissenschaf tlichen Vereins in 
Karlsruhe, 1864 and 1866, 1869, 1871, 1873, and 1876.--2TI* 
Society, M 

Dbbsdbn :— General Directorship of Royal CoUeetion for Arts and 
* Science, Dresden — 

1. Die Umenf elder ron Strahlen. 

2. Geologie Ton Sumatra. 

3. Der ij^bische Hunmelsglobus. 

4. Mittheilungen aus dem KCnigl. G^logischen Museum. 

5. Mittheilungen ubor die Sammlungen dee KOnigl. Mathem- 

Phvsikal. Salons. 

6. Eatalog des Sammlungen des EOnigl. Mathem.-Phyiikali0chen. 

Salons. 

— The ImtUution, 
Fbakktubt ▲ M. : — ^Bericht uber die Senckenbergische Naturforsehende 

Gesellsohaft, 1874-75.— 2%tf Society, 
Fbbibubo : Berichte der Naturforsehonden Gesellsohaft. Freiburg, 1870- 

71-72-73.— 2%tf Society, 
Glasgow:— The Glasgow University Calendar for the Year 1876-77. — 

The University, 
CtoBLiTZ : — ^Abhandlungen der Naturforschenden G«sellschaft in GU>rlitx, 

1857, 1860, 1862, 1868, 1871, and IB76.— The Society, 
Hambttbo :— Gkographisehe Gesellscliaft. (Two Beports.) — The Society, 
HllDBLBEBa : — Yerhandlungen dee Naturhistorisch-Medicinisehen 

Vereins zu Heidelberg. Keue Folge 1, 2, 3. — The Sociehf, 

HoBABT Town, Tasmania : — Besults of Five Years' Meteorological Obser- 

vetions for Hobart Town. By Francis Abbott, F.B.A.S. — The 

Author, 

Monthly Notices, Boyal Society of Tasmania, 1874.-2^ Society. 

Jbna :— Beport from the Society of Natural History in Jena, 1874, 1875, 

and 1876.-2^ Society, 
LoKDON : — Proceedings of the Boyal Society. VoL XXIV., Nos. 164, 
166, 166, 167, 168, 169. 
Ditto. Vols. XXV and XXVI.— rA« Society, 
Mblboubnb : — Besults of Observations in Meteorology, Terrestrial Bfag- 
netism, as taken at the Melbourne Observatory during the 
year 1874, vol. III., under the direction of Bobert L. J. EUery, 
Government Astronomer. — The Obee nxttorv. 
Victoria Patents and Patentees. Vol. VHI.— TAe Ueyietrar General 

of Victoria, 
Beports of the Proceedings of the Central Board of Health, Mel- 
bourne. — The Central Board ofSealth. 
Beport of the Chief Inspector of Mines to the Hon. the Minister for 

Mines, for the year 1875. 
Beports of the Mining Surveyors and Begistrars, quarter ending 
80th June, 1876, Victoria. 
'^The Department of Mines, 
Abstracts of Specifications of Patents applied for from 1854 to 1866. 

— The JSeyietrar OeneraVt Qffieef Melhoume. 
Geological Sketch Map of Victoria ; Geological Sketch Map of the 
Cape Otway Distnct ; Geological Sketch Map of a part of the 
Mitchell District; Division ot the Gippaland Mining District. 



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ADDITIONS TO LIBSABT. 269 

Geological Map of Ballaarat Gh>ld Field, with Kotos and Section. 

Do. ofSandhunt. 

Do. of Beechworth. 

Map showing the Distribution of Forest Trees in Victoria. 
Geological Sorvej of Victoria ; Eeports of Progress, Nos. I., II., 

and III. 
Prodromus of the Palsontology of Victoria. Decades I, II, and III. 
Observations on New Vegetable Fossils of the Auriferous Drifts 

of Victoria. 
Beports of the Chief Inspector of Mines for the years 1874-75. 
Mineral Surveyors' and Begistrars' Beports for the quarter ending 

3l6t March, 1876. 

— The Hon. the Minuter of Mines, on behalf of the Govern^ 
ment of Victoria, 
The Statistical Bister of the Colony of Victoria for the year 1874. 

Part VIII— V ital Statistics. Part IX— Beligious, Moral, and 

Intellectual Progress. (Two copies.) 
Statistics of Friendly Societies for the year 1874. 
Statistical Begister of the Colony of Victoria, 1874 ; General Index ; 

The Gt>Temment Statist of Victoria; Australian Statistics, 

1874; Supplementary Tables. 
Agricultural Statistics, 1876-76. (Two copies.) 
Statistical Begister of Victoria. Parts 1, 2, ana 3. 

--The Qoverhment Statist qf Victoria. 
Mineral Statistics of Victoria for the year 1876. (Two copies.) 
Mineral Statistics of Victoria for the year 1875. 

— The Minister for Mines, on behalf of the Government of 
Victoria. 
Statistical Begister of the Colony of Victoria for the year 1876 — 

Part IV — Interchange; Part V — Production ; Part VI-^Law, 

Crime, Ac. ; Part Vil — Accumulation. Australian Statistic? 

for the year 1875.— T^ Government Statist, 
Moscow : — Bulletin de la Soci^t4 Imperialo des Naturalistes de Moscow. 

Parts 1 and 2. 1869. 
Otaoo, New Zealand : — Beport on the Geology and Gold Fields of Otago, 

by F. W. Ilutton, F.G.S., C.M.Z.S;, Provincial Geologist, and 

G. H. F. Uirich, F.G.S.— 2%e Provincial Geologist. 

Pabis : — ^Bulletin de la Soci^t^ G^logique de France. Troisi^me S^rie, 

tome premier. — The Society. 
Annuaire de la Soci^e Philotechnique, Ann^o 1876, tome trente- 

sixi^me. — The Society. 
Pl8A : — Atti della Societa Toscana diScienze NaturaH Bessidente in Pisa. 

Vol. I, Parts 1 and 2. ; Vol. II, Part \.—The Society^ 

Stockholm :— Meteorologiska Jakttagelser i Sverife. 1878. 

Ofrersigt af Kongl. S venslu Vetenskaps— Akacbmiens Fdrhandlingar. 

28 to 31. 
Handlingar (M^moires). 4 : 0, Bd. 9. Parts 2, 10 & 12. 
Bihang (Supplement aux Memoiree). In 8 : 0, H. 1 : 1 & 2. 

2: 1&2. 
Lefuadsteckinnur. Bd. 1 1 3. 

Handlingar (M^moires), in4to., bd. 11, with 63 Plates (Echinoidees). 
Bihang (Supplement aux M^oircs). Bd. 8 : 1. 
^ Ofversigt (Bulletin), in 8vo., 1876. 
Eugenics Besa Omkring Jbrden, 1861-1868. Nos. 13 and 14.-— 

VAcad4mie Soyale Suidoise de Stockholm. 



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270 ADDTnasB to libxabt. 

Sydney : — Progress Beports of the Sydney Sewage uid Health BeenL 

Parte 1 to 11. 
Beport on Sydney and Suburban Water Supply. 1 and 2. 
An Act for preventing Nuisanoee, 39 Vic. 14. 
Do. do. do. No. 7. 

JProfessor Pell, Chairman of the Sefoage and ffeaUk Board. 
The Blue Book, 1S7&.— The Government Printer, 
Annual Beport of the Department of Mines, New South Wales, 

for the year 1875. — The Hon, the Minister for Mines. 
Government Observatory — Beport of Astronomer, 1874-75. — Tkm 

Observatory. 
Besults of Meteorological Observations made in New South Wales 

during 1874. — The Ohservatory, . 
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New Sooth Wales. Vol. 1, 

Part 1, and Part 2 ; with Plates.— TAe Society, 
Washincjton :— Meteorological Observations dumig the year 187^ in 

Utah, Idaho, and Montana. — The Smithsonian Institution. 
Daily Bulletin of Weather BetXMts for the Month of March, 1873. — 

Office of the Chief Sigmu Officer, 
Beports of Observations of the Total Edipso of the Sun ; with 

Plates. 
Determination of the Astronomical Latitude of a Station by means 

of the Zenith Telescope. 
Determination of the Astronomical Azimuth of a Direotion. 
Beport on the Bcsults from the Obscrvatioiis made at the Magnetical 

Observatory on Capitol Hill. 
The Star Factors— A.B.C., for reducing Transit Obserfatxms, 1874. 
On the use of the Zenith Telescope for Observations of Time. 
Notes on Measurements of Terrestrial Magnetism. 
United States Coast Survey Catalogue of Charts, 1875. 
Beport of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey for 

1871. 
United States Coast Survey Beport, 1868. Appendix, No. 10. 
Do. do. do. 1869. Appendix, IS. 

Do. do. do. 1870. Appendix, 11,12,18, 16 

19, and 21. 
Do. do. do. 1871. Appendix, 8, 9, 11, 15, 

16, and 17. 

Do. do. do. 1872. Appendix, 12. 

Do. do. do. 1873. Appendix, 12, 13, 14, 

and 22. 
On the use of Bailways for Geodetic Surveys. 
Special Survey of the Harbour of Province Town, in the State of 

Massachusetts. 
Beport on the Tides and Currents of Hell Ghite, one of the entrances 

to New York Harbour. 
Scientific Lecture on Tides and Tidal Action in HarboiuFB. 
Field Catalogue of 983 Transit Stars. 
United States Coast Survey Projection Tables. 
Beport on Mt. St. Elias. 

A Treatise on the Plane Table, and its use in Topographical Sur- 
veying. 
On the B^lamation of Tide Sands and its relation to Navigation. 
Memoranda relating to the Field Work of the Seeondaiy Triangu- 

latioD. 
Seports ooacoming Martha'e Vineyard and Nantucket. 
Cape Cod Ship Canal Bepori. 



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ADBITIOKS ^O LIBBABT. 271 

WABmSGTOlX'-cotUinued. 

On the Air oontained in Sea Water. 

—The United States Coast Survey Qffice. 
Coasts and Islands of the Mediterranean Sea, Part I. — The Bureau 

qf Navigation, 
Coasts and Porta of the Bay of Biscay, No. GO. Hydrographio 

Office, U.S. Nary.— 2%« Burectu of Navigation, 
Annual Keport of the Board of Eegents of t^e Smiil^onian Insti- 
tution for the year 1873. 
Daily Bulletin of the Signal Serrice, U.S. of America, January and 

Febroary, 1878. 
Eeport of the U.S. Geoloffical Survey of the Territories, Vol. VI. 

Cretaceous Flora ; irith Plates. 
Catalogue of the Publieations of the United States Geological 

Surrey of the Territories, by F. V. Hayden, Geologist-in-cliarge, 

1874. 
Chronological Obeerrations on Introduced Animals and 'Plants, 

Parti. 
List of Eleyations, principally in that portion of the United States 

west of the Mississippi Kiver. 
Beport on the Chemistry of the Earth, by T. Sterry Hunt, LL.D., 

F.B.S. (Two copies.) 
Memoir of C. F. P. ron Martins, by Chas. Ran. (Two copies.) 
Contributions to the Ichthyology of the Western Coaet of the 

United States, from specimens in the Museum of the Smithsonian 

Institution. (Two copies.) 
Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories, 

N0j^2. 
SyDOpBis of the Flora of Colorado, by Chas. C. Porter and John M. 

Coulter. 

— The Smithsonian Institution, 
Professional Papers, Corps of Engineers :— > 

No. 6. Casemate Embrasures — Totta ; with Mapi. 

No. 7. Stability of Arches — ^Woodbury. 

No. 12. Tables and Formulte — Lee. 

No. 22. North Sea Canal of Holland— Barnard ; with Plana. 
Beoonnaisance of the Tukan Rirer, by Capt. C. W. Raymond. 
Beoonnaiaanee of the Ute Country, by Lieut. E. H. RufTner ; with 

Map. 
Physical Features of the Valley of the Minnesota River. G. K. 

Warren. With Maps. 
Explorations in Nebraska and Dakota in tlie years 1855-56-57 s with 

Ma^. 
ReoonnalBance of the Black EBlls. Wm. Ludlow. With Maps. 
Expedition up the Tellow-vtone River — Forsyth Ghrant j with Map. 
Geographical Explorations west of the 100th Meridian, by Lieut. 

G. M. Wheeler, via. ;— 
PiogrsM Bepoii upon G(eographieal and G«ologioal Explorations and 

Surveys west of the 100th MericKan, in 1872 ; with Plates. 
Ornithological Specimens, 1871-2-9. 
Catalogue of Plants, 1871-2-3. 
Invertebrate Fossils, 1871-2-8. 
Systematic Catalogue of Vertebrate of tbe Eocene of New Mexico, 

1874. 
Construction of the Potomac Aqueduct, Tumbull; with Plans. 
Removal of Blossom Rook, San Franciseo Harbovr ; with Plates. 
Irrigation in California ; with Plates. 



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272 ADDITIONS TO LIBSABT. 

WaBHIKOTOH— COW^Vltttfrf. 

Compressiye strength of Building Stone, GiUmore. 
Beport of the Becmmation of the AlluTial Basin of the HisBissippi 
Biyer ; with Plates. 

— 2%tf Office of the Chief of En^meers. 
A Sketch of the senrices of the late Mr. W. Seaton. 
The Scientific Education of Mechanics and Artisans. 
Beport of Explorations in 1873, of the Colorado of the West and 

its Tributaries. 
Thoughts on the nature and orisin of Force, by W. B. Taylor. 
Annt^ Beport of the Board of Begents of the Smithsoniaa 
Institution for the year 1874. 
— The Smithsonian InsHMum, 
Beports of the Department of Agriculture for 1872-73-74. 
MonthlyBeports of the Department of Agriculture for 1872-73-74 

•^The Department, 
Beport of the Smithsonian Institution, 1874. 
Beport of Explorations in 1878 of the Cobrado of the West a&d 

its Tributaries. (Two copies.) 
Memoirs of the American Association for the adyancement of 

Science. Vol. I. 
Beyision of the hitherto known Sjpecies of the genus Chionobas in 

North America, by Saml. H. Scudder. 
Entomological Notes by S. H. Scudder, 1, 2, 3, and 4. 
Annual Beport of the Trustees of the Museum of Compantiys 

Zoology, 1874. 
Thoughts on the nature and origin of Force, by W. B. Taylor. 
Distribution of Insects in New Hampshire. 
Historical Sketch of the generic names proposed for Butterflies, by 

Saml. H. Scudder. 
The Structiu^ and transformation of Ennueus Atala. 
Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History. Vol. II, Fart 

III, No. IV. 
Notes on the Stridulation of some New Enriand Orthoptera. 
Notice of some North American Species of Pieris. 
Note sur I'CEuf et le Jeune A^ de Chenille d'CEncis aello. 

— T%e Smithsonian Instituhon, 
The Two Principal Groups of Urbiools Tentamen detenninatioius 

di Lepidoptera. 
Maps of Indian Territory— BufPner. 
Do. do. Jackson. 

Do. Montana. 

Do. New Mexico and Arixona. 
Do. New Mexico — Bufftier. 
Do. do. Morrison. 

Do. Nebraska an<} Dakota. 
Do. Dakota. 

Th, Western Territories and NcMrthem Extension. 
Do. Kansas, Texas, &o. 
Do. Part of Nebraska. 
Do. do. 

Do. do. and Wyoming, i j 

Do. do. '^ •"««». 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 

Do. . Middle and Eastern Tennessee. 
Do. S. and S.E. Neyada. 



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ADDITIONS TO LIBBABT. 273 

WABUTSOTOV—coiUinmed, Ute Country . 

MapB of Wheeler's Atlas (Explorations, west 100th Meridian). 
DO. Yellow Stone Lake, Ac. 
Do. Yellow Stone and Missouri Biyers, &c. 
Do. U.S. Military Map. 
Do. San Domingo. 
Do. Florida. 
— The Office of the Chief qf Emgineert, 
Wellxngtok: — Tenth Annual Beport of the Colonial Museum and 
Laboratory, together with a list of Donations and Deposits 
during 1874-75.— 2%tf Colonial Museum, 
Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 1875. 
Vol. YUL—The Institute. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 
(Names of Donors in small capitals.) 

Babkas, W. J., L.R.C.P., London. 

List of FalsDOZoic Fishes. By W. J. Barkas. 

On the Microscopical Structure of Fossil Teeth from tlie North- 
umberland True Coal Measures. — Idem, 
BBirsrsAir, L. S. 

Proceedines of the Geological Society. Vols. 2 and 8. 

Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. 13 Nos. 

Proceedings of the Boyal Society, London. 40 Nos. 

BiBlSDALB, BbT. Db. 

An Essay on the Wines sent to the late Intercolonial Exibition, of the 

Colonies of Victoria, New South Wales, and South Austndia. 
Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition of 1876. (Melbourne, 1875.) 

Official Record. 
Bbazibb, Johk, C.M.Z.S. 

Description of eleyen new species of Terrestrial and Marine Shells 

from North-east Australia. By J. Brazier, C.M.Z.S. 
Description of ten new species of Shells from the collection of Mr. 

Chas. Dixon of Brisl»ne, Queensland. — Idem, 
Dixon, W. A., F.C.S. 

C. Plinny Historiss Mundi. 

Tables of Quantitatiye Analysis, arranged for the use of Students, 

By W. A. Dixon, P.CS. 
Dr. P. L. Hatch, United States : — Constitution and By-laws of Min* 

nesqtaAcademy of Natural Sciences — 1873. 
Bulletin of the Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences — 1874. 
LiTXBSipaB, Profbssob Archibald, F.C.S. 

Statistical Register of New South Wales— 1874. 

Catalogue of the Minerals and Bocks in the collection of the Austral* 

ian Museum, bvGerard Krefft, F.L.S. 
Map of New South Wales (mounted and yamished). 
Victorian Intercolonial Exhibition — 1875, preparatory to the Phila* 

delphia Exhibition — 1876 Official Catalogue. 
Official Catalogue of the natural and industrial Products of New 

South WfSes, forwarded to the International Exhibition of 1876, 

Philadelphia. 
Caye-hunting, by W. Boyd Dawkins. 
Darwin's NatunJist's Voyage. 
Niool's Mineralogy. 
Disease in the Sugar-cane, Queensland. By Professor Liyersidgc. 



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274 ' ADDTTIOKS TO LIBBAET. 

Maclay M. ton (BataTia). 

Ueber Brachyoccphalitat bei den Papuas Ton New Guinea. — The 

Author. 
Etlmologische Bermerkungen neber die Papnas der Maclaj — Kusti 

in New Ghiinca. By M. Ton Madi^. — Idem, 
Anthropologische Bemerkungen neber die Papnas der Haclay, Kxate 

in New Guinea. — Idem. 
An Ethnological Excursion in Johore.-^Idem. 
MrLLER, Baron Fbkdk. ton, C.M.G-. 
Descriptive Notes on Papuan Plants. By Baron Ton MfiBer. 

Fmgmenta PhytograiJhr© Anstraliw. Vol. 9. By Baron Ton Muller. 
DcBcriptiro Notes on Papuan Plants. By Baron Ton Muller. 
BescriptiTe Notes on Papuan Plants. Parts I and IL By Baron 

von Muller. 
OsBOKNE, James. (Wollongong.) 
Royal Gallery of British Art. 
Grammar of Ornament. By Owen Jones. 
Bahsay, Edwa»d p., F.L.S., C.M.Z.S. 

Catalogue of the Australian Birds in the Australian Mnaeum, at 

Sydney, New South Wales. Part 1, Accipitpet. By E. P. 

Ramsay. 
List of Birds met with in Norih-oastera QnwniUnd, chiefly at 

Rockingham Bay. By E. P. Ramsay, F.LA 
Notes on the original Specimen of Ptilonorfaynchaa Bawasleyi. — 

Idem. 
RbiPi Geobob H. 

A Free Trade Essay. By G. II. Reid. (FiTe c^ies.) 
Ridley, Ret. Wiu 

£^milar(5i and other Aastralian Langoages. By W. Bidley, MJL. 
Roberts, Alfred. 

Quarterly Journal of Microscopic Science. 19 toIs. 
Sixteen Pamphlets on Diatoms. 
BxTSSELL, H. C, B.A., F.R.A.8. 

Notes on the Climate of Victoria. By A. L. J. EUeiy. 
Photograph and Key of Seientifio Celebrities (G^rmuO. 
SCHOMBURO, Db. R. 

The Flora of South Australia. By Dr. Sehombnrg. 

Report on the Progress and Condition of the Botanic Ghurden and 

GoTemment Pkntations during the year 1874. (Two copies.) — 

Idem. 
Report on the progress and condition of the Botazac Gardens and 

GoTcmment Plantations during the year 1875. 
Botanical Reminiscences in Biitish Guiana. — Idem. 
Thubston, F. T., Civil and Mechanical Engineer. (Hoboken, N. J.) 
On the Economy resulting from Expansion -of ^eam. By Robt. H. 

Thurston, 
On the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Air and other perma- 
nent Gas. 
Iron lifanufactures in Great Britain. By R. H. Thnxston. 
Bessemer Machinery. 
Report of the Committee appointed to test Steam Boilers at the 

American Institute Exhibition. 
Molecular Changes in Metals. (Two copies.) 
Molecular Changes produced in Iron by Tariations of temperature. 
Modem Industrial Progress and the Influences aooelaEating its 

march. By F. A. P. Bernard, LL.D., Ii.HJ>.^ 
A new Marine Signal lig^t. (Two copies.) 



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ABDIIIOXrS TO LIBBABY. 275 

Thijbston, F. T,— continued. 

""The Theory of Aero-Steam Engines. 

Annual announcement of the SteTons Institute of Technologj. 

Inland Transportation. 

Experimental Steam Boiler Explosions. 

H.B.M. Iron-clad "Monarch." 

The Westfield Steamer Boiler Explosion. 

Tensile Strength of American and English Iron and Steel. 

A Paper relating to Traction Engines. 

The Messrs. Sterens, of Hobokcn, as Engineers, Kaval Architects, 

and Philanthropists. 
Letter to the Hon. Geo, M. Eobeson, Secretary to the United States 

Nayy. 
Strength combined with economy of material in constracdng the 

details of Steam-engines. (Two copies.) 
Stevens* Battery, 1874. 

On the losses of propeUing power in the Paddle-wheel. 
Steam Engines of the French Ifayy. 
n Transmission of Motion. 
On tlie Strength, Elasticity, Ductility, and Resilience of Materials 

of Machine construction. 
W. Whitakbb, B.A., F.a.S. 

Remarks on the Australian Gold Fields, by W. S. Jevons. 

On Subarial Denudation, and on ClifTs and Escarpments of the 

Chalk and Lower Tertiary Beds. By W. Whitaker, B.A., 

F.G.S. 
Woods, Revd. J. E. T., F.a.S. 

On a New Genus of Nudibranchiata. By J. Tenison Woods. 

SCIEJPTIPIC PSBIODICAIfi SFBSCBIBED FOB. 

American Journal of Science and Art. 

Annals of Natural History. 

Botanical Journal (Trimen.) 

British Association — ^Annual Reports. 

Chemical News. 

Comptes Rendus. 

Dingler's Poljtechnische JoumaL 

EncjcIopeDdia Britannica — new edition — half-bound in Russia (6 

vols.) J as issued. 
English Mechanic and Mirror of Science. 
Fr^nius' Zoitschriffc fiir Analytische Chemie. 
Geological Magazine. 
Geological Record. 

Journal of the " Geological Society," London. 
Journal of the *' Geological Society," France. 
Journal of the ** Chemical Society," London. 
Journal of the ** Linnean Society," London. 
Journal of the " Physical Society," London. 
Journal of the " Royal Microscopical Society," London. 
Nature. 

Philosophical Magazine. 

Proceedings of the " Geological Association," London. 
Proceedings of the " Manchester Geological Society." 
Publications of the " Palajontographical Society," London. 
Publications of the *' Royal Geological Society," ComwaU. 
Quarterly Journal of the " Meteorological Society." 



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276 ADDITIOKS TO LIBBABY. 

DOKATIOVS TO THJB SOCIETY'S ClBIKBT OF MiCBOSGOPIGAL ObJSCH, &0., 

1876. 

BBOWir, H. J. (Newcastle.) 

Slides of Spicule. 
Hixer, J. D. 

Slide of Poljzoa, Port Jackson ; Section of Sohirrlius Cancer. 
DrawinjKS of Drosera hinaia. 
MAcDomraLL, W . 

12 slides of Foramenifera. 
Patebsok, Hugh. 

Slide containing section of Human Tooth, and slide of Tooth 
showing exostosis. 
ROBXBTS, A., M.K.C.S. 

86 slides of Biatoms, mounted, by Dr. Smith, of Bdinburgh. 

Slides of Foramenifera, by Mdller. 
WOODQATE, E. 

Slide of Salidne Crystals, and section of Elder-pith. 



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DONATIONS 



FBOM THE 

ROYAL SOCIETY OP NEW SOUTH WALES. 



No. l.—Transactions of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 1876. 
„ 2.— Transactions of the Philosophical Society, 1862-65. 
„ 3. — ^Mineral Map and Statistics. 
„ 4.— Resources of New South Wales. 
„ 6. — Mines and Mineral Statistics. 
„ 6. — Meteorological Report, 1873. 

[In the following list the numbers refer to the above-mentioned publications.] 

ArSTEIA. 

Vienna.— Kaiserlich Akademie der Wissenchaften. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. 
„ Zoological and Botanical Society. Nos. 1, 2,. 3, 4, and 6. 

BELanm. 
Bnunelfl. — Academic Royale des Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 6. 

The Dominion of Cakida. 
MontreaL — Geological Surrey of Canada. Nos. 1, 2, 8, 4, and 5. 
Halifax.— Natural History Society of Montreal. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. 

ENOLAin). 

Cambridge.— The Philosophical Society. ' Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 
„ The Ray Club. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 6. 

„ The Natural Science Club. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 6. 

„ The University Library. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4^, and 5.. 

„ The Public Library. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 6. 

Leeds.— The College of Science. Nos. 1 to 5. 

London.'^The Anthropobgical Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4^ apd 5. 
The British Association. Nos. 1 to 6. 
The British Museum. Nos. 1 to 6. 

The Chemical Society, Burlington House. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. 
The Geological Society, BurUngton House. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6j 
The Linnean Society, BurUngton House. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. 
The Meteorological Society. No. 1. 

The Physicfd ^iety, South Kensington Museum. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4^ 
6, ana 6. 

2i: 



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278 DONATIONS FBOM THE BOOIBTT. 

London!— The Boyal Asiatic Society. Noe. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. 
The Eojal ABtronomical Society. 2To. 1. 
The Boyal Colonial Institute. Kos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. 
The Royal Geographical Society. Nos. 1 to 6. 
The Royal Society, Burlington House. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 6. 
The Royal School of Mines. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 
The Society of Arts. No. 1 to 6. 

ManchOBter.— The Geological Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and ft. 
„ The Owen's College. Nos. 1 to 6. 

Hiddle8l)Orong&. — The Iron and Steel Institute. Nos. 1 to 6. 

Oxford.— The RadclifFe Library. No. 1 to 6. 

„ Tlie Bodleian Library. No. 1 to 6. 

„ The Uniyersity Library. No. 1 to 6. 

Penzance. — Royal Geological Society of Cornwall; Nos. 1 to 6. 
Truro, ComwalL — The Mineralosical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 
Truro. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and6. 

Ibblakd. 
Dublin. — ^The Royal Irish Academy. Nos. 1, 2, 3> 4^ and 5. 

ScOTiAiro. 
Edinburgll.— The Boyal Society. Nob. 1, 2, 8, 4, 6, and 6. 

I'bavob. 

Farifl. — Sooi^t^ Philotechnique. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 

The Academy of Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4^ 5, and 6. 
Tlie Anatoniical Society. Nos. •• * -^ - "^ and 6. 
The Anthropological Society. 4, 5, and 6. 

The Biological Society. Nos. 1 md 6. 

Tlie Chirurgical Society. Nos. , and 6. 

The Dean of the Faculty of M ., js. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, 

The Director of the Museum of Natural History. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4> 

5, and 6. 
The Entomological Society^ Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 
The Geogrephical Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 6. 
The Geological Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 
The Mincralogical Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3, i, &, and 6. 

ItALY. 

Pisa. — Soeieta Toseana di SomuEa Naturale. Nos. 1 to 6. 

Ikdia. 
Calcutta.— The Geological Suryey of India. Nob. 1, 2, 8» 4^ and 5. 

SOIBITTIFIO iKSTITtrnONfl OF GERlillTT. 

Berlin.— Kdnigliche Akademie der Wissenehaften. Transactions of the 
Boyal Society of Netr South Wales. 18e7-76| and Noe. 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 
(14 yols.) 

Bonn. — Naturhistorische Verein dor Pniessischen Rheinlando imd West- 
phalens in Bonn. Transactions of Boyal Sodety of New South Wales. 
1868-75, and Nos. 2, 3, 4, 6, and 6. (13 yols.) 



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DOKATIOKS nOM THE SOOHIT. 279 

CarlBTUlie.— 'NaturwiflsensoIiaftUoher Yerein su Oarlsrulie. Koe. 1, 2, 9, 4, 
ftnd6. 

DresdeiL'— Oenenl Bireotion der KSpiglioha Sunmlungen ffir Kuntt and 
Wiflsenchaft zu Dresden. TranaaddonB of tHe Bojal Societr 
of New South Wales. 1868-76, andNos. 2, 3, 4, 6, and 6. 

(13 TOlfl.) 

„ Das Statistisohe Bdreau dee Ministerinms des Lmern zu Dres- 
den. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 

„ Die Kaiserlich Leopoldinisoh-CaroluiiMh Deutsche Akademie 

der Naturforscher zu Dresden. Kos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 6. ~ 

Praakfnrt a/lL— Senckenbergische naturforscfaende Geeellsohaft in Frank- 
furt a/M. Noe. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. 

Preiberg. — Die Berg Akademie zu Freiberg. Nos. 1, 2, 8, 4, and 5 

,, Naturforchende Cksellschaft zu Freiberg. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. 

CtottillgeiL — Kdnigliche Gesellchaft der Wissenchaften in Gdttingen. Kos. 

1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. 

Gorlitz.— Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Gdzlitz. Nos. 1, 2, ^ 4, and 5. 

Hamburg.— Die Geographische Gesellschaft in Hamburg. Kos. 1, 2, 3» 
4, and 6. 

Heidelburg. — Naturalhistorisch Medicinische Gesellschaft zu Heidelberg. 
Nos. 1, 2j 3, 4, and 5. 

Konigsberg.— Die f hjsikalisch-ocoonomische Gesellschaft in Kdnigsberg, 

(Pn.) Koe. 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 6. 
Karburg. — ^The TJniyerBitj, Marburg. Kos. 1, 2, S, 4, 5, and 6. 

Munich. — KdnigUche Akademie der Wissentohaften in M^nchen. Nos. 1, 

2, 3, 4, and 5. 

Stattgart. — BCniglich Statistich-Topographische Btireau zu Stuttgart. Nos. 
1, 2f 3, 4, and 5. 

Wurttcmbtirg.— Der Verein fur Vaterlandisohe Naturkunde in Wurttcm- 
burg. Transactions of Boyal Society of New South Wales. 1867-76, 
and Nos. 2, 3, 4, 6, and 6. (14 vols.) 



"RUBVUu 

St Peteraburg.— Aoad&nie Imperiale des Soenoes. Nos. 1, 2, 8, 4, 6, and 6. 

SWBDSK. 

Stockholm.— L* Acad. Boy. Suedoise. Nos. 1 to 6. 



8 W RZlBIiAKD. 
OenOTa.— Soci^ de Physique et d'Histoire Natuielle. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 6. 
LaUSaime.-'Soci^t^ Taudoise des Sciences Naturelles. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. 
KeoohatoL— Soci^t^ des Sciences Naturelles. Nos. 1, 8, 8, 4, and 6. 



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DONATIONS FEOM THE SOCIETY. 

Ukited States. 
Albany.— New York State Library, Albany. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 
BaltiniOre. — John Hopkins* University. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 
Boston* — Boston Society of Natural History. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 6. 
„ American Academy of Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 6. 

Cambridfi^* — The Museum of Comparatiye Zoology, Harvard College. Nos. 1 » 
2, 3, 4, 6, and 6. 

Hinneopolis. — Minesota Academy of Natural Science. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4^ 6, and 6. 

New York. — Lyceum of Natural History. Nos. 1, 2, 8, 4, 5, and 6. 

„ School of Mines, Columbia College. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. 

FhiladelpMa. — American Entomological Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4. 
„ American Philosophical Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. 

„ Academy of Natural Science. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. 

„ Franklin Institute. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 6. 

Washington. — ^Dr. F. V. Hayden, Geological Survey of Territories. Nos. 1, 
2, 3, 4, and 5. 
„ ^ Hydrographic Office. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 
„ * "War Department. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 6. 
„ Commissioner for Agncultiire. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 

„ Smithsonian Institute. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 

INTEBCOLOHIAL. 
Capb op Gk)OD Hope. 
Cape Town.— The Philosophical Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 6. 

MATmrrnjs. 
Port Louis. — The Boyal Society of Arts and Sciences. Nos. 1 to 6. 

Nbw South Wales. 

Sydney. — ^The University of Sydney. No. 1. 

„ The Lirmean Society of New South Wales., No. 1. 

„ The Mining Department. No. 1. 

„ The Free Public Library. No. 1. 

„ The Observatory. No. 1. 

New Zbalakd. 
Auckland. — Auckland Institute. No. 1. 
CliristcllUrcll. — Canterbury Institute. No. 1. 
OtagO. — Otago Institute. No. 1. 
Wellington. — New Zealand Institute. No. 1. 

QUEEN8LAin>. 

Brisbane.— The Philosophical Society. No. 1. 

SoTTTH Australia. 

Adelaide* — ^The Adelaide University. Transactions of the Boyal Society of 
New South Wales. 1867 to 1875, and Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 
(14 vols.) 
„ The South Australian Institute. No. 1. 



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DONATIONS FKOM THE SOCIETY. 281 

Tabhakia. 
Hol)art Town.— The Royal Society of Tasmania. No. 1. 

ViCTOEIA. 

MeUxmnie. — The Free Public Libmiy. No. 1. 
Tlie Melbourne University. No. 1. 
The.GoTemment Statist. No. 1. 
The Royal Society of Victoria. No. 1. 
Thfi Mining Department. No. 1. 
The Observatory. 

Papers and Periodical. 

American Journal of Science and Arts, New Haven, Conn. 

Nos. 1,2, 8, 4, 5, and 6. 
Argus, Melbourne, Victoria. No. 1. 
Colonist, London. No. 1. 
Evening News, Sydney. No. 1. 
Geological Magazine, London. No. 1. 
Geological Record, London. No. 1. 
Nature, London. No. 1. 
Quarterly Journal of Science. No. 1. 
Sydney Morning Herald. No. 1. 
Westminster Review, London. No. 1. , 



SUMMARY OF NUMBER OF PUBLICATIONS DISTRIBUTED 
BY THE SOCIETY IN THE YEAR 1876. 

10 to Austria. 
6 „ Belgium. 
10 „ Caiubda. 

161 „ Great Britain and Ireland. 
72 „ France. 
•6 „ Italy. 

5 „ India. 
128 „ Germany. 

6 „ Russia. 
6 „ Sweden. 

16 „ Switzerland. 

96 „ United States. 

44 „ Colonies. 

15 „ Periodicals and papers (for reyiew). 

Total— 679 



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REPORTS FROM THE SECTIONS 

(IN ABSTRACT). 



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REPORTS FROM THE SECTIONS. 

(In Abstract.) 



SECTION A.— ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS. 

PRELIMINARY MEETINGh-MONDAY, 19 JUNE, 1876. 

In accordance with Eule XXIX of the Society's new Bye-laws, & 
meeting was held in the Society's rooms, on Monday, 19th June, 
1876, to organize a Section for Astronomy, Meteorology, Physics, 
Mathematics, and* Mechanics, the following gentlemen being 
present : — 

Mr. H. C. Russell, F.R.A.S., in the Chair. 

Mr. Bolding, Mr. H. A. Lenehan, 

Eev. W. B. aarke, P.R.S., &c., Dr. Leibius, 
Mr. J. U. C. Colyer, Prof. A. Liversidge, 

Mr. J. Y. Dalgarno, Mr. W. MacDonnell, 

Hon. L. F. De Salis, M.L.C., Mr.W. J. MacDonnell, F.R.A.S., 
Mr. E. Du Faur, F.R.G.S., Mr. W. H. Magnire, 
Mr. a. D. Hirst, Rev. W. Scott, M.A. 

Mr. Voss. 

It was resolved that the Section be formed, and the following 
oflB.ce-bearers were appointed for the current session : — Chairman, 
Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., &c. ; Hon. Secy., Mr. W. J. 
MacDonnell, F.R.A.S. ; Committee, Mr. G. D. Hirst, Mr. H. A. 
Lenehan, Rev. W. Scott, M.A., and Mr. H. G-. A. Wright, M.R.C.S. 

The Chaibmak, after stating that Astronomy was likely to 
prove the chief object of attraction, drew the attention of the 
Section to the requisition made by the Royal Astronomical Society 
of London, for co-operation of southern astronomers in the work 
of observing the planet Jupiter during his present favorable 
opposition, and Mr. Russell recommended the Section to take up 
this work as far as possible. 

Mr. HiBST gave some particulars of his observations on Jupiter, 
remarking the great -difference in the colours of the equatorial 
belt as seen in different classes of telescope. In the Observatory 
refractor of 11 J inches aperture the colour of the belt was pink, 
and in Mr. Colyer's 10 J -inch Browning re/lector used by him, 
it was ochreish-yellow. 



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286 BEPOBTS FBOM THE SECTIONS. 

Hon. L. F. De Salis, MlKC., referred to a periodicity 
apparent in the recurrence of meteorological phenomena in this 
Colony, and promised to return to the subject at greater length 
at next meeting of the Section. Mr. E. Du Eaur, in supportmg 
Mr. De Salis's view, instanced the remarkable changes that have 
been observed in Lake George, as an example of the periodicity 
theory advanced by Mr. De Salis, After further discussion the 
meeting terminated. 

WEDNESDAY, 26 JULY, 1876. 
Mr. H. C. Eussell, F.E.A.S., in the Chair. 

Hon. L. P. De Salis, M.L.C, read a paper on "Lunar Influence 
on the Weather and Periodicity of the Seasons.'* He stated that 
scientific investigation into the causes vehich control the weather 
was one of high practical utility to the Colony, and was well 
deserving of the Section's attention. Throughout recent scientific 
works there are several a8sei*tions that periodicity has been traced 
in important weather changes around the Mauritius, coincident with 
the periodic changes that take place in the sun. After suggesting 
that lunar influence was not a fable of olden times, and referring 
to Saiby's theories, which however were not generally accepted 
by the late Admiral Fitzroy and men of his calibre, Mr. De Salis 
remarked from his own observations during a colonial lifetime 
that our winds veered round in direction contrary to the cyclonic 
rule, during a period equalling in time a quarter lunation. Mr. 
De Salis referred to several instances where this rule was 
apparently confirmed. He also noticed that besides this monthly 
influence there was one traceable to the lunar cycle of 19 years 
or its half period of 9J years when the moon's position was 
analogous to the changes at full and new in the ordinary lunation 
of 29 days. He pointed out that the floods on the Murrumbidgee in 
1844, 1862-3, 1861-2, and 1870-1-2, were in strong confirmation 
of the existence of this period. A co-operation in the observation 
of Australian climatology was strongly urged, and the example of 
the United States expending £800,000 on Meteorology was 
quoted as being worthy of imitation. A proportionate sum for 
the united Australian Colonies would only amount to £20,000. 

In the discussion which followed the reading of Mr. De Salis's 
paper, — 

Mr. Eussell said he had given the matter great attention ; he 
formerly advocated the 19 year period, and had afterwards 
abandoned it ; but recent facts in confirmation had so pressed 
themselves upon him that he felt compelled to adopt the theory 
once more. 

After further discussion the meeting terminated. 

Eleven members were present. 



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BEPOBTS FBOM THE SECTIONS. 287 

WEDNESDAY, 30 AUGUST, 1876* 
Mr. H. C. EussELL, F.RA.S., in the Chair. 

Id answer to a question made by one of the members present, 
Mr. BussELL described -some of the methods adopted in the 
manufacture of optical glass as noticed by him in his recent visit 
to Europe and America. He also explained the beautifully 
delicate apparatus invented by the Hamburgh optician, Mr. H. 
Schrceder, for testing the curves of telescope lenses with an 
accura<r7 previously unknown. 

The Chairman then read some notes he had prepared on the 

Jlanet Venus. The white patch visible during the transit of 
)ecember, 1874, was again detected on 15tli June, 1876. On 
several occasions part of the disc was visible in the telescope ; the 




. power i 

of a ruddy colour and sharply defined disc. A mean of 46 micro- 
metrical measure gave a polar flattening to Jupiter of 1-17'5. 

WEDNESDAY, 27 SEPTEMBER, 1876. 
Mr. H, C. EiJSSELi,, P.E.A.S., in the Chair. 

Mr. Q-. D. HiHST exhibited a drawing of Saturn executed from 
a 10 J -inch silvered glass equatorial with a power of 214. He 
remarked the square-shouldered appearance of the ball of the 
planet noticed by former observers. The most remarkable feature 
on the ball was a dark belt near the equator of a rich brown 
inclining to red ; the black line in the centre of this belt, first 
notice(^ by Mr. Eussell a couple of years ago, was not visible in 
the reflector. The poles of the planet exhibited a beautiful 
bluish-grey, shading off" into a yellow towards the equator. Ball's 
division in the ring was only visible at the two extremities. 
The crape ring appears as a remarkably dark band crossing the 
disc of the planet. 

Mr. BussELL stated that tbe narrow black line indicating the 
shadow of the ring on the ball appeared a short time ago perfectly 
straight instead of following the outline of the ring ; a micrometer 
laid along it showed no deviation. 

A discussion followed relative to the gale of 10th September, 
as compared with tropical tornadoes, Mr. Du Eaur remarking 
that from his experience within the tropics the velocity of the 
wind in the late gale, although very high, must have fallen far 
short of what it attained during West Indian hurricanes. The 
discussion then turned to some of the meteorological character- 
istics of this Colony. Messrs. De SaJis and Du Faur gave some 
particulars of important changes produced in the configuration 
of the country by floods in the interior. 

The meeting then closed. 



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288 EEPOKTS FBOM THE SECTIONS. 

WEDNESDAY, 25 OCTOBER, 1876. 
Mr. H. C. KussELL, F.R.A.S., in the Cliair. 

Mr. CoLYEB read a letter from Mr. J. Browning, the well- 
known London optician, relative to the variation in the colour 
of the equatorial belts of the planet Jupiter when observed 
through refracting or reflecting telescopes. The question as 
to which class of instruments gave the most correct results 
was a difficult one to decide ; the Chairman wished that those 
members in possession of adequate means should take the matt^ 
in hand, so that if any law of variation exists it might be brought 
to light. 

Mr. Du Faur informed the Chairman that he had been in 
correspondence with some gentlemen in the far interior who 
were willing to take meteorological observations if instrumenta 
for that purpose were supplied to them. Mr. Bussell said he 
had also been taking steps in the same direction, so that regular 
observations of the climatology of the interior could be taken. 

Mr. KuBSELL then read a long paper from Mr. Jones, of Tam- 
worth, on an extraordinary dry fog observed in the neighbour- 
hood of Tamworth, on the morning of 12th October. Mr. De 
Salis had noticed a somewhat similar phenomenon in 1851, which 
was Ascribed to the prevalence of extensive bush fires then raging 
in Yictoria, but whether the Tamworth dry fog could be traced 
to a similar origin required further evidence before it coujd be 
decided. 

WEDNESDAY, 29 NOVEMBER, 187(>. 
Mr. H. C. ErssELL, F.RA.S., in the Chair. 

Ecv. Q-EO. MA.BTIN read a long and interesting paper on the 
performance of his " Cooke" telescope of 5 inches clear aperture, 
6 feet 3 inches focal length. He succeeded in resolving the 
globular cluster «. Centauri, with the exception of the central 
condensation, also the clusters 47 Toucani and 13 M. Herculis. 
In the resolution of these objects, Mr. Martin found that the 
light-grasping power of his instrument approached very nearly 
to its theoretical value. For definition he had tried the capacity 
of his object glass on Antares, Nu (y) Scorpii, n Ononis, y Cen- , 
tauri, all of which difficult doubles he succeeaed well in resolving. 
After referring to other work performed by his telescope, Mr. 
Martin spoke of the example of Mr. Burnnam, of Chicago, in 
reaping a harvest in fields where Herschel, Struve, and other 
eminent observers had been working, and he stated that our 
southern heavens present a splendid field for investigation for 
any competent observer armed with moderate means and a little 
patience, in which he would meet with a rich and ample reward. 

A short discussion ensued on Mr. Martin's paper. 



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REPOBTS FROM THE SECTIONS. 289 

SECTION B.— CHEMISTRY, MINERALOQT, and by amal- 
gamation with SECTION C, GEOLOaT and PALJEON- 
TOLOQT. 

PRELIMINARY MEETING— 20 JUNE, 1876. 
The preliminary meeting of this Section was held on 20th 
June, 1876, when Prof. Litersedge was appointed Chairman 
of the Section, W. A. Dixon Hon. Secretary, and Messrs. 
Beksusan, M*CuTCHEOif, Sleep, and Tulloh a Committee ; and 
the meeting night for the Section was fixed for the second "Wed- 
nesday of each month. 

WEDNESDAY, 12 JULY, 1876. 
Professor Livebsidge in the Chair. 

The proposal to temporarily amalgamate Section C. with this 
Committee was agreed to at this meeting. 

Mr. Dixon read a note on some analysis of mud from George 
and Pitt Streets, showing that the amount of organic matter 
Taried from 18 to 55 per cent, of the dried mud, and that the 
proportion of inorganic matter (i.e. abraded stone and iron) to 
organic matter rose in proportion to the wetness of the streets. 
He said that although little reliance could be placed on results 
obtained from three or four analyses, the numbers he had 
obtained showed that, taking 100 parts of organic matter (horse- 
dung) to represent a certain amount of traflBc, 407 parts of stone 
were ground up when the streets were kept copiously watered, 
whilst QQ parts only of stone were pulverized by that traflBc when 
the streets were only slightly sprinkled with water. The results 
approximated to those obtained by Dr. Letheby from London street 
mud, which showed that wet weather largely increased the 
quantity of abraded stone and wear of the streets. 

Mr. Bensusak introduced to the notice of the meeting the 
new work on Pyrology, by Major Eoss, containing new methods 
of blowpipe analysis. The Chairman exhibited a case containing 
specimens of the rare metal. Thallium, and a number of its salts, 

WEDNESDAY, 9 AUGUST, 1876. 
Professor LiveRsidge in the Chair. 

Mr. Bbnsvsak exhibited a specimen of the new alloy, composed 
of copper 88 per cent., tin 10 per cent., and manganese 2 per 
cent., proposed to be used for armour-plating and other purposes. 
The specimen he had himself prepared, and he explained that its 
peculiar excellence consisted in its superior toughness, and to 
the fact that a shot punched a hole in the plates without rending 
them. 

An interesting conversational discussion upon Chemkal matters 
was maintained for some time. 



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290 BSPOBTS FBOH THE BSOTIOVB. 

WEDNESDAY, 13 SEPTEMBER, 1879. 

Mr. M'Ctttcheoit in the Chair. 

Mr. Beksusan exhibited specimens of natiye bismuth fit>m 
!New England ; a mineral from near Bockhampton containing 
gold, nickel, and copper ; an earthy mineral containing cobalt ; 
elaterite from near JNattai ; also carbonate and natiye copper. 
He also read his paper on recent copper-extraoting proceesea, 
which was afterwards read before the Society. 



WEDNESDAY, 8 NOyEMBEB, 1870. 

Pbofessob LiTEBsn)0E in the Chair. 

Mr. Sleep exhibited specimens of Anc^loceroi giffot and 
ScaphiieSf from the Flinders Eiver, Queensland. 

Pbofessob Litebsidgb laid on the table specimens of tin ore in 
a "cement" matrix sent to him by Mr. Cadell, from Vegetable 
Creek, New England, accompanied by a letter, in which Mr. 
Cadell said, " I think the difference between 'black ' and * ruby ' 
tin ore can now be accounted for, the discovery having been made 
accidentally on our claim. You are aware that all our deep lead 
carries black tin, the surface claims only producing * puby.' Over 
some portions of our deposit (deep lead) we have found quantities 
of ore cemented into one compact mass by oxide of iron. This 
Mr. O'Daly tried to reduce by burning, and while hot throwing cold 
water over the heap thus burnt. A large quantity became in 
this way pulverized, but the process changes the * black * into 
' ruby ' tin. I send you specimens showing the cemented deposit 
before and after being calcined." The Chairman (Pbof. Liveb- 
sibge) pointed out that there were many essential differences 
between the more or less transparent native "ruby** tin and the 
brick-coloured calcined mineral. The members present, after 
examining the specimens, came to the conclusion that the red 
colour produced was not a conversion of " black " into true 
**mby" tin, but merely the change of the ferrous oxide present 
into anhydrous ferric oxide. 

Mr. Diioir laid on the table a specimen of a white earthy 
mineral sent to him by Mr. Chambers, of Maitland, who informed 
him that it occurred in a large bed on the side of a deep gully 
near the head of the Manilla Eiver, New South Wales, and that 
in it a small cave had been excavat^, partly by the action of the 
weather, partly by kangaroos, wallaroos, and wallabies, who were 
continually licking it. On these animals the mineral evidently 
excited a purgative action. This action, Mr. Dixon considers, 



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BXP0BT8 FBOH THE 8B0TIOKS. * 291 

must be mecbanical, as the mineral contains no constituent soluble 
in water. It yielded him the following results by analysis : — 

Water 10-64 1064 

Ferric Oxide 



^f'^./.-.-.-.-./^W^Solubleinacid 1887 

Magnesia '52^ 

Alnmittft 6'36^ 

Lime 1*38 > Insoluble in acid 75*76 

SiUca 68-02) 



100-27 100-27 



Hardness 1. — Specific gravity of powder 2*1, of mass dry about 1. 
It is infusible before the blowpipe, but contracts greatly by 
heat ; adheres slightly to the ton^e, and is devoid of plasticity. 

Pbopessob LiTEBsmoE mentioned that specimens of a yery 
similar mineral had been sent to him as meerschaum from the 
Richmond and Clarence Eivers. 



SECTION C— GEOLOGY AND PALAEONTOLOGY. 

At the preliminary meeting of this Section, it was resolyed to 
amalgamate it for the present with the Chemical Section. 



SECTION D.— ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING 
ENTOMOLOGY. 

No meetings of this Section were held. 



SECTION B.— MICEOSCOPICAL SCIENCE. 
PKELIMINAEY MEETING-23 JUNE, 1876. 

The first meeting of this Section was held on the 23rd June, 1876. 

PB07SSS0B LiYEBsmoE, as General Secretary, op^ied the 
proceedings by drawing attention to the circular summoning the 
meeting. The election of officers was then proceeded with, with 
the following results: — Alfred Boberts, M.A.C.S., Chairman. 
Committee : Mr. Wm. MacDonnell, Mr. H. Paterson, Dr. Milford, 
Dr. Belgraye. Secretary, Mr. G. D. Hirst. 

It was resolved that the Council should be applied to for a 
iqpecimen cabinet for the reception of microscopic slides. 

It was decided that the future meetings of this Section should 
be held on the third Wednesday in each month. 



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292* 



REPOETS FEOif THE SECTIONS. 



WEDNESDAY, 19 JULY, 1876. 

Alfred Roberts, M.R.C.S., in the Chair. 

Aiter arrangements had been made as to the future conduct of 
business brought before the Section, the Chairman presented a 
collection of slides of diatoms, mounted and named by Dr. Smith 
of Edinburgh. 

• Mr. EoBEETS then exhibited a very convenient arrangement for 
mounting with despatch and freedom from air-bubbles objects in 
Canada balsam. It consists of a tin stand constructed to hold 
water, which is kept hot by a spirit lamp underneath, the balsam 
contained in a small glass tube being retained in a fluid state by 
the steam which is confined in an outer chamber. The top of 
the stand forms a table on which the slides are laid during the 
operation of mounting, and by which they are kept warm as long 
as is desired. Mr. Wm. MacDonnell exhibited a large micro- 
scope by Powell and Lealand, with a quantity of accessory 
apparatus. This instrument was lent for the occasion by Mr. 
Cathcart of Newtown. Mr. II. Paterson exhibited an injection 
of the dentinal pulp of a kitten. This slide possessed special 
interest, having been prepared by the late Professor Queckett. 
Mr. Q-eorge Hirst, a slide showing the formation at a very early 
date of striated muscular fibre in the human embryo. Dr. Mil- 
ford, some scolices of Eccinococcus from the human subject. 
Some Gorman objectives, on the immersion principle, by Siebert, 
were also exhibited by Mr. MacDonnell. These lenses possess 
remarkable defining and penetratinc; power, and work through 
considerable thickness of covering glass. ' ' 

WEDNESDAY, 16 AUGUST, 1876. 
Alfred Roberts, M.R.C.S., in the Chair. ' 

There was a good attendance of members. The Secretary 
reported that, in response to the request of the Committee, the 
Council of the Society had sent to London. for a substantial 
microscope stand and necessary addenda for the use of this and 
the other sections. 

Mr. H. Patersow presented a slide containing a section of the 
dentinal tubes and enamel of the adult human tooth. 

Mr. G. D. Hirst read a paper on the action of alkali on wool 
fibres. 

Dr. MiLFORD read a paper on the starch of the Macrozamia 
spiralis. 

The following objects were exhibited : — By Mr. Alfred 
Roberts, duodena of toad and black snake injected, and ova of 
frog ; Mr. H. Paterson, sections of teeth ; Mr. Toohby, IbruJa 
or yeast plant; Mr. Wm. MacDoitnell, scales of Morpho 
menalau9. 



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BEPOBTS BBOK THE BECTI0N8. 293 

WEDNESDAY, 20 SEPTEMBER, 1876. 
Alfbed Bobebts, M.B.C.S., in the Chair. 

The CffATBMATf presented several well-mounted slides of fora- 
xninifera, mounted by Moller of Hamburgh. 

Mr. W. MacDokitbll presented a series of twelve slides of 
foraminifera procured from soundings in different parts of the globe. 

Mr. Hugh Patsbson presented a slide showine^ a case of 
exostosis of the human tooth, and accompanied his gift with some 
remarks on the nature of this disease. 

Mr, G-. D. HiBST presented a slide of a species pf poljzoa 
common in Port Jackison ; also a slide containing a section of 
schirrhus cancer mounted in glycerine. 

Mr. E. WooDOATE presented a slide of crystals of salicine ; 
also a section of pith of elder. 

The Chaibkan presented a number of papers by Mr. Greville 
on new diatoms. 

Mr. G-. D. HxBST read a note on a species of chelifer found near 
'Sydney, and common in dry wood and old lumber rooms, or in 
out-houses near scrub. 

The Chaibmak exhibited specimens- of the fangs of the death- 
adder and cobra, and explained their structure. 

Mr. W. MAcDoNyELL exhibited a series of slides illustrative of 
human anatomy, and showing great skill in their preparation ; 
Mr. H. Patebson, sections of human bone ; Dr. Milfobd, speci- 
mens of different tprpes of cancer ; Bev. Geo. Mabtiit, a series 
of well-prepared slides in dammar varnish, sections of wood fibre 
mixed with coal from below a coal seam at Newcastle, foramin- 
ifera, alsoantennsB and palpi of tarantula. 

Eesolved : — That the subject for the next meeting should be 
diatoms in reference to their power as test objects. 

WEDNESDAY, 18 OCTOBEE, 1876. 
Alfbed Bobebts, M.B.C.S., in the Chair. 

Besolved that the following proposal be submitted to the 
Committee of the Section : — That the Secretary be instructed to 
communicate with the London Monthly Microscopical Journal^ 
with a report of the formation of the Section ; ana stating that, 
in the event of the proprietors being willing, monthly reports of 
the meetings would be forwarded to them for publication. 

Mr. Q-. D. HiBST exhibited a rare and curious old publication, 
lent for the occasion, being a series of copper plates of micro- 
Bcropic objects, published by the celebratea Dr. Hooke 210 years 
ago, and entitled " Microjraphia.'* He drew attention to the 
excellence of these plates, which are the more remarkable when 
there are taken into consideration the rude and inefficient optical 
instruments at the disposal of microscopists at that early date. 

2p 



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294 BEP0BT8 FBOH THE SBCTtOKS. 

The CuAiBMAK made some remarks upon tbe work, and stated 
that much had been done of infinite value to science by earnest 
observers using what would appear to us with our modem advan- 
tages totally inadequate instruments ; and be wished, while 
speaking on the subject, to pay a tribute of respect to the memOTj 
at the late Mr. Wm. Sharp M'Leay, who, with only a simple dis- 
secting miscroscope, rendered vast service to microscopic science 
by his researches, more particularly in those relatmg to the 
minute anatomy of insects. 

Mr. Wbt. MagDonnell exhibited a new hand mafipifier by 
Browning^, and called by him the Platyscopic lens. This is a triple 
achromatic combination, in which the spherical and chromatic 
aberrations were corrected by a central lens of dense glass. It 
is remarkable for its large and flat field and excellent definition. 

A competitive trial of objectives of i in. focus took place, and a 
committee was appointed to report upon the merits of the d|a8se8. 
The following makers were renresented : — Messrs. Boss, Powell 
and Lealand, Smith and BecK, Crouch, Swift, Pillisher, and 
Oundlach. After careful examination, it was unanimously decided 
that Swift bore the palm for excellence of definition and resolving 
power, Boss and Powell and Lealand following very closely. 

The Bev. G-eo. Mabtin exhibited some very beautiful forms of 
discoidal diatoms, and some specimens of diatoms from Port 
Jackson were exhibited by the Chairman. 

THURSDAY, 24 NOVEMBEB, 1876. 
Alfbeb Bobebts, M.B.C.S., in the Chair. 

This meeting was postponed from the 15th inst. 

A paper was read by Mr. J. U. C. Coltjeb on two spedee of 
insectivorous plants, DroBcra hinata and Dro9ea waihulataf indi> 
genous to the Colony, and found in marshy grouna near Sydney. 
The paper was accompanied by specimens of the plants in their 
natural state, and also by slidesshowingtheir microscopical structure. 

Mr. G-. D. HiBST made some remarks upon the paper read by 
Mr. Coljer, aud exhibited some coloured drawings of the Dramrm 
bincUa illustrative of the anatomy of the tentacles; these 
drawings he presented to the Section. 

The CHiLiBMAN stated that he hoped Mr. Colyer would make 
the paper delivered only the fii«t of a series on the subject. Mr. 
Colyer undertook to prosecute the matter further and place the 
results before the Section. 

The SsoBBTABT read a paper received by him from Mr. H. J. 
Brown, of Newcastle, on the milky juice of the climbing Bg. 
The paper was accompanied by a specimen slide forming a good 
polariscopic object. He also, on behalf of Mr. Brown, presented 
to the Society's Cabinet several slides, being chiefly spiotila of 
marine animals found on the coast near Newcai^e. 



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B1F0XT8 TBOV TBM SSOVXOm. 295 

THE MACEOZAMIA SPIRALIS. 
Bx P. MiLK)iu>, M.D., M.R.C.S., Ac. 



\JSmd hefttrt the Merotcopieal SmtiUm of the Boyal Society of Jf, 8. W., 
6 Am^^t, 1§76.] 



In the first number of the second volume of the New South 
Wales Medical Oazefte is a paper on the Macrozamia apiralU, 
from the pen of Dr. G. Bennett, P.L.S. P.G.S., &c., Ac. It was 
called forth by the fakjt that a child was taken seriously ill after 
partaking of the uncooked and unprepared nuts. mx. W. C. 
Brown, M.L.A., wrote to Dr. Bennett on the subject, who incon- 
sequence indited the paper referred to, from which I cull a 
portion of the following brief notice : — " The Macrozamia^ of the 
order C^cadacea or Oycads, are trees or shrubs having the appear- 
acnce of palms and in some particulars of ferns. The flowers «re 
dioecious (the ibale and female flowers being on separate, plants). 
Both the male and female flowers are borne in cones composed of 
woodj scaler with a truncated six-sided summit, and the male 
flowers are arranged in tesselated catkins, the scales peltate ; 
fruit, two irt the under side of each scale. The stem beneath the 
jncfitce of the earth and at a slight elevation above is in shape 
conical, but when it attains a c^reater elevation, which in New 
South Wales it does to the height of six or eight feet, it becomes 
cylindrical. The cone is about the size of a man's head, and 
composed of drupes about the size of a chestnut. Abundant 
fossil remains show that the plant formerly composed a large 
portion of the foliage of the British Isles." Tbeplant is abundant 
about Sydney, and numbers may be seen near Bondi at present. 
If any one should have the desire of viewing the plant in its native 
habitat, he may do so at the foot of the hill near Bondi on the 
Old South Head Boad. He should turn to the right down a tracks 
that leads to Bondi beach, and there numerous plants may be 
seen occupying an area of about two acres on the bank of a water- 
course about one hundred yards from the main road. The plants 
usuall]^ occupy a limited space in the way thus indicated, and are 
found in sandy or rocky soil. The fronds of the plant have a very 
riegant appearance, resembling palms, and are used in Catholic 
Qiurohes on Palm Sunday and for other decorative purposes in 
New South Wales. I remember when a youth of thirteen or 
fourteen years old procuring some of the nuts and taking them home 
for the purpose en eating them. I had not been long in the 
Colony at ttiat time and had a distinct recollection of the flavour 
of "Bngliah diestnuts, which these nuts so much resemble, so that 
I anticipated a great treat in eating them. I had three ; one I 



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296 BEF0BT8 FBOM THE SXCTIOKS. 

ate myself uncooked, and two I gave to mj French goyerness. 
The effect upon me I shall not refulilj foreet; it was as if I were 
suffering from a serere attack of sea sickness, accompanied bj 
diarrhoea and cramps in the abdomen. Howeyer, I was perfectly 
recoyered next day; not so, howeyer, with the French lady, 
who was of rather a bilious temperament, and partaking of more 
of the nut than I did, she was laid up in bed for the space of a 
week, but eyentually recoyered under medical treatment. Before 
the colonisation of this country, the aborigines made use of the 
nuts ; and the starch procured from the nuts and the roots was 
one of the chief sunphes of their farinaceous food ; but in order 
to get rid of the deleterious qualities of the contents of the nut, 
tiiey were exposed to a constant stream of water on a sheet of 
bark for some days, and afterwards thoroughly roasted. Being 
desirous of ascertaining the nature of the poisonous materud 
contained in the nut and tuber, I requested Mr. Norrie, chemist, 
of William-street, some time ago to make an analysis, and report 
upon it. He wrote to me afterwards as follows : — " I haye the 
pleasure now to giye you some account of my examination of the 
nuts of the Macrozamia spiralis. In the first place, the seeds 
were perfectly dry. On remoyins the shell ana epidermis and 
piilping the seed, I obtained a large quantity of starch and 
gluten ; testing the soluble portion, it was found to haye a decided 
acid re-action ; lime-water throws down oxalic acid in the shape 
of oxalate of lime ; continuing my inyestigations further, I find 
a potash salt and isolate binoxalate of potash, which is the 
poisonous substance contained in these nuts. There is also eyery 
appearance of an alkaloid crystallizing in prisms, but the quantity 
operated on was so small tnat I could only get a microscopic 
specimen, it there&re requires further examinanon upon a larger 
quantity of material to test its particular properties. These 
seeds contain also yegetable albumen, gum, and sugar; and conse- 
quently as an article of food, as used by the blacks, they are of no 
mean yalue ; for it must be remembered that in the roasting of 
these nuts, the binoxalate of potash would be conyerted at a low 
red heat into carbonate, modiiying or completely destroying the 
pobonous properties." 

Mr. Henry Moss, of Shoalhayen, has been for some time past 
engaged in manufacturing an edible starch from the* nuts and 
tuber of the Macrozamia, The means he uses are these : he has 
the shells broken away from the nuts, then placed in tubs of cold 
water, and pounded quite soft with a wooden rammer, then 
roughly strained to get all the debris away, than strained through 
fine cloth and the liquid allowed to stand for forty-eight hours m 
a long cask ; spill holes are made in the cask, a few inches firom 
the bottom, so that the water can be drawn off without disturb- 
ing the sediment. After draining and adding fresh water, the 



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B£POBTS FBOM THE 8ECTI0K8. 297 

starch forms a cake at the bottom, the water ia then all drawn 
off, the cake of starch cut out, and dried in the sun, and after- 
wards rolled. He calls the starch arrowroot, and says it is *' as 
fine as any commercial arrowroot." He states tliat an infant 
child in the Shoalhaven district was reared upon it and nothing 
else. He sent me some pounds of it, and I gave samples to 
many of my friends. I also had some prepared for myself for 
breakfast, in spite of my previous unpleasant experience of it, 
and I was much pleased with its flavour, and as an article of diet 
I can recommend it to those who prefer light and nutritious food 
to beefsteaks and porter. I consider Mr. Henry Moss deserves 
the thanks of the community for thus inau£;urating a valuable 
article of food, and I consider that they should take a substantial 
form, thus giving a material guarantee of our appreciation of his 
efforts to benefit mankind. It has been said '* that the man who 
makes two blades of grass grow where one only grew before is a 
benefactor to his species" j how much more is he who gives us an 
tfbundant supply of a perfectly new, nutritious, and palatable 
article of food. I have brought with me this evening a specimen 
of the starch granules of the Macrozamia moimtc^ diy. The 
smaller grains are chiefly round, rarely oval, the larger are 

Serfect ovoids, resembling so many small birds* eges. They 
iffer from the other varieties of starch, as depicted intne second 
part of the second volume of the third edition of Pereira's 
** Materia Medica," and are ^^ sui generis," I have also brought 
a specimen frond of the plant for your inspection. 

Refebekcbs to EKOSAvnroa :— • 



Ko. 1. Macrozamia spiralis 
No. 2. Female cone. 
No. 8. Male cone. 



No. 4. Under riew of male cone 

bearine anthers (pat. size). 
No. 5. Seed (nat. sixe). 



u. o. jn.Bie contr. xio. d, oeea \mx, sue;. 

No. 6. Granules of Maerozamia starch, magnified 390 diameters 



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298 JOBHm^ PIKAC rax BBCTK>F8. 

TBAN8VEESE SECTION OP FANG OF HUMAN 
TOOTH, SHOWING CASE OP EXOSTOSIS. 

Br Mb. Huoh Pateesoit. 



{^JUad before the Microteopieal Section of the Soyal Socuty qf N, 8. W., 
' 20 September, 1876.] 



The fkngs of tbe teeth are, under ordinary dreumstancef, 
coyered on the external surface with a thin lajer of cementum, 
but when, whether from caries or any other cause, irritation of 
the dental periosteum takes place, it gives rise — in some constita- 
tions — to the morbid growth termed exostosis, if the word may 
be allowed to pats muster, as strictly speaking it is thecementom, 
a modified form of bone, which is here enlarged. 

*' Mr. Jones, who has made careful microscopical ejaminaticMU 
of this substance, describes it as being similar to osseous tissue, its 
structure being composed of minute granules closely united, 
the individual granules being about the i o ^o i> of an inch in 
diameter. Scattered through the so-formed tissue are cella from 
which numerous tortuous tubes proceed, the tubes themselres 
freely anastomosing with each other and with those sent from 
neighbouring cells ; by this arrangement a network of cells and 
tubes, permeable by fluids, is carried throughout the whole mass. 
When the cement exists in any quantity it is traversed by canals 
for blood-vessels." 

The interest attached to this disease is mainly due to the 
derangement it may cause to the nervous system. In my younger 
days, when in London, I had occasion to remove some eighteen 
teeth and stumps, all more or less affected by exostosis, before 
permanent relief was afforded. 

Another case which may b£ of interest to this Section, on 
account of the name of the sufferer, was that of the late Bev. 
Wm. Quekett, brother of the late Professor John Quekett, whose 
labours as a pioneer in microscopical research are well known 
and respected. The offending tooth in this case was an upper 
molar ; it caused great and long continued suffering, and the 
exostosis was of a very extensive nature. 

This tooth is in the Hunterian Museum of the Royal College 
of Surgeons of London. I remember that at the time it impressed 
me as bearing some distant resemblance to a rustic garden stool, 
so nodulated and distorted were the fangs by the hypertrophy of 
the cementum. 



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BSPOBT0 VBOK TEE SEOTIOVS. 299 

NOTES ON TWO SPECIES OF INSECTIVOEOUS PLANTS 
INDIOENOXIS TO THIS COLONY. 

Bt J. XI. C. COLTBB. 



lM$ad b^fbrt the Mierosoopioal Section of the Royal Society qf K.S.W., 
24 November, 1876.] 



Oir August 28th, 1874, a most intereBting address was delivered 
by Br. Hooker at the British Association in Belfast, Ireland, 
on tiie subject of Insectivorous Plants, and more especially 
with reference to that known as JDionosa museipula (Venus's Fly- 
trap). So great was the interest taken at the time on this subject 
of Tegetable camivora, that illustrations appeared in the 
Oraphie of plants possessing this peculiar property, and grown 
in the Boyal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Since then my attention 
has been directed towards certain plants indigenous to this 
country, belonging to the order of DroteraccB or '* Sun*dews*' and 
more piuiiculariy to the Droiera spathtdata, and JDrosera hinata, 
specimen^ of which I now beg to place before this meeting. 

Thoy are both found in marshy or swampy ground near Sydney, 
and are attractive to the eye by the numerous spai:kling minute 
drops of clear fluid, like dew, adhering to the long slender 
filaments by which the edge and upper surface of the leaves are 
aorrounde^ 

On warm days this peculiaritv seems to be greater, or in no 
way decreased, as might naturally be supposed, by the extreme 
h^t of a mid-day sun. 

This fluid is of a glutinous nature, forming an attraction to 
flies and other insects, all of which find certain death, when once 
they alight on, either the mid-rib of the frond of Drosera binataf 
or are entangled in the viscous globules exuded by either plants 
on the outer ends of their filaments. 

The order to which these plants belong have not only been 
considered insectivorous in their habits, but also carnivorous, and 
as many of you may be aware, have been subjected to minute and 
careful examination with various experiments, by suqh eminent 
men as Professor Darwin, Dr. Klein, Dr. Hooker, Dr. Burdon 
Sanderson, and others, all of whom concur in the one opinion, 
viz. : that they are beyond doubt vegetable carDivora. 

The Dro9era spathulata, so called from the rcHemblance of its 
leaves to the spathula used by chemists, has a remarkable starry 
appearance, and is of a dun-red colour, each leaf fringed round 
with numerous filaments or tentacles. I have never noticed the 
plant to exceed two (2) inches in diameter. 



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800 BEPOBTS FBOIC THE SEOTIOKS. 

The flowers are raccmed, or borne in bundles on a stem riBing 
from the centre to a height of about five (5) inches, and are pure 
white. 

The Drosera hinafa is a much larger plant, and of an entirelj 
different appearance^ though, like the former, the sides and upper 
surface of tne leaves are armed with tentacles of consideraUe 
length, some extending half an inch, and the points of each bear- 
ing small pear-shaped knobs or glands, from which issue the dear 
viscid fluid. 

It attains a height sometimes in favourable localities of twenty 
(20) inches ; each stalk is of a rush-like character, and bearing 
two blade-leaves of almost an eighth of an inch in width — 
bifurated once always, and sometimes more. These not unfire- 
^uentlj attain a length of seven and a half (7i) inches from its 
junction with the stidk ; the mid-rib of each bemg hollowed out 
on both sides, but more on the inner, giving the appearance of 
^ooves. The apex of the blades is extremely fine, terminating 
m very long tentacles. 

The flowers are similar in manv respects to Dronra spathtkOa 
with the exception that the stalk issues immediately from the 
root and is of s, chocolate colour, differing in that particular from 
the stalks of the leaves, .which are green. 

Seen under a microscope with a low power, the leaf presents a 
curious and niost interesting appearance ; the whole of ihe mid* 
rib often completely covered with the remains of insects caught, 
and apparently dissolved or digested, and upon examination these 
are found to be but the mere shells or cases of the former flies, 
all of which are found lon^tudinally placed on the mid-rib of 
the blade, and their natural hue changed to black. Even bush 
ants half an inch in length I have seen unable to extricate them* 
selves from the tentacles, the marginal rows possessing the 
marvellous power of closing over their victims ana gluing them 
firmly to the smaller and shorter glands rising from the centre of 
the blade. 

When insects are thus entrapped, their struggles to become 
free excite the glands to such an ezrtent that they immediatdy 
inflect on the irritating object, and the glutinous matter (which, 
by the way,ha8 been proved to be albumen), heretofore possessing 
little or no acridity, now appears by the inflected action of the 
tentacles to have changed its nature and become most acrid, 
litmus paper being immediately tinged with it. Mr. Darwin 
states, in nis work on "Insectivorous Plants '* (page 86), referring 
to an experiment on the leaves of Drosera rotundifolia (a plant 
resembling Drosera ^^hulata) that "The secretion of many 
glands on thirty leaves, which had not in any way been exdteOt 
was tested with litmus paper ; and the secretion of twenty-two 
of these leaves did not m the least affect the colour, whereas 



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ItEPOBTS rBOM THS 6£CTI0KS. 301 

that of eight caused an exceedingly feeble and sometimes doubt- 
ful tinge of red. Two other old leaves, however, which appeared 
to have been inflected sfeveral times, acted much more decidedly 
on the paper. Particles of clean glass were then placed on five 
of the leayes, cubes of albumen on six, and bits of raw meat on 
three, on none of which was the secretion at this time in the least 
acid. After an interval of twenty-four hours, when almost all 
the tentacles on these fourteen leaves had become more or less 
inflected, I again tested the secretion, selecting glands which had 
not as yet reached the centre or touched any object, and it was 
now plainly acid. The degree of acidity of the secretion varied 
somewhat on the glands of the same leaf." 

The secretion so discharged has been examined by Dr. Darwin, 
in order to ascertain whether this acrid matter approaches to the 
gastric juice or digestive material found in tne stomachs of 
animals, and the experiment showed that '^the acid belongs 
to the acetic or fatty series" (see page of "Insectivorous 
Plants" 88.) 

Professor EranMand observed of the fluid taken from the 
filaments of Drosera rotundifolia that " when acidified with 
sulphuric acid it emitted a powerful odour like that of pepsin." 

By the kindness of Mr. Hirst, the Secretary of this Section 
of the Boyal Society, I have been enabled to examine with his 
microscope the structure of these plants, more especially Droiera 
hinata. On placing one of the tentacles of the latter under a 
low magnifying power its structure is fairly displayed. It con- 
sists of a straight, pale green hair, carrying at tne end a balloon 
or pear-shaped gland, ox a red or scarlet hue, in some cases more 
brilliant than others ; but on increasing the power to 1,400 
diameters, by a sixteenth inch immersion lens, the character of 
the gland is more clearly defined. We see that the spiral vesicle 
which traverses the centre of the pedicel increases in breadth as 
it approaches the gland, and divides into two branches, each 
brancn of which, as it reaches the centre of the gland, 
doubling backwards and forwards on itself several times, the 
whole at first sight having the appearance of pistil of a poppy. 
The spiral vesicle passes from the gland down the pedicel to the 
mid-nb of the frond, and in that ako, upon further investigation, 
can this spiral arrangement of cells be found. 

The pedicel bearing the gland is apparently divided lengthwise 
into rows of elongated cells ; those contiguous to the spiral f or« 
mation being filled with a fluid containing granules of matter, 
frequently found in an aggregated condition, but having an 
ever-changeful irregular motion. This matter is frequently 
understood by the word *^ protoplasm,*' In Drosera rotundtfolia, 
Darwin states that in the course of a few minutes he'has Jioticed 
these germs undergo many changes, and that they pass up and 



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802 BBMBTt IBOH THE iBOTIQHB. 

down the walls of the ceUs through the fluid, unitingy sepantiiig, 
and reuniting^ being neyer at rest, "preaenting a wonderfnl 
scene of vital activity." Beferring to Drotera hisuUa, I would 
again remark that I have noticed this action is entirely confined 
to the cells next the spiral column or duct^ 

It has been surmised that the inflection of the tentacle is pro- 
duced by the contraction of the cells, caused by ihe pressure of 
the irritating or exciting object, and consequent incr^sed aggre- 
gation of the germs against the walls in the cells, sending its 
motor impulse down the tentacle to the base, at which p^ it 
seems to bend, but considerable difference of opinion has heea 
expressed on this point. Mr. Darwin says :— " On the whole, the 
belief that the walls of certain cells contract, some of their 
contained fluid being at the same time fon^ outwards, perhs^ 
accords best with the observed facts. If this view is rejected, 
the next most probable one is that the fluid contents of the eeUs 
shrink, owin^ to a change in their molecular state, with the C4m- 
sequent closm^ in of the walls. Anyhow, the movement can 
hardly be attributed to the elasticity of the walls, togetiier with 
a previous state of tension." 

No comparison can be made with the action of the " SemntiTe 
Plant" {Mimota pudioa) in the closing of its leaflets whan 
irritated, this being merely mechanical and assumed nightly bv 
the plant as if in repose, whereas the secretion from the inflected 
ten^les continues without interruption until the whole of die 
juices of the exciting object have been absorbed. The e&ct of 
a shower of rain on the Sensitive Plant would immediately close 
the leaflets, whereas heavj rain or water falling in large drops 
fr6m a considerable height do not in the least move the 
tentacles of the Drotera, 

On observing some of the inflected tentacles after the capture 
of an insect, one cannot but be struck with the change emctei 
in them, compaiaed with those taken from the plant in its normal 
condition. The red colouring matter, heretofore confined to the 
gland, has now descended the green pedicel as far as the base, 
and apparently granulated into cakes, also on the outside of the 
gland towards the head may be seen numerous black nuclei, 
possibly the mouths of channels leading into the spiriferoos 
cells of the same, neverth^ess the protoplasm in the pedicel is 
still moving, though slowly, and slightly ag|;lomerated. This 
would in a measure show a tendency of the fluid to flow towards 
the mid-rib of the frond caused by uie action of absorption. 

Placinj^ small pieces of raw meat on a healtiiy full-grown 
plant, I found that vnthin three hours the marginal tentseks 
were inflected, and in twenty-four hours the meat was completely 
enveloped in their folds — ^the leaves as well as the tentacles of 
Dro$era apathulata being entirely curled over it. On eq^arating 



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XBVOSTf nOM fSX aiOKOM. Ml 

some of the tentacles from this plant they pies^ited the iame 
graniilated appearance. 

The effect of the application of heat by boiling is to produce 
coagulation of the albumen, and raider the whole of the glands 
opaque, and of a brilliant white porcelain i^pearance, — the 
ten^icles are immediately bowed back, and the whole of the 
£rond rendered flaccid ; but on submitting another portion of the 
frond to either the fumes of strong ammcmia, or immersion in a 
yery slight solution of liquid ammonia and water, the result 
obtained was the instant iny^raion of the marginal tentacles, 
tiie total disappearance of the red colour from i& whole of the 

f lands, and the matter in them agglomerated into black nuclei 
(ut upon boiling a section of the m>nd in a solution of caustic 
potash and distiUed water, to obtain a better yiew of the struc* 
ture of the spiral cells, I discovered diat the back of the mid-rib 
of the frond was studded with a number of stomata or breathing- 
yessels, which heretofore have apparently not been observed. 

On repeating the same experiment on some of the inflected 
tentacles which had enveloped a common house-flv, the black 
epots which before were seen arranged around the head of the 
£^nd now vanished, proving in a negative manner that they 
consisted of nitrogenous matter absorbed into the orifices by the 
plant. 

One other remarkable feature deserving especial notice are a 
number of dorsal tentacles, haviiijg no power of movement, yet 
capable of absorbing nutritive juices. 

1 have noted with some curiosi^ the occasional presence of a 
small insect or fly on the fron^ of the Drosera hinata, from 
about a quarter to half an inch in length, smooth and glossy, of 
a red colour, with black and white spots on the backs oi the 
bodies, and long clean le^, devoid of hairs. It possesses the 
remarkable power of walkmg.aU over the fronds without in any 
way being impeded, or entrapped (as all other insects are) by the 
treacherous drops of viscid fluid exuded from and adhering to the 
glands. Most plants have their insect enemies, such as worms, 
Ac., which draw their nutriment from the leaves which they 
devour ; but strange to say, this particular flv does not seem to 
destroy the blades of the D, hinata in the least, and only lives 
on the dead insects captured, by the closing of the tentacles — 
also in one instance when fragments of raw meat were placed on 
the blades, the fly seemed to be attracted towards them. 

There are many other points too numerous to mention in a 
paper of this length connected with these truly wonderful plants, 
and which would ampl]f reward careful study. Several eminent 
anihorities — Dr. Darwin especially — have given them much at- 
tention, and have written apparently exhaustively on the sub- 
ject, but a careful observer wul note much that has been left 



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8M BEFOITS FBOX THE SSCTIOHi. 

unexplained, and many plienomena connected with tbeir stmc* 
tore and habits, as yet untouched upon. There is a large AM 
here that would amply repay a little persererance, and eyen the 
few facts already obserred and which I hare endeayoured to put 
before you to-night, cannot but strike with wonder when yiewed 
for the first time. 

That the animal and yegetable kingdoms are in many respects 
closely allied none I think will be disposed to deny. Vegetable 
food IS we kaow the means of subsistence to the Dulk of animal 
life on the globe, but here we haye an example actually of the 
reyerse ; for it has been proyed that if these plants be deprived of 
the means of obtaining sustenance through tiie insects caught by 
them, as for example by enclosing them in a glass shade, they 
quickly become sickly and die, their roots not being formed for 
extracting nitrogenoiis or organic matter from the ground. 



SECTION F.— GEOGBAPHT AND ETHNOLOGY. 

At the preliminary meeting of this Section the following 
Committee was appointed : — 

Chaibmait.— Mr. E. Du Faur, r.E.G.S. 

CoMHiTTEE. — J. Manning, C. L. Sahl, A. S. Webster, The. 

Hon. L. Fane De Salis, M.L.C. 
HoK. Seceetabt. — ^Wm. Forde. 



Owing to the absence of some of the Committee from Sydney, 
it was not thought advisable to call the Section together until 
the September meeting, at which arrangements were made for the 
preparation of lists from the Public Jubraries of this uid the 
neighbouring Colonies, and from other sources, of all works bearing 
on Exploration in Australasia and the Islands of the Pacific, also 
for collating all information published on the Aborigines. 

These matters are proceeding. 

Tracings of Ice Charts showing the track of ships running 
down easting have been promised to this Section from the originu 
belonging to Commodore Hoskins, B.N. 

Comma,^der Hoskins, RN., of H.M.S. " Pearl," and lieutenant 
Fenn, of H.M.S. " Sappho," have kindly promised charts showing 
the recent alterations in surveys, and also discoveries made by 
the Admiralty in the Pacific. 

The Free Librarian of Tasmania has forwarded a list of works 
on Exploration and the Aborigines. The Librarian Melbourne, 
and the Secretary of the South Australian Institute, have 
promised similar contributions. 



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^ BXTOBTS FBOIC THE BICTIOK?. 806 

The meeiings of the Section have been so sparsely attended bj 
members hitherto that no steps have been taken beyond making 
' the preliminary arrangements abore referred to. 

E. Du FATJE, 
Vfu. roBDE, Chairman. 

Hon. Secretary, Section P. 



SECTION G.— LITEEATTJEE AND FINE AETS, 
INCLUDING AECHITECTUEE. 

There hare been six meetings of this Section, at three of which 
quorums have not been formed. 

PBBUMIKABY HBETINa, TUESDAY, 27 JUNE, 1876. 

Eourteen members joined, and the following elected office- 
bearers : — 

Chaibman. — R L. Montefiore. 
HoK. Sec. — H. A. Lenehan. 

CoMMiTTKE.— E. Du Faur, L. F. De Salis, G. Morell, W. G. 
Murray. 

Business meeting arranged for fourth Monday of each month 
during session, and that the subject for first business meeting 
should be " Processes of Photographic Reproduction.'' 

MONDAY, 24 JULY, 1876. 
Mr. E. L. MoNTEFiOBK in the Chair. 

ScTcral members were present. A considerable number of 
examples of the yarious pnotographic reproductions were ex- 
hibited by members of the Section, also some of the pellicle 
patented by Mr. Kennett, of London, for his dry plato process. 
Mr. Eussell submitted, for the information of the members, the 
cost of obtaining the use of "Woodbury's patent, obtained by him 
from that gentleman during his recent visit to Europe. The 
plates exhibited printed by the process obtained from Mr. Wood- 
bury himself were exceedingly beautiful. This process was 
considered to give not only much greater detail in the pictures, 
but greater rapidity in reproduction than other processes. After 
a lengthened discussion as to the yarious processes, it was 
resolved, — ''That a letter be prepared, and submitted for the 
approval and signatures of the members, at the next general 
meeting of the Society, asking the Government to procure, for 
the use of the Government Printiug Office, the process invented 
and patented by Mr. Woodbury^ by which photographs taken 
direct from natural objects could be printed with all the truth- 



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806 SBfOlTt VKOM «HB BICflOM. 

fijdneM and detail of an ordinary silver print.** In illoatniting 
worka of the natural history of tlie Colony, its btdldinga, pubw 
works, &c,f it was considered that the process would be tsit 
TiJuable, and might Terr soon be made reproductive. It was 
resolved, — ^*'That Count ae Zaba be invited to attend the next 
meeting of the Section, to be held on the 28th proximo, for the 
purpose of explaining to the members his method for facilitating 
the study of universiS history and literature.^' 

The letter to the Government was signed by tweniy-one mem- 
bers at general meeting. 



MONDAT, 28 AJJOTJn, 1876. 

CoiTKT J>E Zjlba was prsMit bv invitation, and in a c^rreraa^ 
tional way gave a description of his method of historical teaching. 



MONDAY, 25 SflPraiCBEB, 1876. 
No quorum. 



No quorum. 



BiONDAY, 27 KOYEHBEB, 1876. 

The last meeting of the sessimi. Mr. E. L. MiHmnoBB read a 
very interesting paper on EtcAiiBg and Btchers, Qlnstraled by 
etchings by Eembrandt and others. 



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BTCHINa AND BTCHBE8. 
Bt E. L. MoimriOAK. 



[.BmkI (yor« a« Zt^tfm^iire <»md Fin^ Art Section of iko JKoyol Sooid^ of 
N.8, jr., 27 Nowemher, 1876.] . 



He commenced bj alluding to the common error of styling pen 
and ink drawings etchings, explaining that an etching was a draw- 
ing produced on a metal plate, by means of lines or strokes bitten 
in or corroded bj the action of acid, from which impressions were 
afterwards taken through the medium of a printmg-press — flie 
artist's ideas being[ thus capable of reproduction ; and that whilst 
it required a certun amount of skill in the use of pen or pencil 
to produce a good etching, a person might produce any charming 
pen and ink drawings luthough utterly ignorant of the art of 
etching. Mr. Mont^ore then proceeded to show the difference 
between etching and engraring, the latter being more of a 
mechanical process, ihe effect being produced by a series of 
regular lines and dots, executed on metal with tiie '' burin'' with- 
out the aid of acid, and neeessarily not possessing the freedom of 
the etching, in the execution of which tne artist allows his needle 
to wander freely over the plate, as though he we^e drawing with 
pen or pencil, leaving it to the acid to give the necessary grada* 
tions or light and shade. Quoting from Gilbert Hammerton, 
himself an experienced etcher, he remarked that the central idea 
of etching was the free expression of purely artistic thought, and 
that of afi the arts known it was the oest fitted for that especial 
purpose. The ideal of an etching, said that writer, is tnat it 
should be free and spontaneous, when a plate has been labor* 
ioosly corrected it always showed signs of fatigue, and so lost in 
freshness what it might have gained in delicacy and force. A 
certain kind of self-reliance, almost approaching a conyiddon of 
his own personal value, was necessary to an aquafortist. The 
needful etements of success in direct work oi any kind was 
absolute sincerity and simplicity. Good etching, like good 
manners, did not hesitate about what is to be said or done, and 
though highly sensitive, was not painfully self-conscious. Above 
aU, it casts away affectation, the vice of the inferior arts. Etching 
does not condescend, and therefore really need not be at the 
trouble to polish its phrases and explain. The truth of these 
remariu he considered abundantly exemplified in the works of 
Bembrandt, the great representative master of the art of etching. 



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806 BEP0BT8 FBOM THE eEGTIOVS. 

Mr. MoDtefiore then proceeded to describe the yarioua |>ro- 
cesBes used by the etcher — viz., pure etching, dry point, aqua-tint, 
and soft ground etohing. That these processes might be mive 
dearly understood by the members present, he exhibited the 
Tarious tools used in the different processes, and explained their 
uses, showing the plates in different states of progress. He also 
gave a lengthened and interesting account of the method of pre- 
paring the copper plates used in etching. As showing the 
necessity of reversing the drawing where accuracjr was required^ 
he instanced a curious error in an etching of the Life School of the 
Boyal Academy, by Cope, the Eoyal Academician, in which the 
whole of the students are seen drawing with their left hands, 
whilst the model is drawing a sword from his right side. 

Mr. Montefiore proceeded to observe that etching was believed 
to have been invented about forty years later than engraving, and 
was commonly practised in Germany in 1512 ; but that the great 
master of etcning, whose name would always be associated with 
the art, was Bembrandt, who flourished in the early part of ihe 
17th century. He then expatiated at some length on Bern- 
brandt*s marvellous skill as an etcher, the great apparent negli- 
gence of his etching, their remarkable boldness and freedom, and 
wonderful distribution of light and shade. He stated that essays 
had been written on them in France, Holland, Germany, and 
England, and that Adam Bartsch, himself an engraver, keeper of 
the print room in the Vienna Museum, writing of him in 1797^ 
said — " However gjreat may be the reputation Bembrandt has 
acq^uired by his paintings, he is no less celebrated by his etchings, 
which have at all times excited the admiration of connoisseurs ; a 
vagabond liberty, a picturesque disorder, an easy touch, the rarest 
perception of chiaroscuro, and the talent of expressing the diar- 
acter of the different ages and subjects he ^as toting, by 
touches thrown in as it were by chance. Such are some of the 
elements, and there are many others, which constitute the merit 
of Bembrandt as an engraver, which give such an inexpressible 
charm to his prints." Bembrandt, it was said, would never etch 
in any person's presence, so that many of his processes are 
unknown. As showing Bembrandt*s wonderful rapidity, Mr. 
Montefiore related the following anecdote : — That being at table 
with his great friend and patron Burgomaster Six, the mustard- 
pot was asked for, and not being on the table, the servant was 
sent to fetch it. Bembrandt, knowing the tardiness of the 
domestic, laid a wager with his friend that he would commence 
and finish an etching before he returned, a feat he actually 
accomplished, the plate being known as " Six*s Bridge, or the 
Mustard Pot." Bemarking on the large sums given for Bem- 
brandt*s etchings, Mr. Montefiore stat^ that an impression of 
his portrait of the Burgomaster alluded to, which was generally 



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BEFOBTS FBOM TEE SECTIOKS. 800 

considered one of the most finished and perfect of Eembrandt's 
etchings, was sold in London in June last for £270, one of his 
celebrated portraits of Von Tolling for £500, and one of Ephraim 
Bonus, the Jewish physician, for £160. At this sale about 200 
of his etchings realized £4,293. " Christ healing the Sick," better 
known as the lOO-giulder piece, from the fact that Bembrandt 
would never sell an impression under 100 guilders (about eight 
guineas), was considered as Bembrandt's masterpiece. At a sale 
m London, in 1867, of Sir C. Price's collection, a copy of this in 
the first state of the plate realized the enormous sum of £1,180. 
The British Museum was supposed to contain one of the finest 
collections of Bembrandt's etchings. Mr. Montefiore then alluded 
to other celebrated painters of the 17th century who were skilful 
etchers, enumerating amongst others, Claud, Annibal Carraci, 
Bubens, Van Dyck, Ostade, Teniers, Salvator Bosa, Berghem, 
Paul Pottfer, &c. ; he also dwelt on the works of Callot and Delia 
Bella, two very prolific etchers who flourished during the same 
period. 

Mr. Montefiore remarked that the art of etching had not been 
much practised or appreciated in England, although England had 
produced some very good etchers. Some years back a few artists 
had formed themselves into an Etching Club, and had published 
some of their etchings from time to time, which had been much 
sought after. Amongst English etchers might be mentioned — 
Turner, who, however, merely employed the needle for outline, 
filling in with mezzotint ; Landseer in his early days had pub- 
lished a series of etchings ; Wikie, David Boberts, Cope, Ansdell, 
Hunt, Millais, Creswick, Bedgrave, &c., also etched. At the 
present day he considered that there was no English etcher equal 
to Seymour Haden, of wicker coflBn celebrity, an amateur, and 
surgeon by profession. There was a boldness and free handling 
about his work not approached by any other etcher of the English 
school, and indeed there were few contemporary etchers e^ual to 
him elsewhere. Mr. Montefiore submitted for the inspection of 
the members a very fine example of Haden's, called the " Break- 
ing-up of the Old Agamemnon" to which, at the time of its 
publication, the Twies devoted a column and- a half. He stated 
that there had been a great revival of the art of etching in 
Prance of late years, owing in great measure to the exertions of 
the well-known and enterprising publisher. Monsieur Cadart, 
who had made the printmg and publication of etchings a 
speciality — his prints were, as a rule, much superior to those 
producea in England. Having already alluded to some of the 
old masters of the French school of etchers, such as Claude, 
Callot, &c., he would not occupy their time further by dwelling 
at length on the modem school, but would in conclusion, merely 
allude to one who might with justice be considered at its head, 

2 a 



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910 BBMBTi FBOM THE SBOTIOili;. 

Tix.y Mazime Lalanne, of whom it bid been said that whilst ihere 
were etchers of greater power and more striking originaliij, 
there was never one equal to him in a certain delicate elegance 
from the earliest times till now. Mazime Lalanne was the first 
artist who oyer received knighthood for his skill as an etcher, 
that honor having been conferred on him by the King of 
Portu^d, himself an etcher. "Mr, Montefiore illustrated Ids 
papQr bj a very interesting a>Uection of etchings by ancient and 
modem artists, including worics by Bembrandt, Berghem, Paul 
Potter, Hollar, Callot, Delia Bella, Liuidseer, Lalanne, Haden, 
Millais, Jaquemart, Appian, Otto Weber, Ac 

An interesting discussion then followed on the merits of tha 
various processes: and before the meeting dispersed, a verf 
cordial vote of thanks was accorded to Mr. Montefiore for his 
very interesting paper, with the request that he would rilow it 
to be published. 

The Chairman stated that, at a future meeting, he hoped, 
through the kindness of Messrs. J. Fairfax and Sons, that the 
members of the section woidd have an o^p<»rtunity afforded 
them of seeing specimens of the process (^electrotyping which 
was now largely used in printing. 



SECTION H.— MEDICAL SCIENCE. 

Dec. 2, 1876. 

To the Honorary Secretaries of the Eoyal Society of New South 

Wales. 
Gbktlemen-, 

In pursuance of By-law No. XXX, we have the honor 
to forward a report of the proceedings of the Medical Section 
during the past session. The first meeting of the Section took 
place on June 28th. Alfred Boberts, Esq., was elected Chair- 
man, and Drs. Cox, Cosl^, Morgan, and Milford, and G. A 
Wright, Esq., were elected Members of Committee. Dr. P. 
Sydney Jones was elected Honorary Secretary. At a subsequent 
meeting Dr. MacLaurin was associated with Dr. Jones in the 
Secretai^ship. The monthly meetings have been fairly attended ; 
patholo^cal and other specimens have been exhibited, and 
interesting papers have been read. Bules for the guidance of the 
members of the Section have been drawn up, printed, and 
adopted. Donations have been made by Drs. Cox, Schuette, 
Ward, and Sydney Jones. 

ALEBED BOBEBTS, C9iainttaiL 
P. SYDNEY JONES, *> Honorary 

H. W. MACLAmON, M.D.; ) Seozetnrief. 



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BXPOBTS FBOH THE SICTIOKS. Sll 

SECTION L— SANITAET SCIENCE. 

Beport of the Social and Sanitaiy Science Section of the Boyal 
Society for the session of 1876. 

To the President of the Bojal Society. 

Sir,. 

I have the honor to snbmit the following report : — 

The Social Science and Statistics Section held a preliminary 
meeting on the 29th June, when it was nnanimously resolved 
that a proposition be submitted to the Council that Section H. 
Sfodtary Science be joined to Section I, Social Science and 
Statistics^ The proposal having been agreed to, the S^tion has 
since that date met as the Social and Sanitary Section. 

At its first meeting, held on the 10th July, Mr. Boberts, 
M.RC.S., was chosen as Chairman ; Dr. Morgan, and Messrs. 
Bedford, M.B.C.S., Voss, and Tarleton were elected a Committee ; 
and Mr. Harrie "Wood was appointed Honorary Secretary. 

The Section then decided that its ordinary meetings be held on 
the second Tuesday in each month. 

Steps were taken to procure all the papers, etc., published by 
the Sydney and Suburban Sewage and Health Board, by the Vic- 
torian Central Board of Health, and by the English Board of 
Health, but the publications of the last-named Board have not 
yet been receivei 

At the meetiig held on the 8th August, Dr. Belobate called 
attention to the vital Statistics publish^ by the Begistrar General, 
and pointed out certain defects therein. After careful considera- 
tion, it was generally admitted that in many eases the cause of 
death as stated rendered the statistics of comparatively small 
value as a basis for sanitary legislation. The defects appeared 
to be mainly due to want of care or want of skill on the part of 
the persons by whom certificates of death are granted ; and in 
order te ascertain the &cts a series of questions were submitted 
to the Honorable the Colonial Secretary. These questions 
elicited the following replies: — I. That the primary cailse of 
death is given in all cases where c^ecified in tne certificate. 2. 
That the certificate of death is required principally for the 
purpose of statistics upon which sanitary legislation may be 
based. 8. That the Nosological table used here is the same as 
that used by the Begistrar General of England. 4. That the 
statistics include deaths certified by persons other than legally 
qualified medical practitioners, but in .what proportion is not at 
present known. These replies having been discussed, it was 
resolved that the papers be referred to the Medical Section, with 
a request that the members will consider the matter and &vour 
this Section with the result of their deliberatiom. 



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312 BEPOBTS FBOM THE SECTIONS. 

On the 12th September Dr. Belgbave read a paper on " Pre- 
ventable Disease and Sanitary Organization." Tne consideratioii 
of this paper engaged the attention of the Section at an ordinary 
and three special meetings. The subject was divided under three 
heads, and dealt with as follows ; — 1. That the poisons of cholera 
and typhoid fever are communicable by filtered water, and that 
there is danger of the Botanv water supply becoming contami- 
nated by organic poison. 2. That an efficient system of regis- 
tration of infectious and contagious diseases, with a view to 
arresting their further development, would be beneficial to the 
community. 3. That the decomposition of filth can give rise to 
specific fevers. 4. That v^iereal disease is prejudicial to public 
health, and is more or less reducible under the combined 
influence of education and legislation. 5. That a State sanitary 
orgatiization is urgently required in New South "Wales. It was 
then resolved that the JRoyal Society be invited by this Section to 
wait upon the Government by deputation, and urge it to introduce 
during the next Session an efficient General Public Health Act 
and to appoint a Central Board with ample powers to see its 
provisions enforced. 

On the 26th September Dr. Belgbaye drew attention to the 
statistics of the mortality in the principal cities of Continental 
Europe recently published in the Journal of the British Medical 
Association, from which Sydney, in spite of its almost unrivalled 
natural hygienic advantages, is shown to be at present one of 
the most unhealthy cities in Christendom. 

On the 10th October Mr. Kobebts, M.E.C.S., laid on the table 
a memorandum which he had prepared at the request of the 
Colonial Secretary upon hygiene, especially in its bearings upon 
epidemics. Mr. feoberts also read some remarks on the measuree 
"adopted by liim under the Government to prevent the spread of 
erysipelas. A communication was received from M. Jules 
Jpubert forwarding a photograph of an apparatus for cleaning 
water-pipes, and asking the Section to move the Boyal Society to 
oflfer a prize for the best display of exhibits in the Sanitary 
Department of the Agricultural Society's next Exhibition. The 
Section at a subsequent meeting adopted the following resolu- 
tion : — That, in the opinion of the Social and Sanitary Science 
Section, the Eoyal Society might with adYantage to the com- 
munity co-operate with the Committee of the Agricultural 
Society in promoting the exhibition of all articles tending to 
advance sanitary science and improve sanitary appliances. 

Dr. Belgbave called attention to the prevalence of small-pox 
in San Francisco, and the danger of the disease being brought 
to this Colony by means of the mail steamers from that port. It 
was generally admitted that the danger is |;reat, and that 
precautionary measures should as far as practicable be taken. 



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BEFOBTS FBOM THE SECTIONS. 813 

and that the strongest reason for vaccination exists. At the 
same meeting a Committee was appointed to collect and prepare 
for publication'and distribution useful information on domestic 
sanitation suited to general use. 

On the 14th November, a paper by Miss Chase, containing a 
few practical remarks upon the ventilation and manage^ient of 
emigrant ships, commumcated by Mr. Eoberts, was read. At 
the same meeting, Dr. Spenoeb read a paper upon " A scheme 
for supplying Sydnej; with water from the Erskine Valley." 
Considerable interest in the subject was evinced by the members, 
some twenty-five of whom were present ; and it is to be regretted 
that, owing to the lateness of the hour when the reading of the 
paper was concluded, it was impossible to devote much time to 
its discussion. The importance of the subject, however, and the 
substantial value of information contained in Dr. Spencer's 
paper, recommend it for publication in the Society's Transac- 
tions. The short paper by Miss Chase is of an essentially 
practical character; and I would suggest that it might with 
advantage be forwarded to the Government, with a recom- 
mendation to the effect that it should be transmitted to the 
Agent General of the Colony for his consideration. 

to conclusion, I would recommend that the Committee 
appointed to collect and prepare for publication information on 
domestic sanitation be permitted to sit during the Society's 
recess. 

I have the honor to be, 

Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

ALEEED EOBBETS, 

Chairman. 



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APPENDIX. 



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ABSTRACT OF THE METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 
TAKEN AT THE SYDNEY OBSERVATORY. 



Latitudb 83' 61' 41* ; Loxoitudb lO** 4« 46- ; Maonitio VARunoN 0® 82' 4©* Cast 

JANTJAET, 1876.— Gekebal Abstbact. 

Barometer . . . Highest Reading 80'093 inches on the 27th, at 4 a.m. 

At82**Faht. Lowest Reading 29-278 „ on the 5th, at 2 p.m. 

Mean Height 29713 

(Being 0*058 inch leas than that in the some month on an avenge of the preceding 17 yean.) 

Wind ..* Greatest pressure 110 lbs. on the 20th 

Mean Pressure 0*8 lb. 

Number of Days Calm ... 

Freyailing Direction ... E.K.E. 
(Prevailing direction during the same month for the preceding 17 yean, N.E.) 

Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 908 On the 19th. 

liowest in the Shade ... 57*7 On the 6th. 

Greatest Range 20*2 On the 8th. 

Higliest in the Sun ... 131-6 On the 19th. 

Lowest on the Grass ... 60-0 On the 6th. 
Mean Diurnal Range ... 12*7 
Mean in the Shade ... 72*6 

(Being 1*5 greater than Uiat of the same month on an avenge of tiie preceding 17 }'ean.) 

Humidity... Greatjest Amount 97*0 On the 20th. 

Least 500 On the 19th. 

Mean 740 

(Being 1-2 greater than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 yean) 
Rain Number of Days 16 rain and 2 dew. 

Greatest Fall 0468 inch. On the 5th. 

Tofiil TTrII f ^*^^ » ^^ ^* *^^® ground. 

^^*^^^" 1 1-421 „ 15 in. aboTe ground. 

(Being 2*627 inches less than tlian of the same month on an aventge of the preceding 17 years.) 

Eyaporation Total Amount 9*392 inches. 

Ozone ... Mean Amount 5*7 

(Being 1*2 greater than that in the same month on an average of the preceding 10 yean.) 
Electricity... • Number of Days Lightning 6 

Cloudy Sliy*.. Mean Amount 6-4 

Number of Olear DayB ... 

KeteorS ... Number Obserred ... 4 

Eem<Mrks, 

The mean barometer is slightly below, and the mean t^miperaturo 1*5 abore the 
ATerage of this month for the past 17 years. Rain has been frequent but Torr 
light at Sydney ; and generallv over the Colony the dry weather has continued, 
doing great damage to pastoral and agricultural interests. At a few of the stations, 
on the high lands and on the coast, there has been sufficient rain. Thimderstorms 
hare been frequent, and liail fell on 2nd, 5th, 16th, and 20th. Hot winds are 
recorded on the 1st and 2nd at Narrabri, on the 8th at Moss Yale, and on the 12th 
at Wentworth. 



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318 MBTEOBOLO0T. 

aOVEBNMENT OBSBBVATORT, STDOTTT. 

Latitcdb 83' 61' 41" ; Lokoitum 10i> 4" 46* ; MioxKnc Vabutioh VST 45" Evt 

FEBEUAET, 1876.— Geitebxl Absteact. 

Barometer ... nighest Beading 30*062 inches on the 28th, at 9 pan. 

At 32'' Faht. Lowest Beading 29*209 „ on the lOth, at 12 noon. 

Mean Height 29782 

OBoing 0*012 inch less than that in tho same month on an average of the precedtaig 17, ycen) 

Wind ... Greatest Pressure 12'5 lbs. on the 26th. 

Mean Pressure 1*0 lb. 

Number of Days Calm ... 
Preyailing Direction ... S. , 

(Prevailing direction during the same month for the preceding 17 yean &) 

Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 96*9 On the 25th. 

Lowest in the Shade ... 67-6 On the 24th. 

Greatest Bange 84*0 On the 25th. 

Highest in the Sun ... 182*0 On the 25th. 

^teTop^^^^''''^}^®^'® On the 26th. 
Lowest on the Gross . . . 45*7 On the 24th. 
Mean Diurnal Bange ... 12*9 
Mean in the Shade . ... 71*0 
(Being 0*4 greater than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 years.) 

Humidity ... Greatest Amount 99*0 On the 10th. 

Least 45*0 On the 25th. 

Mean 711 

(Being 4-0 less than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 ysan.) 
Rain Number of Days 14 rain and 1 dew. 

Greatest Eall 0*523 inch. On the 28th. 

T/xfoi TToii f 0902 inch. 65 ft. above ground. 

lotaiuau \l-360inch. 15 in. above ground. 

(Being 5*468 inch^ less than that of the same month on an average of the prooeding 17 years.) 

EvaporatiOll Total Amount 7*696 inches. 

Ozone ... Mean Amount 7*1 

(Being 2*6 greater than that in the same month on an average of the preceding 16 years.) 
Electricity. . • Number of Days Lightning 7 

Cloudy Sky... Mean Amount 6*6 

Number of Clear Days ... 1 
Meteors ... Number Observed ... 2 

This month has been exceedingly diy and hot; from nearly all parts of the Oolooy earn 
accounts of severe drought, and heavy losses in consequence ; in one case a whole flodt of 10,ON 
sheep died whUe going to water, and the number of dead sheep and cattle in the bade counter ii 



immense. In Sydney the rainfall for the month is 6| inches less than the average, and tt is lea 
that for any February linoe 1854. The temperature has been above and the hmnidity 4*0 bdow the 
average, so that evaporation has been very great, and in many places water, even for hoaaaboU 
purposes, has been obtained with difficulty. In the suburbs not supplied by water pipes the prioe cf 
water has been from 68. to lOs. per cask. On the 16th a very sevei^ oydoiie oocmred at Boven, is 
Queenslaiid ; it destroyed everything in its direct track, ana carried some wooden houses bodilya 
oouiderable distance ; the storm was accompanied by thunder and balls d fire, one of which madt 
a round hole into one of the houses. On the 23rd a water spout was seen at sea off Cue St aeoi?B> 
On the 2dth and 27th tides in Sydney harbour were unsteady, and at 2 SO p.m. of the 27th the wMr 
in hubour suddenly rose 5 inches in twelve minutea From 6 pjn. on 26th to nuHming of 27th the 
barometer -^aa very unsteady at Sydney, and fKmi 2 to 2-86 pju. of 27th it rose rapidiv, andattbi 
end of that time fell 0060 in 5 minutes, the fall being almost coincident with the rise In the vatcr. 
At New Zealand a heavy earthquake shock occurred at 8 ajn., and another at 9 ajn., on the Wk ; 
smaller shocks were felt for some days. 



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HITBOROLOeT. 819 

GOTBSNMEKT OBSEBVATORT, SYDNEY. 
Laibvbi 88* 61' 41*; Um^Ttmrn lO*" 4« 40« ; MiainRio Vakzatiom 9* 82' 46" East. 

MABOEEy 1876. — Gknehal Abstba^ct. 

BftTOmoter ••• Hlgbest Reading 30*068 inclies on tlie 22nd, at 10 p.m. 

At82°Faht. Lowest Reading 29'448 „ on tlie 25th, at 3*45 a.m. 

Mean Height 29*848 

(Being 0*047 Indh less than that in the same month on an average of the preceding 17 yean.) 

Wind '••• Greatest Pressure 13*5 lbs. on the Slst. 

Mean Pressure 0*7 lb. 

Number of Days Calm ... 
PMYoiling Direction ... E. 
(PrevaiUng direotiou during the «tme month for the preoeding 17 years N.E.) 

Temperature* Highest in the Shade ... 89^ On the 26th. 

Lowest in the Shade ... 54*6 On the 3l8t. 

Greatest Range 24*3 On the 24th. 

Highest in the Sun ... 127*0 On the 25th. 

^Il^^ To^^^^.?"^^} 1S7'^ ^" ^^^ 16*^^- 
Lowest on the Ghrass ... 48*6 On the Slst. 
Mean Diurnal Range ... 12*5 
Mean in the Shade ... 71*9 
(Being 2*9 greater than that of the same month on an average of the preoeding 17 years.) 

Humidity ••• Greatest Amount 94*0 On the 13th. 

Least 30*0 On the 30th. 

Mean 7ri 

(Being 6*5 less than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 yean.) 

Bain.** ••• Number of Days 9 rain and 2 dew. 

Greatest Fall 0*294 inch. On the 17th. 

fp_^_i ■« 11 ( 0*166 inch* 65 ft. above ground. 

AoiaiJJtui \ 1-419 inch. 15 in. above ground. 

(Being 6-816 inches lees than that of the same month on an average of the procedhig 17 years.) 

Eyaporaticm Total Amount 7*336 inches. 

Ozone ..* Mean Amount 6*9 

(Being 2*0 greater tlian that in the same month on an average of the preceding 16 yean.) 

Electricity. . . Number of Days Lightning ' 6 

Cloudy Sfy.'* Mean Amount 5*8 

Number of Olear Days ... 1 

Heteorff ••• Number Observed ... 4 



The drought of the past months still continues generally, a few stations only 
bATO had useful rain, and the effects of the continued dry weather are most serious ; 
cattle and sheep are said to be dying in immense numbers, and fears are entertained 
that no grass can grow before the frosts, even if rain comes at once. At Sydney 
the total rainfall for the month was only 0*419 inch, or less than tliflt for any March 
during the last 86 years, or the whole period on record. Evaporation has also beaa 
very great, and the temperature 2*9 above the average. 



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820 HETEOBOLOOT, 

GOVEBNMENT OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 

Latitudb 88' 61' 41" ; LoxoirrDB 10»» 4- iC ; Maonbtic Vamatioh 9* 52' 45" But 

APEIL, 1876. — Gekebal Absteact. 

Barometer • . . Highest Reading 80*244 inclies on the 10th, at 9 pan. 

At82''Faht. Lowest Reading 29*461 „ on the 5th, at 1*46 pjn. 

Mean Height 29*832 

(Being 0*167 inch less than tliat in the same month on an avenge of the preceding 17 yean.) 

Wind ,. . . Greatest Pressure 9*7 Ihs. on the 9th. 

Mean Pressure 0*51h. 

Number of Days Cahn ... 

PreyaUing Direction ... WJ^.W. 
(Prevailing direction during the same month for the prece ding 17 years W.) 

Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 87*0 ... On th 6th. 

Lowest in the Shade ... 62*6 ... On the 18th. 

Gbeatest Range 27*0 ...On the 4th. 

Highest in the Sun ... 121*7 ... On the 6th. 

^I^^To?^"^.^''*'^!!^^ ...On the 4th. 

Lowest on the Orass ... 89*6 ... On the 80th. 
Mean Diurnal Range ... 16*6 
Mean in the Shade ... 65*8 
(Being 0*8 greater than that of the same month onan aventge of the preceding 17 years.) 

HlUnidity ••• Greatest Amount lOOO ... On the 13th. 

Least 82*0 ... On the 5th. 

Mean 72*7 

(Being 6*4 less than that of the same mouth on an average of the preceding 17 yean.) 
Bain Numberof Days ... ^.. 10 rain and 2 dew. 

GhreatestFall ... T.. 1*685 inch. On the 14th. 

T/xf oi TToii i 4*637 inch. 66 ft. abore ground. 

xotaiJJUU ... ... ^ 6*246 inch. 16 in. abore ground. 

^(Being 2106 inches less than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 16 yean.) 

Evaporatioil Total Amount 4*850 inches. 

Ozone ••• Mean Amount 6*9 

Being I'D greater than that in the same month on an average of the preceding 17 "years.) 

Electricity..' Number of Days Lightning 8 

Cloudy Sliy*** Mean Amount 4*6 

Number of Clear Days ... 4 

Keteors ... Number Observed ... 6 

Bemarhi, 

The temperature of the first few days of the month was rery high, and reaehed 
the extreme. aegree for this month 87*0^ on the 6th. The dry weather continued to 
the 7th, when welcome rain began at northern stations and gradually extended toutii- 
wards. It was however prinmwlly confined to the coast dutricts, and rery little leD 
west of the dividing range. Tne greatest fall was 19*690 inches at Port Maoquarie^ 
of this 9*760 fell on the 15th. Puces reached by the rain had in most caset foiB* 
dent to reliere the drought, but to the west the drought still continues, and the loaBSl 
from want of water and mss are rery great ; at Wilomnia and Upper Darling, teaai 
caxmot trarel for want of water. 



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METE0B0L06Y. 321 

GOVERNMENT OBSERVATORY, SYDNEV. 

Latitude 83* 61' H" ; Longitude lOi" 4™ 46* j^ Magnetic Variation 9' 82' 45" East. 

MAT, 1876. — GrENEEAL ABSTRACT. 

Barometer . . . Highest Reading 80*346 inches on the 15th, at 8*65 a.m. 

At 32° Faht. 

Lowest Reading 29*537 „ ota the 80th, at 11 a.m. 

Mean Height 29*999 

(Being 0^2 inch greater than that in the same month on an avera^re of the preoediog 17 years.) 
Wind- ... Greatest Ppessnro ... 12*5 lbs. on the 7th. 

Mean Pressure 0*5 lb. 

Number of Days Cahn ... 2 

Prevailing Direction ... W. 
(Prevailing direction during the same month for the preceding 17 years W.) 
Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 76*6 On the 12th. 
Lowest in the Shade ... 498 On the 14th. 

Greatest Range 17*3 On the Srd. 

Highest in the Sun ...111*3 On the 22nd. 

' Lowest on the Grass ... 40*1 On the 10th. 
' Mean Diurnal Range ... 10*4 
Mean in the Shade ... 60*1 
(Being 1-7 greater than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 year&) 
Humidity ... Greatest Amount ... 100*0 On the 7th and 20th. 

Least 51-0 On the 18th. 

Mean 82*4 

(Being 6*6 greater than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 years.) 

Bain NumberofDays 21 rain and 2 dew. 

Greatest Fall 2*815 inches. On the 22nd. 

Tr»f «1 TToii / 10*435 inches, 65 ft, above ground. 

AotaiJ?au \ 18*166 inches. ,15 in. above ground. 

(Being 8525 inches greater than tliat of the satne month on an average of the preceding 17 yean.) 

Eyaporation Total Amount 1*795 inches. 

Ozone "• Mean Amount .., ... 7*5 

(Being 2*8 greater than that in the same month on an average of the preceding 10 years.) 

Electricity • • • Number of Days Lightning 2 

Cloudy Sfy... Mean Amount 6*5 

Number of Clear Days ... pJ 

HeteorS ... Number Observed ' . " ^ ' 

The weather this month has been unti-L,i^ ^Jd, with abundant rains generally 
over the Colony, excepting the southern and south-western parts, where the drought 
unfortunately still prevails. On the coast the rains have been specially heavy, 
reaching a maximum of 19 inches about Port Macquarie. 17 inches fell at Cape Qeorae, 
and 13 inches at Sydney. At other stations, with the exception mentioned, uie 
amount has varied from 3 inches to 12 inches. The mean temperature at Sydney 
wiB 1*7° greater than the average, and the warm weather at the early part of the 
month, combined with the April rains, brought many of the fruits into mossom (on 
the 15th), which it is feared will prevent them blossoming in spring. 



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322 MXTBOBOLOeT. 

OOVBRNMENT OBSEEVATOEY, SYDNEY. 

Latitudb 83* 51' 41" ; LoKommi 10>> 4" 40^ ; MAcmno Yaeutiov V 9r 45' Em. 

JUNE, 1876. — OxNEiux Absteact. 

Barometer... Highest Beftdlng ... ... dO'418inoIiMonUi«19th,atlO'aOAA 

AtS2*'Falit. Lowest Reading 29*446 „ on tiie 16tli, ftt 18 imxhl 

Mean Height 29*957 

(Being 0*039 inch greater tb*n th»t In the same month on an avvnge of the preceding 17 yean.) 
Wind ... GfeiOieeePTeesuro... ... 157 lbs. on the 17th. 

Mean Pressure - 0'7 lb. 

Number of Days Calm ... 

Preyailing Direction ... W.N.W. 
(Prevailing direction during the same month for the preceding 17 years W.) 

Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 68*8 On the 15th. 

Lowest in the Shade ... 41*1 On the 19th. 

€k«atest Range 21*3 On the 19th. 

Highest in the Sun ... 102*7 On the 15th. 

^&* To^p^\^*'^^!!} l^**^ ^ ^ ^^^' 

Lowest on the Grass ... 35*5 On the 19th. 

Mean Diurnal Range ... 13*7 

Mean in the Shade ... 54*1 . 
(Being 07 less than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 years.) 
Humidity ... Ghreateet Amount 1(X)*0 On the 20th, 25th, 27th, AndSOth 

Least 48*0 OnthelSdi. 

Mean 76*7 

(Being 0*4 less than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 yean.) 

Bain Number of Days 7 rain and 6 denr. 

Greatest Fall 2*028 inches. On the 27th. 

rp . .1 T^„ii f 8*495 inches. 65 ft. above ground. 

•^*^^*^ 1 4*419 inches. 15 in. above ground. 

(Being 1*456 inches less thsfi that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 years.) 

Eyaporation Total Amonnt t 2*196 inohee. 

Ozone ... Mean Amount 7*5 

(Being 1*2 greater Uian that in the same month on an average of the preooding 17 years) 
Ele ctricity . . • Number of Days Lightning 4 

Cloudy Sliy." Mean Amount 8*5 

Number of CleaiLXta^tC... 3 

Heteors ... Number Observed ^^ 2 

SemarfM, 

The weather during the month has b^n dear and cold, with barometer raUier 
above the average, and prevailing westf^rly winds. Bain fell at Sydney on seven 
days ; but the amount is 1*456 inch below the average of this month. The eioetan 
quantity of ozone, 2*2 above the average is remarkaUe, considering the prevalence of 
westerly winds. Generally alone the coast a moderate quantity of rain has itHok 
ranging from 2 to 9 inches ; but mland the month has been very diy, and in maaj 
pla^ the drought still continues. The minimum baromdter at Sydney ooouned oo 
the 16th, followed by a cold W.N.W. gale and lightning at night. On the iTIk 
snow fell at Qrange, Cbulbuin, and Cooma. On the 28nd a yery high tide finttd 
Sydney. 



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MJfiTEOBOLOaT. 823 

OOVBBNMBNT OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 

Lahtddi 88' 51' 41" ; Lokgitodb io«» 4«» 46- ; Maqkbho VARunoir 0* 82' 45" East. 

JULY, 1876. — (Jenebal Abstbact. 

Barometer . . . Highest Reading 30*318 inches on the 81st, at 8 a.m. 

At 32'' Faht. Lowest Beading 29-481 „ on the 27th, at 2 tkjm. 

Mean Height ... ... 29945 

(Being 0-007 Inch greater than that in the same month on an arerage of the preceding 17 jreara.) 

Wind ... Greatest Pressure ... 17*4 lbs. on the 2l8t. 

Mean Pressure 1*6 lb. 

Numbers of Days Calm ... 

Preyailing Direction ... W.N.W. 
(PreTailing direction during the same month for the preceding 17 years W.N.W.) 

Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 619 On the 11th. 

Lowest in the Shade ... 891 On the 81st. 

Greatest Range 22*6 On the 81st. 

Highest in the Sun ... 99*9 On the 9th. 

^GlSs ToJ'^""*'^*!!} 131« On tho 24th. 
Lowest on the Grass ... 33*3 On the 31st. 
Mean Diamal Range ... 11*3 
Mean in the Shade ... 52*8 
(Being 05 greater than that of the same month on an avemge of the preceding 17 years.) 

Humidity ... Greatest Amount lOOO On the 13th, 17th, and 22nd. 

Least 52*0 On the 29th. 

Mean 80*4. 

(Being 6*6 greater than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 years.) 

Rain Number of Days 18 rain and 5 dew. 

Greatest Fall 1*675 inches, on the 14th. 

Total Fall ( f 2!? ^""^l!^'' 65 ft. aboye ground 

(. 6*741 mches. 15 m. above ground. 
(Being 2*002 inches greater than that of the same month on an arentge of the preceding 17 yean.) 

Evaporation Total Amount 2*331 inches. 

Ozone ... Mean Amount 7*8 

(Being 2*7 greater than that in the same month on an average of the preceding 15 years.) 

Electricity . . . Number of Days Lightning 5 

Cloudy Sliy— Mean Amount 5*9 

Number of Clear Days ... 3 
Meteors ••• Number Observed ... 7 

Hemarks, 

The month has been wet and windy at Svdney, and generally along the coast 
districts. In the western districts the rainfall, if any, has been small, and at tome 

5 laces the drought still continues. On the 13th and 14th a strong easterly gale, with 
eluges of rain, came on, and extended from Queensland right down the coast to Eden ; 
in some parts of Queeiisland the floods were higher than ever before known. There 
were high floods in the (Clarence (here the greatest on record, the city was almost all 
under water) and Macleay Rivers on 15th, and moderate floods in the Hunter on 
16th. There was a terrific fall of rain in New England, and at Tenterfield upwards 
of nine inches fell in one day. There was a partial return of this weather on 2l8t 
and 22nd. At 4 a ju of 19tn a very severe shock of earthquake in New Zeakmd. 



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324 METEOBOLOQT. 

GOVERNMENT OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 

Latittdi 83* 61' 41" ; LONOITUDB IC" 4« 46» ; MAexEnc Vaeiatios 9* 8^ 46" East 

AUGUST, 1876.— GenebIl Absteact. 

Barometer . . . Highest Reading 30-333 inches on the Ist, at 11 a.m. 

At32**Faht. Lowest Reading 29-419 „ on the 24th, at 9 pjn. 

Mean Height 29-966 

(Being 0*018 inch greater than that in the same month on an average of the precedmg 17 yean) 

Wind ... Greatest Pressure ... 12-5 lbs. on the 7th and 17th. 

Mean Pressure 071b. 

Number of Days Cahn ... 

Prevailing Direction ... W.N.W. 

(Prevailing direction during the same month for the preceding 17 years W.) 

Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 72*1 On the 31st. 

Lowest in the Shade ... 408 On the 19th. - 

Greatest Range 235 On the 31st. 

Highest in the Sun ... 109 On the 30th and Slst. 

^GlSsTo^^'^^^''.^'''^^} ^^2*^ Ontb^3l8t. 
Lowest on the Grass ... 34'8 On the 19th. 
Mean Diurnal Range ... 14*6 
Mean in the Shade . . . 54-8 

(Being 0*8 greater than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 years.) 

Humidity*" Greatest Amount 1000 On the 4th, 15th, and 23rd. 

Least 480 On the 31 st. 

Mean 76*6 

(Being 6*6 greater than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 yearv.) 

Rain Number of Days 14 rain and 6 dew. 

Greatest Fall 0-562 inch, on the 23rd. 

rp . , t;, II / 0-936 inch. 65 ft. above ground. 

^^^ ^^ \l-295 inch. 15 in. above ground. 

(Being 1*546 inch greater than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 yean.) 

Evaporation Total Amount 8096 inches. 

Ozone ... Mean Amount ... ... 7*7 

(Being 2*8 greater tlian that in the same month on an average of the preceding 16 jrears.) 

Electri(nty . . . Number of Days Lightning 8 

Cloudy Sky..* Mean Amount 4-5 

Number of Clear Days ... 8 
Meteors ... Nunc bcr Observed ... 3 

Semarks. 

The weather has been dry and hot, with prevalent westerly winds during the 
month. At Sydney the rainfaU is less than half the averape for the month, am it 
all stations except Orange the rainfaU has been small. Lightning has been froqnent 
at Sydney, and the Zodiacal light has been very bright, on the 12th extending to to 
altitude of 45** 



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METEOBOLOGY. 325 

GOVEENMENT OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 
Latitddb 88* 61' 41" ; Lohoititdb 10^ 4- 40* ; MAorano Variation 9* 82^ 45" Bast. 

SEPTEMBER, 1876.— Geneeal Absteact. 

Barometer . . . Highest Reading 80* 174 inches on the 23rd. 

At32°Faht. Lowest Reading 29*082 ,, on the 14th. 

Mean Height 29*828 

(Being 0-061 leas than that in the same month on an average of the preceding 17 yean.) 

Wind ... G-peatest Pressure 117*0 lbs. on the 10th. 

Mean Pressure 1*3 lb. 

Number of Days Calm ... 
Prevailing Direction ... W.N.W. 
(Prevailiiig direction daring the same month for the preceding 17 years W.) 

Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 81*3 On the 21st. 

Lowest in the Shade ... 43*4 On the 13th. 

Ghreatest Range 28*9 On the 19th. 

Highest in the Sun ...117*8 On the 19th. 

^fcsTo?^ ^.''^'^!.^} ^^'^ ^ *^^ ^^^- 
Lowest on the Grass ... 40*1 On the 17th. 
Mean Diurnal Range ... 14*6 
Mean in the Shade ... 69*2 

(Being 07 greater than that of the same month on an avenge of the preceding 17 years.) 

Humidity... 6hreatest Amount 98*0 On the 29tlL 

Least 350 On the Ist 

Mean 70*3 

(Being 1*6 greater than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 years.) 

BaiIL Number of Days 11 rain and 3 dew. 

Ghreatest Fall 1*967 inches. On the 11th. 

T tal Fall i 1*993 inches. 66 ft. above ground. 

( 8*605 inches. 16 in. above ground. 

(Being 1*279 inches greater than that of the same month onanaverageof the preceding 17 yeara) 

Eraporatioil Total Amount 4*908 inches. 

Ozone •>• Mean Amount 7*6 

(Bdng 2*4 greater than that in the same month on an avenge of the preoeding 16 yean.) 

Electricity • . • Number of Days Lightning 4 

Cloudy S]iy*» Mean Amount 6*0 

Number of C^ear Days ... 2 

Meteors •>• Number Observed ... 1 

Eemarks. 

The dry weather continued until the 10th instant, when a veiy severe storm of 
wind and run came from the southward along the coasts and inland from the south 
as far as the Tiiy^^UTi River. The interior to north of this is still soffering severely 
from drought. 

2h 



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326 MST£OR0LOGT. 

GOVERNMENT OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 
Latitudb 88* 51' ^'^ ; Lon«itudi 10>> 4- 4d> ; IfAONvnc Variatiok 8* SS' 45" EmL 

OCTOBEE, 1876.-— General Abstract. 

Barometer . . . Highest Reading ... ... 30004 inches on the Srd. 

At32*'raht. Lowest Reading 29*386 „ on the 20th. 

Mean Height 29721 

(Being 120 greater than that in the same month on an average of the preoeding 17 jean.) 

Wind ... Greatest Pressure ... 12^ lbs. on the 6th. 

Mean Pressure O'T lb. 

Number of Days Cahn ... 

Prevailing Direction ... W.N.W. 
(Prevailing direction during the same month for the preceding 17 jmn^ N.E.) 
Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 821 On the 23rd. 

Lowest in the Shade ... 48' 2 On the 3rd. 

Greatest Range 24 2 On the 17th. 

Highest in the Sun ... 121-9 On the 23rd. 

^'fcs To^^*^^ .^.""^"^^^ 1 203'* ^" *^^ 23rd. 
Lowest on the Grass ... 40*1 On the Ist. 
Mean Diurnal Range ... 14*6 
Mean in the Shade ... 63*1 

(Being 5 lees than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 yean.) 

Humidity ... Greatest Amount 970 On the 4th. 

Least 370 On the 12th. 

Mean 73*7 

(Being 5'5 greater than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 yesn) 

Bain Number of Days 14 

Greatest Fan 0840 inch. On the 8th. 

Total -Fidl i ^'^^^ " ^ ^' *^^® 6"^"*^ 

xotai JJau ^ g.g^j inches. 15 in. above ground. 

(Being 0*816 greater than that of the same month on an average of the preoeding 17 yean.) 

Eyaporation Total Amount 6*155 inches. 

Ozone ... Mean Amount 6*0 

(Being 0-7 than that in the same month on an average of the preoediiig 10 yean) 

Electricity ■ . • Number of Days Lightning 13 

Cloudy Slnf- Mean Amount 6*0 

Number of Clear Days ... 

Heteors ... Number Obserred ... 3 



lUmarkf, 

Nice rains- fell along the coast about the middle of the month. Inland the 
weather has been dry, and a remarkable phenomenon has occurred with renid to 
cattle and horses ; those with white patches, or all white, have been attackea bj t 
kind of aphis and all the white hair remored, aphia has also been Tery prenJcnt oo 
vegetables. 



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HETEOROLOGY. 827 

GOVERNMENT OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 
Latitdihi 88* 61' 41'' ; Loveirun 10^ 4- 4» ; MAexBno Yabiation 8* 82^ 46" Eait 

NOVEMBEE, 1876.— Geneeal AIbsteact. 

Barometer . . . Highest Reading 30*122 inches on the 30th, at 10 a.m. 

At32°Faht. Lowest Reading 29-254. „ on the 19th, at 4 a.m. 

Mean Height 29630 

(Being 0*191 inch lees than that in the same month on an average of the preceding 17 years. 

Wind ... Greatest Pressure 15 'libs, on the 5th and 25th. 

Mean Pressure I'llb. 

Number of Days Cahn ... 

Prevailing Direction ... S.S.W. 
(Prevailing direction during the same month for the preceding 17 years N JL) 

Temperatore Highest in the Shade ... 928 ... On the 12th. 

Lowest in the Shade ... 50 8 ... On the 25th. 

Greatest Range 286 ... On the 7th. 

Highest in the Sun ... 127*4 ... On the 12th. 

^m^ Top*'^^.^''^'^.^.^ } ^^'^ - ^^ ^^« 12th. 
Lowest on the Grass ... 44*5 ... On the 25th. 
Mean Diurnal Range ... 13*7 
Mean in the Shade ... 67*3 

(Being 0*0 greater than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 years.) 

Humidity... Greatest Amount 1000 On the I7th and 18th. 

Least 380 On the 10th. 

Mean 730 

(Being 8*0 greater Uum that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 years.) 

H 4^iii Number of Days 13 

Greatest Fall 2108 inches on the 17th. 

T tftl Fall ("3 468 inches. 65 ft. above ground. 

^ "; • (4*824 inches. 15 in. above ground. 

(Being l-SSS inches greater than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 years.) 

Eyaporation Total Amount 6*804 inches. 

OKme ... Mean Amount 6'1 

(Being 1*1 greater than that in the same month on an aversge of the preceding 16 years.) 

£leGtri(^ty • . . Number of Days Lightning 11 

Cloudy Sliy •• Mean Amount 7*0 

Number of Clear Days ... 2 

Keteors ... Number Observed ... 8 

Eemarhs. 

The mean temperature this month is 0*9 abore the average, and along the coast 
TaluaUe rains hare fallen, but inland the drought is still pressing in many places. 
Trees did blossom this spring. (See note in May.) 



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328 VBTEOBOLOOT. 

GOVERNMENT OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 
Latituob 88* 61' 41" ; Lovoitudi 10^ 4« 46* ; Maovric Vaeiatioh SCWiBT Eul 

DECEMBEE, 1876.— Geneeal Abstbact. 

Barometer • • . Highest Reading 80*106 IncheB on the 18th, at 10 %.m. 

At 32° Faht. Lowest Reading 29251 „ on the 26th, at 2 a.m. 

Mean Height 29*786 

(Being 0-086 inch greater than that in the Mine month on an aTorage of the preceding 17 jmn.) 

Wind ..• Greatest Pressure ... 14*6 lbs. on the 16th. 

Mean Pressure 0*9 lb. 

Number of Days Calm ... 

Prevailing Direction ... E.N J). 

(Prevailing direction during the same month f<Hr the preceding 17 years, N.E) 

Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 883 On the 15th. 

Jjowest in the Shade ... 53*4 On the 4th. 

Greatest Range 24*5 On the 14th. 

Highest in the Sun ... 126*9 On the 16th. 

^'ob^^Top *^".''^'^!.^} ^'^ ^° *^^ ^^^' 
liOwest on the Grass ... 49*1 On the 2nd. 
Mean Diurnal Range ... 14*3 
Mean in the Shade ... 70*0 

(Being 0*6 greater than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 yeara) 

Humidity ••• Greatest Amount 94*0 On the 12th. 

Least 360 On the 27th. 

Mean 68*8 

(Being 11 greater than that of the sune month on an average of the preceding 17 years-) 

Bain Number of Days 9 

Greatest Fall 0*290 inch. On the 27th. 

T/^fol T?«ii / ^'228 inch. 66 ft above ground. 

lotaiJJau \ 0*453 inch. 16 in. above ground. 

(Being 1 -867 indies less than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 17 yean.) 

Evaporation Total Amount 8*566 inches. 

Osone ••• Mean Amount 6*1 

(Being 1*6 greater than that in the same month on an average of the preceding 19 yeara) 
Electricity . • • Number of Days Lightning 6 

Cloudy Skj"' Mean Amount 5*6 

Number of Clear Days ... 4 

Heteors ... Number Observed 4 

Semarkf. 

The temperature this month has been high, and the barometer rather above th« 
average. Rain has been light generally, except in New England where it has beeo 
abundant. To south and west inland the continued dry weather is severely felt 



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INDEX. 



PAGE. 

A 

African rainfall 166 

African forests, destraction of 200 

Agassiz, Professor, on Ctenodus, 100, 101, 

103 

Alkali, action of, on wool 292 

America, ancient fortifications in ... 59 

America, native races of North 50 

America, ruins in Central 53 

American mining, facts in.: 30 

Ammonia process for extraction of 

copper 142 

Analyses of street mud 289 

AnaljTses of silicious deposit 238 

Analysis of slate from Peelwood 242 

Analysis of so-called meerschaum ... 240 

Analysis of cave deposit 291 

Anniversary Address, by the Rev, 

W. R Clarke 1 

Application to Government for assist- 
ance 9 

Arec^jmt (Piper Beid) 47 

Assistance, application to Qovem- 

mentfor .263 

Astronomy and Physics, Report from 

Section for 286 

Attack on H.M.S. "Sandfly" 27 

Atthey, Mr., on Ctenodus 100, 103, 

106, 107, 121, 122, 123 
Australia, mountains on east coast of 80 
Australia, current along the coast of 79 
Australia, Dominion of (Ranken) ... 163 

Australian rainfall 166-167 

Aztecs 51 

B 

Bancroft, Mr., on the Native Races 

of the Pacific States 60, 52, 53, 64 

Barkas, W. J., M.RC.S., on the 
Grenus Ctenodus (Jive plates) ... 99-123 

Barkas, T. P., F.G.S 100, 103. 106, 

106, 107, 108, 121 

Bolts of Jupiter 86 

Bensusan, S. L., recent copper-ex- 
tracting processes 136-146 

Berrima, coal and shale from 266 

Black spots, on Jupiter 97 

Building for the iSociety re^ltired ... 254 

Burial, modes of 70; 71 

Bye-laws ix 

2i 



FAOB. 

c 

Carteret, Capt 17 

Ceratodus 100 

"Challenger," H.M.S 75, 78, 79, 81 

Chemistry and Mineralogy, Report 

from Section for 289 

Clarke, Rev. W. B., M.A., F.RS., 

Anniversarv Address 1 

Clarke, Rev. W.B.— TheDeepOceanic 

Depression off Moreton Bay 75 

Clarke, Rev. W. B.— Effects of Forest 

Vesetation on Climate 179 

Claudet's process for extraction of 

copper 140 

„ collection of silvei: and gold 

by 141 

Coal Measures of Great Britain 99 

Coffee-planting 207 

Comets and meteor streams 170 

Contorted slate, remarkable example 

ot {ttoo ^ates) 214 

Copeland Dr., on colour of Jupiter's 

equatorial belt 92 

Copper, extraction of , inN.S.W. ... 144 

Copper, moss 129 

Copper-extracting, recent processes 

o^ by S. L. Bensusan 136 

Copyright Act 31-32 

Coral, specimen of, from cable at 

PortDarwin 266 

Coral from Cape Moreton 79 

Cosmical clouds 173 

Crania Americana 61 

Crystallization 131 

Ctenodus, by W. J. Barkas, M.R.C.S. 99 

Ctenodus cristatus Agasm 102 

Robertson! „ 103 

Murchisoni „ 103 

alatns „ 103 

asterisous „ 103 

tuberculatus Atthey 104, 

112, 114, 116 

obliquus Atthey 106 

elegans „ 106 

corrugatus „ 106 

octodorsaliH T. P. Barkas 106 
concavus „ 106 

monocerus „ 107 

imbricatua Atthey 107 

%llipticu8 „ 107 



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880 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Ctenodus obtusus T, P. Barkas... 108 
quadratns „ ... 108 

ovatus ,, ... 108 

intermptus ,, ... 108 

candatus ,, ... 109 

Current along the coast of Australia 79 

Cycles 151, 152 

Cycles, Table of 154, 160 

D 

Deep sea sounding 31 

De la Rue on Jupiter 88 

Dipterus 101, 117 

Disease, preventable, and sanitary 

organisation, by Dr. Belgrave 312 

Donunion of Australia (Ranken) 153 

Donations to the Society 267 

Donations from the Society 277 

E 

1 Easter Island 49,56 

Egmont Island 18, 26 

Emmen's process for extraction of 

copper 139 

Equatorial belt of Jupiter . . .91, 92, 93, 288 
Etching and Etchers, by E. L. Mon- 

tefiore 307 

Eucalyptus, the, in America 266 

Eucalypti, products of 188 

Exchange of publications 247 

Exchange of publications, through 

Smithsonian Institution 248 

Exchange of publications through 

Foreign Office, Berlin 249 

Exchange of publications through 

the Museum of Natural History, 

Paris 252 

P 

Facts in American Mining 30 

Financial Statement, Royal Society, 

N.S.W. for 1876 246 

Floods on the Murrumbidgee 286 

Floods of the river Rhone 195 

Fogs, dry 173, 288 

Fogs, extraordinary 174 

Fortifications, ancient, in America 59 

Foraminifera, from Fiji 78 

Forest vegetation, effects of, on the 

climate. Rev. W. B. Ckrke 179 

Forests, African, destruction of 200 

Forest destruction, effects of, in 

Coorg 204 

Forest destruction, effects of, in 

Western Ghauts of India 207 



FAGS. 

Forests, Deodah 210 

Forests, use of 215 

Forests, value of 224 

Forest vegetation <m the coast of 

N.S.W. 226 

Forest protection in Sandwich Islands 227 
Fossiliferous silidous deposit, Rich- 
mond River 237 

Fossiliferous silidous deposit, chemi- 

(^ composition of 238 

Fossil fruits from Richmond River, 
described by the Baron von 

Mtlller 239 

Fundamental Rules viii 

G 

Gale, great, of 10th September, 1876 287 
Geography and Ethnolc^gy, Repent 

from Section for 304 

Geology and Palseontology, Report 

from Section for 291 

Geolo^ of New Caledonia 30 

Gold, formation of 125 

Gold, films and speculae 126 

Gold, mushroom growths 126 

Gold, filiform, Queensland 126 

Gold, moss, from imspickel 126-127 

Goodenough, Commander, R.N 14 

Gogdenough Memorial Fmid . . « 16 

Government assistance, application 

for 9 

Guatimala * 56 

Gunther, Dr. A., on Ceratodus 101 



Hawaii 67 

HerschelL Sir William, on Jupiter... 88, 

90,91 
^Hirst, G. D. — Some Notes on Jupiter 

during his opposition 83-98 

Hovell and Hume Expedition 13 

Hovell, Captain 47 

Hudson's Bay Territory 69 

Human tooth, showing exostosis, 

by Hugh Paterson 

Hume River (and Murray River) ... 13 
Hunt and Douglas process for ex- 
traction of copper 138 

Huxley, Professor, on Coal Measure 
Fishes 101 



Hlawarra, cabbage palms and jungle 

vegetation of 229 

Indiui picture writings 68 ' 



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INDEX. 



881 



PAGE. 

Inaectivoroiis Plants, by J. U. C. 

Ckjlyer 294, 299 

Intematioiial Exhibition Essays 213 

J 

Jnn^e v^etation of Kew South 
Wales 229 

Jupiter daring his opposition of 
1876, by G. 5. Hirst 83 

Japiter, white spots on 88 

X 

Kandavn 78 

Keith Morray, Sir William, on 

Japiter 88 

Kingsbury, Lord 54 

Knowbelle, £. B. , on colour of Jupiter 92 



Lake (George, oscillations in, 167, 192, 286 

IdiPerouse 47 

Lang, Rev. Dr., on tiie Ori^ and 
Migrations of the Polynesian 

Nation 43-74 

Lassell on Jupiter 88 

Lime process of extraction forcopper 137 
Literature and Fine Arts, indudmg 
Architecture, Report from Section 

for 805 

liversidgea oxyspora 239 

Liversidge, Archibald, Professor of 
Mineralogy in the University of 
Sydney. — On the formation of 

Moss Gold and Silver 125-134 

liversidge, Archibald — Fossiliferous 
Silicious Deposit, Richmond River 
(one plcUeJf and the so-called 
Meerschaum from the Richmond ^ 

River 237-239 

Liversidge, Archibald. — Remarkable 
Example of Contorted Slate fttoo 

plates) ..." 241-242 

Lunar influence on the weather, and 
periodicity of the seasons 286 



Macrozamia spiralis ftooodaUs) 295 

Mauritius, forests and climate of ... 194 
Medical Science, Report from Section 

for 310 

Meerschaum, from the Richmond 

River, so called 240 

Members, List of xxi 

Members, List of , Honorary ttt 



PAGE. 

Meteorological Periodicity, by H. C. 

Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S 151 

Meteorological Tables in Kingstown 

and Chuaib Country 218 

Meteorology, expenditure of £300,000 

per annum on, by United States... 286 
Meteorological Observations, Sydney 

Observatoiy, 1876 317-328 

Microscopical Science^ Report from 

Section for 291 

Migrations of the Polynesian Nation 43 
MiDer, Hugh, on Devonian Fishes... 101 
Mindele£f*s process for extraction of 

copper 141 

Minerals of New South Wales 31 

Monsoons 153 

Mortar or cement, absence o^, in 

Polynesia and Indo-American 

buildings 68 

Moresby, Captain, R.N 27 

Moss gold and silver, the formation of 125 
Mountains, east coast of Australia... 80 
Mueller, Baron von, on forest culture 189 
Murchison, Sir Roderick, on Russian 

Forests 199 

IT 

Native Races, North America ;. . 50 

Northumberland Coal Measures. . . 99, 102, 

107 

Notes on some Remarkable Errors 
shown by Thermometers 35 

Notes on Insectivorous Plants indi- 
genous to New South W^es 300 



Oceanic Depression off Moreton Bay, 
hy the Rev. W. B. Clarke, F.R.S. 75 

Optical Glass, specimens of 287 

Origin of the Polynesian Nation 43 

Owen, Professor, on Coal Measure 
Fishes 101 

P 

Papantla, pyramid of 56 

Papers read 1875, List of 30-31 

Patteson, Bishop, death of 16 

Percy, Dr., on moss silver 128 

Percy, Dr., on moss copper 129, 131 

Periodicity of the seasons 286 

Periodicity, meteorological 151 

Polynesian Race, antiquity of 48 

Proceedings, Royal Society of 

N.S.W 245 

Public Health Act 263, 266, 312 

Pyramid of Atehuru in Tahiti 56 



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332 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 
... 17 



Queen Charlotte Islands 

R 

Rainfall, British 154 

Kainfall, Australian 156, 157 

Rainfall, African 166 

Rainfall in the Neilgherriee 207, 208 

Remarkable errors shown by ther- 
mometers 35 

Rhone River, floods of 195 

Ringbarking 180, 211, 213, 215, 231 

River Orange, basin of 199 

Ross, Lord, on equatorial belt of 

Jupiter 91 

Royal Astronomical Society > — Cir- 
cular from 85 

Ruins in Central America 53 

RusseU, H. C, B.A., F.R.A.S., on 
remarkable errors shown by iker- 

mometers (diagrams) 35-42 

Russell, H. C., on Jupiter... 87, 92, 94, 97 
RusseU, H. C, B.A., F.R.A.S.-- 
Meteorological Periodicity {three 

diagrams) 151, 177 

Russell, H. C, B.A., F.R.A.S.— 
Appendix — Abstract of the 
Meteorological Observations taken 
at the Sydney Observatory ...315-328 



*«* Sandfly," H.M.S., attack on 27 

Sanitary Organization and Prevent- 
able Disease, by Dr. Belgrave 312 

Sanitary Science, Report from Section 

for 311 

Santa Cruz 15, 16, 18, 23, 26 

Saturn, drawing of 287 

Scientific lectures, courses of 253 

Scientific Notes in America and 

Europe 31 

Section, Astronomy and Phvsics ... 285 
Section, Chemistry, Mineralogy, and 

Geology 289 

Section, Geography and Ethnology 304 
Section, Literature and Fine Arts ... 305 

Section, Medical Science 310 

Section, Microscopical Science 291 

Section, Sanitary Science 311 

Section, Zoology and Botany 291 

Sections, formation of 247 

Sections, meetings of 254, 258 

Sections, Reports from (in abstract) 285 

Sections, Rules for xx 

Silver, formation of 125 



PAOK. 

Silver, Moss 128 

Slate, contorted, chemical compoei- 

tionof 242 

Smyth, Piazzi, onJupiter 88 

Snow, protection of , oy lava 134 

Soundings from Fiji to Australia ... 75 
Soundings from Fiji to Anstraliai 

Table of 77 

Standard thermometer, curve of 

fdiagramj 42 

Stanniferous deposits in Tasmania ... 30 
Starch of Macrozamia spiralis (tpood- 

cut) 292,295 

St. Vincent, destruction of woods in 197 
St. Vincent, temperature and rainfall 217 

Subscriptions ..* xifi 

Sulphuric acid process for extraction 

of copper 136 

Sunspot periods 156 

Sydney Water Supply 31 



Telescope, Mr. J. U. C. Colyer's lOJ 

inch reflector, Jupiter in 

Telescope, Mr. Lascelle's 20-£eet 

equatonal do. 

Telescope, Mr. De la Rue*8 13-iiich 

aperture *. 

Telescope, Sir William Keith Mur- 
ray's 9-inch reflector 

Telescope, Sir William Herschell's 

40-feet do 

Telescope, Mr. Alfred Fairfax's 4]- 

inch refractor 

Telescope, Sydney Observatory's 

11-inch reflector 

Tertiary Australian* Polyzoa {two 
plates), by the Rev. J. E. Tenison 

Woods, F.C.LS 147- 

^ Tertiary Eschara Buskii 

„ cavernosa 

„ Clarkei 

„ devata 

,, Liversidgei 

„ oculata 

„ porreota 

„ rustica 

„ Tatei 

„ verrucosa 

Pnstulipora ungulata 

,, ^ oorru^ta 

Tubulipora Gambieeenais . . . 

Testing telescope lenses 

Thermometers, remarkable 

shown by 

Thermo-electric batteiy 



85 



90 
92 
9S 



-150 
149 
147 

14S 
149 
149 
147 
148 
149 
148 
150 
150 
150 
887 



262 



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INDEX. 



333 



PAGE. 

Tonga laUndB 44 

Tnuiait of Venus 287 

"Tuscarora" U.S.N... . 76, 76, 78, 79, 81 



Vocabnlaries, Polynesian 62, 63, 64 

Von Martius, Dr., Indigenous Bace 

of the New World 62, 73 

Von Muller, Baron, on Forest Vege- 
tation 194 



Water-pipe cleaning apparatus*. .-. 312 

Water-producing trees 185, 186, 187, 

' 189, 216 



PAGE. 

Water Supply for Sydney (Erskine 
Valley), by Dr. Spencer 313 

Woods, Rev. J. K Tenison, F.G.S., 
F.L.S., on some Tertiary Aus- 
tralian Polyzoa {two plates) ... 147-160 

Woodbury process of pnotography . . . 259, 

306 



Yucatan, ruined cities of 66 



Zoology and Botany, Section for 291 



Sydney : Charles Potter, Acting QoTerument Printer.— 1877. 



2k 



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ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 



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JOURNAL 

Ain> 

PROCEEDINGS 



ROYAL SOCIETY 

OP 

NEW SOUTH WALES, 
1877. 



■T-OIi. XI. 



XDITID BY 



A. LIVERSIDGE, 

Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the University of Sydney. 



THB AUTHOBS OF FAFBBS ABE ALOKB BBSFOHBIBLB FOB THB STATEKBimi 
KABB AlTD THB OPINIONS BXPBE8SED IHBBBIN. 



AQENT8 FOR THE SOCIETY: 

Messrs. Triibner & Co., 57, Ludgate Hill, London, E.G. 



SYDNEY : TUOHAS RICHARDS, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 



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NOTICE. 

The Royal Society of New South Wales originated in 1821 
as the "Philosophical Society of Australia"; after an interval 
of inactivity, it was resuscitated in 1850, under the name of the 
" Australian Philosophical Society," by which title it was known 
until 1856, when the name was changed to the "Philosophical 
Society of New South Wales" ; and finally, in May, 1866, by the 
sanction of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen, it assumed 
its present title. 



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OOBRIO-BlirDA.- 

l?age, lAne. 
11 18 For " Gdningen" rtfoi " GNJttingen" 

26 21 For "assume yery definite limit" tvo^ "assumes yery 

definite limits" 

70 41 Before" Victorian" tjw«r«" 2." 

131 18 For"Warmamboorr«Ki"Warnamboor 

183 36 After " last" <2e2e^ the period and 0(2(2 a comma 

184 2 ¥oT ** SperoporkM** read " Spiroporina** 

„ 82 After" it" tiwer*" was" 

189 9 ......... For"M.pn)Eirs"rtf«2«M.Bn)BirB." 

„ 21 Delete ''TASr 

„ ...; 23 After "to" add "but described in 1861 in the Quart. 

Jour, Microscopical Science, N. Series, I, p. 79." 

140 6 For"fig."nfa<2"w.-cut." 

141 27 Defefe the word " Genus" 

„ 85 VoT"ffat9tiana**read"Saaitiana," 

142 7 "For "Melneina'* read '^MUneana:' 

148 8 For " Melneina** read ** Milneana:* 

„ 9 For -Soastiana" read "ffaattiana." 



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CONTENTS. 



YOLUMS XL 



Abt. I. — ^Lmt op Ofpicbm, Yuvdmmmstal Bulbs, By-laws, 

and List of Members i to 

Abt. II. — ^AiTNiVEBSABT A0DBB8S by H. C. Bussell, BJL, 

P.B.A.3., F.M.S., Vice-President 1 to 20 

Abt. m. — The Forest Vegetation of Central and Northern 
New England in connection with Geological Influences. 
By W. Christie, Licensed Surveyor 21 to 39 

Aar. rV. — On Dromomis AustraliSy a new fossil gigantic Bird of 
Australia. By the Bev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., F.B.S., 
Ac., Vice-President 41 to 49 

Am. V. — On the Sj^henoid, Cranial Bones, Operculum, and 
supposed Ear- Bones of Ctenodus. On the Scapula, 
Ooraooid, Bibs, and Scales of Ctenodus. By W. J. 
Barkas, M.B.C.S.E 51 to 64 

Abt. VI. — On the Tertiary Deposits of Australia. By the Ber. 

J. E. Tenisott-Woods, F.G.S., P.B.a.S 65 to 82 

Abt. VII. — On some New Austialian Polyzoa. {Two woodcuts.) 

By Rev. J. E. Tenison- Woods, P.O.S., &c 83 A 84 

Abt. V 111. — On the occurrence of Chalk in the New Britain Group. 

By ProfesK>r lirenidge, F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.G.S., Ac.... 85 to 91 

Abt. IX. — On a New Method of extracting Gt)ld, Silyer, and 

other Metals from Pyrites. By W. A. Dixon, F.C.S. ... 98 to 111 

Abt. X.~ The Palseontological Evidence of Australian Tertiary 
Formations. By the Rev. J. E. Tenison- Woods, F.G.S., 
F.B.G.S 113 to 128 

Abt. XI. — A Synopsis of Australian Tertiary Polyzoa. By R. 

Etheridge, junr., F.G.S 129 to 143 

Abt. XII.— Ctenacanthus, a Spine of Hybodus. By W. J. 

Barkas, M.B.C.S.E 145 tol65 



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Z OOBTIim, 

Abt. Xni. — A System of Notation adapted to explaining to 
Students certain Electrical Operations. Bj the Hon. 
J. Smith, CM.a., M.D., LL.D., M.L.C 157 to 168 

Abt. Xiy.~ Notes on the Meteorology, Natond History, &c, 
of a Ghiano Island ; and Ghiano and other Phosphatic 
Deposits, Maiden Island. By W. A. Dixon, F.C.S 165 to 181 

Abt. XT. — On some Australian Tertiary Corals. (TwopUdst.) 

By the Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, F.O.S., F.R.a.S. ... 183 to 195 

Abt. XVI. — On a new and remarkable Variable Star in the 

Constellation Ara. By J. Tebbutt, P.R.A.S 197 to 208 

Abt. XVn. — On a Dental peculiarity of the Lepidosteids. 

By W. J. Barkas, M.R.C.S.E 203 to 207 

Abt. XV hi. — A New Fossil Extiiict Species of Kangaroo, 
Sthennnu minor (Owen). By the Rev. W. B. Clarke, 
M.A.,F.R.S 200 to 212 

Abt. XIX. — Notes on some recent Barometric Disturbances. 

By H. C. Russell, B.A., P.R.A.8 213 to 218 

Abt. XX.— Pboobbdikos 219to28S 

Abt. XXL— Additions to thb LiBBiBX 236 to 244 

Abt. XXII. — ^Libt ov Exchahobs and Pbbbbktatiohs 246 to 251 

Abt. XXin.— Rbpobts bbox thb Sbotioks 253 to 279 

Papbbs bbad bkfobb Sbotioks. 

1. Remarks on the Coccus of the Cape Mulberry. 

By P. Milford, M.D., Ac 270 

2. Notes on some local Species of Diatomacee. 

ByO. P. Hirst 272 

Abt. XXIV.— Afpevdee : Abstract of the Meteorological Obser- 
vations taken at the Sydney Observatory. By H. C. 
Russell, B. A., F.R. A.S., Government Astronomer 281 to 294 

Abt. XXV. — List of Publioatiohs 295 to 302 

Abt. XXVI.— Ibdbx 303 to 306 



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^[t |Kogal Siroetg of |tefof <S(mt| Males. 



OITICEBS FOE 1877-8. 



PRESIDENT: 

HIS BIOBLLBNCY SIR HERCULES ROBINSON, O.C.M.a., 
&o., &o,, &c. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS: 

RET. W. B. CLARKE, M.A., F.R.S., P.a.S. 
CHRISTOPHER ROLLESTON. 



HONORARY TREASURER: 
REV. W. SCOTT, M.A. 

HONORARY SECRETARIES: 
PROFESSOR LIVERSIDGE. I De. ADOLPH LEIBIITS. 



COUNCIL: 



FAIRFAX, JAMES R. 
JONES, P. SYDNEY, M.D. 
MOORE, CHARLES, F.L.S. 



RUSSELL, H. C, B.A., F.R.A.S. 
SMITH, HON. J., CM.a., M.D. 
WRIGHT, H. a. A., M.R.C.S. 



ASSISTANT SECRETARY: 
WEBB, W. H. 



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FUNDAMENTAL RXJLBS. 



Object of the Society. 

1. The object of the Society is to reoeiTe at its stated meetiiigs origiaal 
pspen on subjects of Science, Art, Literature, and Philosopbj, and espedaOj 
on sucb subjects as tend to develop the resources of Australia, and to illnsltmta 
its Natural History and Productions. 

PretidetU, 

2. The Gk)Temor of New South Wales shall be ea officio the President of 
the Society. 

Other Officers. 

3. The other Officers of the Society shall consist of two Vice-Presidents, 
a Treasurer, and two or more Secretaries, who, with six other Members, shall 
constitute a Council for the management of the affairs of the Society. 

Election of Cfficert. 

4. The Vice-Presidents, Treasurer, Secretaries, and the six other Members 
of Council, shall bo elected annually at the General Meeting in the month of 
May. 

Vacancies during the year. 

5. Any yacancies occurring in the Council of Management daring the year 
may be filled up by the Council. 

Fees. 

6. The entrance money paid by Members on their admission shall be One 
Guinea ; and the annual subscription shall be One Guinea, payable in adTanoe. 

The sum of Ten Pounds may be paid at any time as a composition for tho 
ordinary annual paymeut for life. 

Sonorary Members. 

7. The Honorary Members of the Society shall be persons who hare been 
eminent benefactors to this or some other of the Australian Colonies, or dis- 
tinguished patrons and promoters of the objects of the Society. Eycry perscm 
proposed as an Honorary Member must be recommended by the Council and 
elected by the Society. Honorary Members shall be exempted from payment 
of fees and contributions ; they may attend the meetings of the Society, and 
they shall be furnished with copies of Transactions and Proceedings poblishfid 
by the Society, but they shall hare no right to hold offioe, to Tote, or o&erwk» 
interfere in the business of tho Society. 

Confirmation of By-laws. 

8. By-laws proposed by the Council of Management shall not be binding 
until ratified by a General Meeting. 

Alteration of Fundamental Rules. 

9. No alteration of or addition to the Fundamental Rules of the Society 
shall be made unless carried at two suocessiTe general meetings. 



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BY-LAWS 

Famed at a General Meeting of the Society, held June 7th, 1876. 



Ordinary General Meetings, 

I. An Ordinary General Meeting of the Royal Society, to be 
conyened by public advertiBement, shall take place at 8 p.m., on 
the first "Wednesday in every month, during the last eight 
months of the year ; subject to alteration by the Council with 
due notice. These meetings will bo open for the reading of 
papera, and the discussion of subjects of every kind if brought 
£>rward in conformity with the Fundamental Bules and By- 
laws of the Society. 

Jamual General Meeting, — Annual Beporfs, — Election of Officers. 

II. A Greneral Meeting of the Society shall be held annually 
in May, to receive a Eeport from the Council on the state of 
the Society, and to elect OfHcers for the ensuing year. The 
Treasurer shall also at this meeting present the annual financial 
statement. 

Election of the Officers and Council. 

III. The Officers and other members of the Council shall be 
elected annually hy ballot at the Annual General Meeting to be 
held in May. 

IV. It shall be the duty of the Council each year to prepare 
a list containing the names of members whom they recommend 
for election to the respective ofliccs of Vice-Presidents and Hon. 
Secretaries and Hon. Treasurer, together with the names of six 
other members whom they recommend for election as ordinary 
members of Council. The names thus recommended shall be 
proposed at one meeting of the Council, and agreed to at a 
•ubsequent meeting. 



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XIV 

Y. Each member present at the Greneral Annual Meeting 
sliall Have the power to alter the list of names recommended bj 
the Ck)uncil, by adding to it the names of any eligible members 
not already included in it and remoying from it an equivalent 
number of names, and he shall use this list with or without such 
alterations as a balloting list at the election of Officers and 
Council. 

Council Meetings, 

YI. Meetings of the Council of Management shall take place 
on the last Wednesday in every month, and on such other days 
as the Council may determine. 

Absence from Meetings of Council. — Quorum. 
VII. Any member of the Council absenting himself from three 
consecutive meetings of the Council, without giving a satisfactory 
explanation in writing, shall be considered to have vacated his 
office, and the election of a member to fill his place shall be 
proceeded with at the next Council meeting in accordance with 
Fundamental Bule Y. No business shall be transacted at any 
meeting of the Council unless three members are present. 

Duties of Secretaries. 

Yin. The Honorary Secretaries shall perform, or shall cause 
the Assistant Secretary to perform, the following duties : — 

1. Conduct the correspondence of the Society and CounciL 

2. Attend the General Meetings of the Society and the 

meetings of the Council, to take minutes of the pro- 
ceedings of such meetings, and at the commencement 
of such to read aloud the minutes of the preceding 
meeting. 

8. At the Ordinary Meetings of the members, to announce 
the presents made to the Society since their last meeting ; 
to read the certificates of candidates for admission to 
the Society, and such original papers communicated to 
the Society as are not read by their respective authors, 
and the letters addressed to it. 



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XT 

4. To make abstracts of the papers read at the Ordinary 

General Meetings, to be inserted in the Minutes and 
printed in the Proceedings. 

5. To edit the Transactions of the Society, and to superintend 

the making of an Index for the same. 

6. To be responsible for the arrangement and safe custody 

of the books, maps, plans, specimens, and other property 
of the Society. 

7. To make an entry of all books, maps, plans, pamphlets, 

&c., in the Library Catalogue, and of all presentations 
to the Society in the Donation Book. 

8. To keep an account of the issue and return of books, 

Ac., borrowed by members of the Society, and to see 
that the borrower, in every case, signs for the same in 
the Library Book. 

9. To address to every person elected into the Society a 

printed copy of the Forms Nos. 2 and 3 (in the 
Appendix), together with a list of the members, a copy 
of the Fundamental Sules and By-laws, and a card of 
the dates of meeting ; and to acknowledge all donations 
made to the Society, by Form No. 5. 

10. To cause due notice to be given of all Meetings of the 

Society and Council. 

11. To be in attendance at 4 p.m. on the afternoon of 
Wednesday in each week during the session. 

12. To keep a list of the attendances of the members of the 

Council at the Council Meetings and at the Ordinary 
General Meetings of the members of the Society, in 
order that the same may be laid before the Society at 
the Annual General Meeting held in the month of 
May. 
The Honorary Secretaries shall, by mutual agreement, divide 
the performance ^f the duties above enumerated. 

The Honorary Secretaries shall, by virtue of their office, be 
members of all Committees appointed by the Council. 



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xn , 

CandidaieM for admuiion. 

IX. Every candidate for admission as an ordinuy member of 
the Society shall be recommended according to a prescribed form^ 
by not less than three members, to two of whom he mnst be 
personally known. 

Election of new Members, 

X. The names of such candidates, with the names of their 
supporters, shall be read by one of the Secretaries at an Ordinaiy 
General Meeting of the Society. The vote as to admission to 
take place by ballot at the next subsequent meeting. At the 
ballot the assent of at least four-fifths of the members voting 
shall be requisite for the admission of the candidate. 

New Members to be informed of their election, 

XI. Every new member shall receive due notification of his 
election, and be supplied with a copy of the obligation (No. 8 in 
Appendix), together with a copy of the Fundamental Bules and 
By-laws of the Society, a list of members, and a card of the 
dates of meeting. 

Members whose subscriptions are unpaid to enfoy no privileges. 

XII. An elected member shall not be entitled to attend the 
meetings nor to enjoy any privilege of the Society, nor shall his 
name be printed in the list of the Society, until he shall have 
paid his admission fee and first annual subscription, and have 
returned to the Secretaries the obligation signed by himself. 

Members shall sign Bules — Formal admission. 

XIII. Every member who has complied with the preceding 
By-laws shall at the first Ordinary General Meeting at which 
he shall be present, sign a duplicate of the aforesaid obligation 
in a book to be kept for that purpose, after which he shall be 
presented by some member to the Chairman, who, addressing him 
by name, shall say : — " By the authority and in the name of the 
Boyal Society of New South Wales I admit you a member 
thereof." 



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xvu 

Annual subgcriptionSy when due, 

XIY. Annual subscriptions shall become due on the 1st of 
May for the year then commencing. The entrance fee and first 
year's subscription of a new member shall become due on the 
day of his election. 

Subscriptions in arrears. 

XV. Members who have not paid their subscriptions for the 
current year, on or before the 31st of May, shall be informed of 
the fact by the Hon. Treasurer. 

And at the meeting held in July, and at all subsequent meetings 
for the year, a list of the names of all those members who are in 
arrears with their annual subscriptions shall be suspended in the 
Booms of the Society. Members shall in such cases be informed 
that their names have been thus posted. 

Itesignation of Members. 

XVI. No member shall be at liberty to withdraw from the 
Society without previously giving notice to one of the Secretaries 
of his desire to withdraw, and returning all books or other 
property belonging to the Society. Members will be considered 
liable for the payment of all subscriptions due from them up to 
the date at which they may give notice of their intention to 
withdraw from the Society. 

Expulsion of Members, 

XVII. A majority of members present at any ordinary meet- 
ing shall have power to expel an obnoxious member from the 
Society, provided that a resolution to that effect has been moved 
and seconded at the previous ordinaiy meeting, and that due 
notice of the same has been sent in writing to the member in 
question, within a week after the meeting at which such resolution 
has been brought forward. 

Contributions to the Society, 

XVni. Contributions to the Society, of whatever character, 
must be seat to one of the Secretaries, to be laid before tte 
h 



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xrni 

Council of Management. It will be the duty of the Council to 
arrange for promulgation and dlBCUBsion at an Ordinarj Meeting 
such communicationB as are suitable for that purpose, as well at 
to dispose of the whole in the manner best adapted to prometo 
the objects of the Society. 

Order of Bumaten. 

XIX. At the Ordinary General Meetings the business shall be 
transacted in the following order, unless the Chairman specially 
decide otherwise : — 

1 — Minutes of the preceding Meeting. 

2 — New Members to enrol their names and be introduced. 

3 — Ballot for the election of new Members. 

4 — Candidates for membership to be proposed. 

5 — Business arising out of Minutes. 

6 — Communications from the Council. 

7 — Communications from the Sections. 

8 — Donations to be laid on the Table and acknowledged. 

9 — Correspondence to be read. 
10 — Motions from last Meeting. 

11 — Notices of Motion for the next Meeting to be giren in. 
12 — Papers to be read. 
13— Discussion. 
14 — Notice of Papers for the next Meeting. 

Admission of Visitors. 

XX. Every ordinary member shall have the privilege of admit- 
ting two friends as visitors to an Ordinary General Meeting of 
the Society, on the following conditions : — 

1. That tho name and residence of the visitors, together 

with the name of the member introducing them, be 
entered in a book at the time. 

2. That they shall not have attended two consecutive 

meetings of the Society in the current year. 

The Council shall have power to introduce visitors, irrespective 
of the above restrictions. 



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HZ 

Management of Funds. 

XXI. The funds of the Society shall be lodged at a Bank 
named by the Council of Management. Claims against the 
Society, when approved by the Council, shall be paid by the 
Treasurer. 

Money Grants. 

XXn. Grants of money in aid of scientific purposes from the 
funds of the Society — to Sections or to members — shall expire on 
the 1st of November in each year. Such grants, if not expended, 
may be re-voted. 

XXIII. Such grants of money to Committees and individual 
membera shall not be used to defray any personal expenses which 
a member may incur. 

Audit of Accounts, 

XXIV. Two Auditors shall be appointed annually, at an 
Ordinary Meeting, to audit the Treasurer's Accoifnts. The 
accounts as audited to be laid before the Annual Meeting in 
May. 

iPropertt/ of the Society to he vested in the Vice- Presidents , Sfc. 

XXV. All property whatever belonging to the Society shall be 
vested in the Vice-Presidents, Hon. Treasurer, and Hon. Secre- 
taries for the time being, in trust for the use of the Society ; but 
the Council shall have control over the disbursements of the funds 
and the management of the property of the Society. 

Library. 

XXVI. The Members of the Society shall have access to, and 
shall be entitled to borrow books from the Library, under such 
regulations as the Council may think necessary. 

Museum. 

XXVn. It shall be one of the objects of the Society to form 
a Museum. 



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XX 

Branch Societies, 

XXVJLLl. The Society shall have power to form Branch 
Societies in other parts of the Colony. 

SfiCTIOKB. 

>^xiX. To allow those members of the Society who deTote 
attention to particular branches of science fuller opportunities 
and facilities of meeting and working together with fewer formal 
restrictions than are necessary at the general Monthly Meetings 
of the Society,— -Sections or Committees may be established in 
the following branches of science : — 

Section A. — Astronomy, Meteorology, Physics, Mathematics, 
and Mechanics. 

Section 3, — Chemistry and Mineralogy, and their application 
to the Arts and Agriculture. 

Section C. — Geology and PalaBontology. 

Section D, — Biology, t.^., Botany and Zoology, including 
Entomology. 

Section E. — Microscopical Science. 

Section F, — Orography and Ethnology. 

Section G. — Literature and the Pine Arts, including 
Architecture. 

Section K. — Medical. 

Section I, — Sanitary and Social Science and Statistics. 

Beportsjrom Sections. 

XXX. There shall be for each Section a Chairman to preside 
at the meetings, and a Secretary to keep minutes of the pro- 
ceedings, who shall jointly prepare and forward to the Hon. 
Secretaries of the Society, on or before the 7th of November in 
each year, a report of the proceedings of the Section during 
that year, in order that the same may be transmitted to the 
Council. 



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XXI 

Section Committees — Card of Meetings. 

XXXI. The first meeting of each Section shall be appointed 
by the Council. At that meeting the members shall elect their 
own Chairman^ Secretary, and a Committee of four ; and arrange 
the days and hours of their future meetings. A card showing 
the dates of each meeting for the current year shall be printed 
for distribution amongst the members of the Society. 

Money Orants to Sections, 

XXXII. By application to the Council, grants of money may 
be made out of the General Funds of the Society to the Sections. 

Membership of Sections, 

XXXin. No person who is not a member of the Society shall 
have the privilege of joining any of the Sections. . 



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xxu 



THE LIBRARY. 

1. During the Session, the Library shall be open for consul- 
tation, and for the issue and return of books, between 4 and 6 
p.m. on the afternoon of each Wednesday, and between 7 and 10 
p.m. on the evenings of Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. 

2. No book shall be issued without being signed for in the 
Library Book. 

3. Members are not allowed to have more than three Tohunes 
at a time from the Library, without special permission from one 
of the Honorary Secretaries, nor to retain a book for a longer 
period than fourteen days ; but when a book is returned by a 
member it may be borrowed by him again, paovided it haa not 
been bespoken by any other member. Books which have been 
bespoken shall circulate in rotation, according to priority of 
application. 

4. Scientific Periodicals and Journals are not to be borrowed 
until the volumes are completed and bound. 

5. Members retaining books longer than the time specified 
shall be subject to a fine of sixpence per week for each volume. 

6. The books which have been issued shall be called in by the 
Secretaries twice a year ; and in the event of any book not being 
returned on those occasions, the member to whom it was issued 
shall be answerable for it, and shall be required to defray the 
cost of replacing same. 



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Tim 
Form No. 1. 

fiOTAL SOCISTY 07 NbW SoUTH WaLM. 

CerHfieaU of a CandidcUe for EUetion, 
Name 

QualificadoD or occupation 

Address 

being desirous of admission into the Kojal Society of New South Wales, we, 

the undersigned members of the Society, propose and recommend him as a 

proper person to become a member thereof. 

Dated this day of , 18 . 



FSOM PbBSONAL KlfdWLBDOB. 



Signature of candidate 

Date receired 18 



Fbom G£Kebal Knowledge. 



Form No. 2. 

BoYAL Society op New South Wales. . 
The Society's Booms, 
Sir, Sydney, 18 . 

I haTC the honor to inform you that you hare this day been elected a 
member of the Royal Society of New South Wales, and I beg to forward to 
jou a copy of the Fundamental Bules and By-laws of the Society, a printed 
copy of an obligation, a list of members, and a card announcing the dates 
of meeting during the present session. 

According to the Begnlations of the Society (vide Bule No. 6), you are 
required to pay your admission fee of one guinea, and annual subscription 
of one guinea for the current year, before admission. You are also requested 
W sign and return the enclosed form of obligation at your earliest conTcnience. 

I have the honor to be. 
Sir, 
Tour most obedient servant. 

To Hon. Secretary. 

. Form No. 3. 

BoYAL Society op New South Wales. 

I, the undersigned, do hereby engage that I will endeaTour to promote 

the interests and welfare of the Boyal Society of New South Wales, and to 

obserre its Bules and By-laws as long as I shall remain a member thereof. 

Signed, 
Addresi 

D»te 



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XXIV 

Form No. 4. 

BOTAL SOCIBTY OY NlW SoUTH WaJJSB. 

The Society's Booms, 
Sir, Sydney, 18 . 

I hare the honor to inform you that yoor annual subscription of one 
guinea for the current year became due to the Boyal Society on the Ut of 
Hay last. 

It is requested that payment may be made by cheque or Post Office order 
drawn in farour of the Hon. Treasurer. 

I haTc the honor to be. 
Sir, 
Your most obedient servant, 

To Hon. Treaflorer. 



Form No. 5« 

BOTAL SOCIBTT OP NbW SoUTH WaLBS. 

The Society's Booms, 

Sir, ' Sydney, 18 . 

I am desired by the Boyal Society of New South Wales to forward to 

you a copy of its Journal for the year 18 , as a donation to the library of 

your Society. 

I am further requested to mention that the Society will be thankfol to 

receiTe such of the rery valuable publications issued by your Society as it 

may feel disposed to send. 

I have the honor to be, 

Sir, 

Your most obedient 8enrant> 

Hon. Secretaiy. 



Form No. 6. 

BOTAL SOCITBT OY NXW SoUTH WaLES. 

The Society's Booms, 
Sir, Sydney, 18 . 

On behalf of the Boyal Society of New South Wales, I beg to acknow- 
ledge the receipt of and I am directed to convey to you the 
best thanks of the Society for your most yaluable donation. 

I have the honor to be. 
Sir, 
Your most obedient servant, 

Hon. Seoretaiy. 



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IXV 

Form No. 7. 

Balloting List for the Election of the Officers and Council, 

Royal Society op New South Wales. 

May, 18 
Ballotoo List for the election of the Officers and Council. 



Present ConnciL 


Names proposed as Members of the new CoundL 




Vice-Presidents. 












Hon. Treasurer. 






Hon. Secretaries. 


• 










Members of Council. 



































If you wish to substitute any other name in place of that proposed, erase 
the printed name in the second column, and write opposite to it, in the third, 
that which you wish to substitute. 



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LIST OF THE MEMBERS 



OF THB 



Iflgal ^0mtg ai ^fe gondii Woks. 



1877 
1876 
1876 
1869 



P2 



street. 
Belfield, Algernon H., ETcnleigh, Armidale. 
Belisario, John, M.D. Ljons' Terrace. 
Benbow, Clement A., 24, College-Btreet. 
Beosusan, S. L., Exchange, Pitt-street. 



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XXVll 



Elected 
1877 
1877 
1876 
1877 
1869 
1872 
1869 
1874 
1858 
1876 

1871 
1868 

1874 
1876 
1876 
1876 
187^ 
1877 
1876 
1875 

1875 
1877 



1876 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1868 
1872 

1870 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1850 



PI 



P18 



1877 
1874 

1876 

1876 

1876 
1856 
1876 
1874 
1859 



PI 



Bennett, George, Toowoomba, Queensland. 

Bennett, John, Victoria Theatre, Sydney. 

Bennett, Samuel. Little Coogee. 

Bladen, Thomas, Pyrmont. 

Bode, Rev. G. C, St. Leonardo, North Shore. 

Boldinp, H. I., P.Nf., Newcastle and Union Club. 

Boyd, Sprott, M.D. £din., M.R.C.S. Enff., Lyons' Terrace. 

Bowen, George M. C, Kcston, Kirribilli Point, North Shore. 

Bradridge, Thomas H., Town Hall, George-street. 

Brady, Andrew John, Lie. K. & Q. Coll. Phys. Irel.y Lie. R. 

Coll. Sur. Irel.. Sydney Infirmary. 
Brazier, John, C.M.Z.S., 11, Windmill-street. 
Brereton, John Le Gay, M.D. St. Andrew' s^ L.R.C.S. Edtn., 

Macquarie-street. 
Brewster, John, George-street. 
Bristowe, E. H. C, 435, Crown-street, Sydney. 
Brodribb, W. A., F.R.G.S., Double Bay. 
Brown, Henry Joseph, Newcastle. 

Brown, 'Ihomas, Kskbank, Bowenfels, and Anstralian Olub. 
Bundock, W. C, 165, Victoria-street. 
Burn, James Henrv, 69, Hunrer-street. 
Buhby, The Hon. William, M.L.C., Redleaf, South Head Road, 

Woollahra. 
Burton, Edmund, Land Titles Office, Elizabeth-street North. 
Bumell, Arthur, Survey Office. 



Cadell, Alfred, Vegetable Creek, New England. 
Crtdell, Thomas, Wotonga, East St. Leonards. 
Campbell, Allan, L.R.C.P., Glasgow, Ya^'s. 
Campbell, The Hon. Alexander, M.L.C., Woollahra. 
Campbell, The Hon. Charles, M.L.C., Pi!ie Villa, Newtown. 
Campbell, The Hon. John, M.L.C., Campbell's Wharf, Lower 

Georce-street. 
Cime, Alfred, Stanley -street. 
Cape, Alfred J., Torfrida, Elizabeth Bav. 
Chandler, Alfred, 185 Pitt-street. 
Christie, Wm., L.S., Hawthorn Lodge, Glen Innes. 
fClarke, Rev. W. B., M.A. Cantab., F.R.S., F.G.S.. C.M.Z.S., 

F.R.G.S., Mem. Geol. Soc. France, Corres. Imp. Roy. Geol. 

Inst. Austria, Hon. Mem. N.Z. Inst. ('or. Wem. Roy. Soc. 

Tasmania, Fellow of St. Paul's College, Vice- President, 

Branthwaite, St. Leonards, North Shore. 
Clarke, William, E. S. k A. C. Bank, Pitt-street. 
Clay, William French, M.A., Cantab., M.D S^d., M.R.C.S. 1%., 

Fellow of St. Paul's Col., Nortb Shore. 
Clune, Michael Joseph, M.A.,Lic. K & Q. Coll. Phys. Irel, 

Lie. R. Coll. Sur. Irel, 4, Hyde Park Terrace. 
Codrington, J)hn Fre.lk., M.R.C.S., E. ; Lie. R C. Phys., L.; 

Lie. R C. Phys., Edin., Orange. 
Colyer, John TJssher Cot, A.^.N. Company, Sydney. 
Comrie, James, Northfield, Kurrajong Heights. 
Conder, Wm., Survey Office, Sydney. 
Coombes, Edward, Bathurst. 
Cox, James, M.D. Edin, C.M.Z.S., F.L.S., Hunter-street. 



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XXTIU 



Elected. 
1865 

1869 
1870 
1877 



1878 
187B 
1876 

1874 
1876 
1876 
1877 
1876 
1877 
1866 
1869 
1876 

1875 
1878 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1878 



1876 
1876 

1874 

1876 
1876 
1876 



1877 
1877 
1868 
1872 
1874 

1876 
1876 
1866 
1876 
1863 



P2 



P2 



Cracknell, E. C, Superintendent of Telegraphs, Telegraph Office, 

George-street. 
Creed, J. Mildred, M.E.C.S. j&ny., Scone. 
Croudace, Thomas, Lambton. 
Cunningham, Andrew, Lanjon, Queanbejan. 



Daintrej, Edwin, ..Sk>lia, Randwick. 

Dalgamo, John V., Telegraph Office, George-street. 

Dansej, George Frederick, M.B.C.S., London, York and liar- 

garet Streets, Wynvard Square. 
Dansej, John, M.B.O.S. Sng.^ Wynyard Square. 
Dangar, Frederick H., Greenknowes, Darlinghurtt. 
Parley, Cecil West, Newcastle. 
Parley, F. M., M.A., Union Club, Sydney. 
PaTidson, L. Gbrdon, M.P., M.C., Aberdeen^ Goulbom. 
Peck, John Feild, M.P., 251, Macquarie-street. 
Peffell, George H., Bayfield, Woolwich Boad, Hunter's HilL 
Pe Lissa, Alfred, Pitt-street. 
Pe Salis, The Hon. Leopold Fane, M.L.C., CuppercumhaloDg; 

Lanyon. 
Pe Sails, L. W., junr., Strathmore, Bowen, Queensland. 
Pibbs, Gborge R., M.P., 131, Pitt-street. 
Pight, Arthur, Richmond. 
Pixon Pouglas, Australian Club. 
Pixon, W. A., F.C.S., Hunter-street. 
Pocker, Ernest, M.A. Sydn., 134, Burton-street. 
Pouglas James, L.B.C.S. Mdin.y Hope Terrace, Glebe Road. 
Prake, William Hedley, Commercial Bank, InyerelL 
Pu Faur, Eccleston, F.R.G.S., Rialto Terrace. 



Eales, John, Puckenfield Park, Morpeth. 

Egan Myles, M.R.C.S., Eng., 2, Hyde Park Terrace, Qrerpool- 
street. 

Eichler, Charles F., M.P., Heidelberg^ M.R.C.S., Eng., Bridge- 
street. 

Eldred, W. H., 119, Castlercagh-street. 

Evans, G«orge, Como, Darling Point. 

Evans, Owen Spencer, M.R.C.S., Eng., Darling-street, BabMun. 



Fache, Charles James, Cleveland House, Redfcm. 
Fairfax, Edward R., 177, Macquarie-street. 
fFairfax, James R., SereUd Office, Hunter-street. 
Famell, J. Squire, M.P., Ryde. 
Fischer, Carl F., M.D., F.L.S., Soc. Zool. Bot. Yindob. SociiUL, 

251, Macquarie-street. 
Fisher, Chas. Marshall, 132, Pitt-street. 
Fitzgerald, R. D., F.L.S., Surveyor General's Office. 
Flavelle, John, George-street. 
Fordc, W., Carlton Terrace, Wynyard Square. 
Fortescue, G., M.B. Lond,, F.R.C.S., F.L.S., Lyons' Terrace. 



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XXIX 



Vlectod 
1877 
1875 
1876 
1876 
1876 



1877 
1868 
1877 
1876 
1876 
1875 
1876 

1876 
1859 
1876 

1876 
1873 
1877 
1875 
1877 



1864 
1874 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1874 

1876 
1875 
1877 
1876 
1859 
1877 
1876 
1868 
1876 



1870 
1877 



1876 
1877 



PI 



PI 



PI 



Fraser, A. C, 235, Albion-street. 
Frazer, Hon. John, M.L.C., Qiiirang, Woollahra. 
Frean Bichard, M.B.C.S. Eng.y Sydney Infirmary. 
Freehill, Bernard Austin, 130, Elizabeth-street. 
Firth, Key. Frank, Wesleyan Parsonage, Waverley. 



Gamsey, Bey. C. F., St. James's Parsonage, Sydney. 

Garran, Andrew, LL.B. Syd.j Rerald Office, Hunter-street. 

Gkkrvan, J. P., 130, Elizabeth-street, Sydney, 

George, W. B, 172, Castlereagh-street. 

Gilchrist. W. O., Elizabeth Bay. 

Gilliat, Henry Alfred, Australian Club. 

Gtillman, Thomas Henry, B.A., CM., M.D., Queen's Unir. Ireh^ 

Mast. Surg. Queen's Univ. IreL^ 20, CoUege-street. 
Gipps, F. B., 134, Pitt-street. 
Gt>odlet, John H., George-street. 
Goode, George, M.B. Unir. Dm*., B.A., M.CX., Eversfield 

House, Camden. 
Graham, Hon. Wm., M.L.C., Stratheam House, Warerley. 
Greaves, W. A. B., Armidale. 
Griffiths, Keville, The Domain, Sydney. 
Grundy, F. H., 183, Pitt-street. 
Gumey, T. T., M.A., Professor of Mathematics, University of 

Sydney. 



Hale, Thomas, Greeham-street. 

Hardy, J., Hunter-street. 

Hargrove, Lawrence, 94, Upper William-street. 

Harrison, L. M., Moira, Burwood. 

Hawkins, H. S., M.A., Balmain. 

Hay, The Hon. John, M.A., OlaagoWt M.L.C., President of the 

Legislative Council, Bose Bay, Woollahra. 
Heaton, J. H., Town and Country Office, Pitt-street. 
Helsham, Douglass, York's Terrace, Glebe. 
Henry, James, 754, G^orge-strcet. 
Heron, Henry, 4, Bialto Terrace, William -street South. 
JHill, Edward S., C.M.Z.S., Bose Bay, Woollabra. 
Hindson, Lawrence, Careening Cove, North Shore. 
Hirst, Oreo. D., 379, George-street. 

Holt, The Hon. Tbomas, Sf .L.C., The Warren, near Sydney. 
Holroyd, Arther Todd, M.B. Cantab., M.D. Edin., F.L.S., 

F.Z.S., F.B.G.S., Master-in-Equity, Sherwood Scrubs, 

Parromatta. 
Horton, Bev. Thomas, Ina Terrace, Woollahra. 
Hume, J. K., Cooma Cottage, Yass. 



Icely, Thos. B., Carcoar. 

Innes, Sir J. George L., Knt., Darlinghurst. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XXX 



Elected. 
1876 

1876 

1874 
1877 
1876 

1876 
1867 
1877 
1874 
1877 

1863 

1876 



1873 

1877 
1873 

1874 
1877 
1877 
1874 
1876 
1877 



1867 
1876 
1874 
1876 

1859 

1874 
1872 



1875 
1874 
1876 
1877 
1876 



P3 
PI 

P5 

P9 



Jackson, Henry WUliam, L.E.C.S. Sdin., Lie. E. Phye., Bdim., 

130, Phillip-street. 
Jenkins, Kicbard Lewis, M.B.C.S., Nepean Towers, Dou§bM 

Park. 
Jennings, P. A., EdgeclifFe Eoad, Woollabnt. 
Jennings, \V. E., B.A., Mining Department, Sydney. 
Jones, James Aberdeen, Lie. R.C. Phys,. Edin.j Booth-street, 

BalmHin. 
Jones, Ricliard Theophilus, M.D. .^»., L. R.C.P. :Edim,, Ashfield. 
t Jones, P. Sydney, M.D. Lond., F.R.C.S. Eng., Coll^e-atreet. 
Jones, Edward Lloyd, 346, George-street, Sydney. 
Jones, James, Bathurst-street. 
Jones, Griffith Evan Eussell, B.A , Si/d.j 382, Crown-fltroet, 

Surry Hills. 
Josephson, Joshua Frey, F.G.S., District Court Judge, Enmorf 

Road, Newtown. 
Joseplison, J. P., 253, Maoquarie-street North- 



Keelo, Thos. Wro., Harbours and Rivers Department, Phillip- 
street. 

Keep, John, Broughton, Leichhardt. 

Kennedy, Hugh, S.A. Oxon. Begistrar of the Sydney UniTer- 
sity. 

King, Philip G., William-street, Double Bay. 

Kinloch, Jolin, M.A., Hyde Park, Sydney. 

Knox, Edward, jun., Fiona, Double Bay. 

Knox, George, M.A., Cantab. ^ King-street. 

Knox, Edward, 24, Bridge-street. 

Kopsch, G., 8 Bridge-sti'cet. 



Lang, Kev. John Dunmore, D.D., M.A. Gla^ow, Jamison -street. 

Langlev, W.E., Herald Office, Sydney. 

Latta, "G. J , O'Connell-street. 

Laure. Louis Thos., M.D. Surg. Uniy. Paris, 131, Castlereagh- 

fitrcet. 
fLeibius, Adolph, Ph. D. Heidelher/f^ Senior Assayer to the 

Sydney Branch of the Koyal Mint, Man. Secrgfarji^. 
Lenchan, Henry Alfred, Computer,, Svdne? Observatory. 
tLiversidge, Archibald, F.C.S. ; F.G.S. ;* F.L.S. ; F.EGS. ; 

Ahiwe. R. S. Mines, Lond. ; Mem. Phy. Soc. London ; Mem. 

Mineralogieal Soc. Gt. Brit, and Irel. ; Cor. Mem. Roy. Soc. 

Tas. ; Cor. Mem. Senckenberg Institute, Frankfurt; Cor. 

Mem. Soc. d'Acclimat. Mauritius ; Hon. F. R. Hist. Soe. 

Lond. ; Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the Univcnity 

of Sydney, Hon. Secretary^ Union Club. 
Living, John, Marsaloo, North Shore. 
Lloyd, George Alfred, M.P., F R.G.S., O'Connell-street. 
Lord, Tlie Hon. Francis, M.L.C., North Shore. 
Lord, George Lee, WooUooroooloo. 
Lyons, W., M.R.C.S., Ewj., WoUongong. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



xxn 



Elected. 
1870 
1876 
1876 
1874 

1869 
1868 
1877 
1876 
1872 
1874 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1876 

1873 
1877 
1873 
1876 

1869 
1872 
1876 
1876 

1876 
1876 
1875 
1877 
1868 
1873 
1876 
1876 
1875 
1875 
1876 
1856 



1872 

1876 

1876 
1865 
1877 
1877 
1865 
1876 
1876 



P4 



P2 



PI 



1873 

1874 



Macafpe, Arthur H. C, York-street. 

McCarthy, W. F., Deepdeen, Glenmore Road. 

M'Cullooh, A H., jun., 165, Pitt-street. 

M'Cutcbeon, John Warner, Aesajer to the Sydney Bvauch of the 

K(iyal Mint. 
MacDonnell, William, Georpe-street. 
MacDonnell, William J., F.R.A.S., George>street. 
MacDonnell, Samuel, 326, George-street, Sydney. 
M'Guire, W. II., Telegraph OflSce, G^eorp;e-street. 
Mackenzie, John, F.G.S., Examiner of Coal Fields, Newcastle. 
Mackenzie, W. F., M.R C.S., Unff., Lyons' Terrace. 
Mackenzie, Rev. P. F., Padd[ington. 

Mackellar, Chas. Einnard, M.B., CM., &laa., Lyons' Terrace. 
M'Eav, Dr., Church HiU. 
Maclaurin, Henry Norman, M.A., M.D. Univ., JSdin.j Lie. R. 

Coll. Sur. JSdin.y 187, Macquarie-street. 
Makin, G. E., Berrima. 
Mann, John, Neutral Bay. 
Manning, James, Milsom's Point, North Shore. 
Manning. Frederick Norton, M.D. Uniy. SL And,, M.R.C.S., 

JSnff., Lie. Soc. Apoth. Lond., Gladesville. 
Mansfield, G.A., Pitt-street. 

Marsden, The Right Ker. Dr., Bishop of Bathurst, BathursL 
Marsh, J. M., Edgecliff Road, Woollahra. 
Marshall, George, M.D. Univ. Ola^.y Lie. R. Coll. S. Bdin,^ 

Lyons* Terrace. 
Martin, Rev. George, Victoria Terrace, Miller's Point. 
Martin, John, Addington, Ryde. 
Mathews, R. H., Mundooran. 
Merrinum, James, Mayor of Sydney. 
Metcalfe, Michael, Bridge-street. 

Milford, F., M.D., Heidelberg, M.R.C.S. En^., College-street. 
Milford, S. F. F.. Lands Office. 

Mi' lard. Rev. Henry Shaw, Newoostlo Gnamxnar School. 
Moir, James, Margaret-street. 
Montefiore, E. L., Macleay-street. 
Montcfiore, George B., F.G.S., 5, Gresham-street. 
fMoore, Charles, F.L.S., Director of the Botanic Chyrdens, 

Botanic Gardens. 
Morehead. R. A. A., 30, O'Connell-street. 
Morpan. Cosby William, M.D. JSnuMels, L.R.C.P. Lond,, 137, 

Castlereagh-strcet. 
Morgan, Allan Bradley, M.R.C.S. En^.y Lie. Mid. Lie. R. ColL 

Phys. Edin.y Ashenhurst, Burwood. 
MorgJin, T. C, 137, Castlereagh-street. 
Morrell. G. A., C.E., Department of Works, Phillip-street. 
Morris, William, L.F.F.andS. Olat., Wynyard Square, Sydney. 
JMuUens, Josiah. F.R.G.S., 34, Hunter-street. 
Murnin, M. E., Exchange, Bridge-street. 
Murray, W. G., 52, Pitt-street. 
Myles, Chas. Henry, Wymela, Burwood. 



Neill, William, City Bank, Pitt-street 
Neill, A. L. P., City Bank, Pitt-street. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



xxzu 



Beetad. 
1876 

1874 
1876 
1878 
1876 



1877 
1876 

1876 



1876 
1876 
1876 
1861 
1877 
1877 
1872 
1877 
1876 
1876 

1877 
1862 



1876 

1876 
1876 



1866 

1876 

1874 
1877 
1868 
1876 
1870 

1866 
1868 

1876 
1871 
1872 



PI 



P8 



NoUd, John Gtsh, M.D. k CD., BerlU, M.B.C.S. Bng„ lie. 

Soc. Apoth. Lond., Elzabeth-street, Sjdnej. 
Nicol, D., Burwood. 
KUson, Aroid, DqMurtment of Mines. 
Norton, James, Slizabeth-street. 
Nott, Thomas, M.D. Aberdeen, M.B.C.S. Eng., Ooean-ttnet, 

Woollahia. 



Olley, Eev. Jacob, Hunter's HilL 

O'BeiUy, W. W. J., M.D., M.C., Q. Uniy. 7r«Z., M.R.O.S., -ffiiy., 

Liyerpool-street. 
Owen, The Hon. Robert, M.L.C., 88, Elizabeth-street. 



Pahner, J. H., I^gislatiTe Assembly. 

Parbury, Cbas., Union Club. 

Farrott, Thomas 8., Ashfield. 

Paterson, Hugh, Macquarie-street. 

Paterson, James A., Union Bank, Pitt- street. 

Pedley, PerciTal R., 1 Carlton Terrace, Wynyard Squaone. 

Pendergast, Bobert, Hay-street. 

Perkins, Heniy A., Ocean-street, WooUahra. 

Phillip, H., Pacific Insurance Company. 

Pickbum Thomas, M.D., Aberdeen, Ch. M., M.B.C.S., JSng,, 40, 

College-street. 
Pile, George, 62, Margaret-street, Sydney. 
Prixice, Henry, George-street. 



Quaife, Fredk. Harrison, M.D., Mast. Surg. Uniy. Ola$., Piper- 
street, WooUahra. 
Quirk, Rey. Dr. J. A., 0J3.B., LL.D., Syd,, Lyndhu^st CoUege. 
Quodling, W. H., Burwood. 



{Ramsay, Edward, F.L.S., Curator of the Australian Museooit 

CoUefre-street. 
}Ratte, F., Noumea, New Caledonia. 
Read, Reginald Bligh, M.R.CJ9., Eng., Randwick. 
Read, Richard, M.D., Singleton. 

Reading, E., Mem. Odont. Soc. Lond., Castlereagh-street. 
Reece, J. D., Suryeyor General's Office. 
Renwick, Arthur, M.D. Edin., BA., Sgdn., F.R.CJ3.E., 29S, 

Elizabeth-street. 
Roberts, J., George-street. 
Roberts, Alfred, M.R.C.S. Eng., Hon. Mem. ZooL and BotSoe. 

Vienna, Bridge-street. 
Roberts, Rey. W. H., B. A., Dublin, St. Paul's College, Newtown. 
Robertson, Thomas, M.P., Pitt-street North. 
Robinson, His Excellen^ Sir Hercules, G.C.M.G., Goyemor of 

New South Wales, Groyemment House. 



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IX&IU 



Elected. 
1873 
1866 
1865 
1876 
1864 



1876 

1876 
1876 
1876 

1866 



1876 
1876 
1877 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1877 
1872 
1877 
1862 



1876 
1874 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1872 



1867 
1876 
1876 

1874 

1876 
1876 



1874 
1876 I 



I Roffers, Bev. Edward, Rural Dean, Fort-strcot. 
P 6 fBoUeston, Christopher, Auditor (General, Castleroagh-street. 
KoBs, J. Grafton, 24, Bridge-street. 
Rowling, Dr., Mudgee. 
P 12 tRussell, Henry 0., B.A., Sifd., F.R.A.S., F.M.S., Hon. Mem. 
S. Aust. Inst., Government Astronomer, Sydney Obsenra- 
tory, Fice-JPtesiderU, 



PI 



P4 



PI 



Sahl, Charles L., German Consul, Consulate of the German 
Empire, Wynyard Square. 

Saliniere, Rer. E. M., Glebe. 

Samuel, The Hon. Saul, C.M.G., M.L.C., Gresham-street. 

Schuette, Rudolf, M.D., Univ. Odttingsn, Lie. Soo. Apoth. Lond., 

10, College-street. 
ttSoott, Rev. William, M.A. Cantab,, Hon. Mem. Roy. Soc. Vic, 
Warden of St. Paul's College, Son. Treasurer^ St. Paul's 
College, Newtown. 

Scott, A.W., M.A. Cantab., Femdale, South Head Road. 

Sedgwick, Wm. Gillett, M.R.C.S., Snff,, Newtown. 
, , Selfe, Norman, C.E., Rockleigh, Balmain. 

Sharp, James Burleigh, J.P., Clifton Wood, Tass. 

Sharp, Henry, Green Hills, Adclong. 

Sheppard, Rev. G., Elizabeth-street. 

Shields, John, M.R.C.S., Sd., Bega. 

Slade, G.P., Wheatley, North Shore. 

Slattery, Thomas, Manly Beach. 

Sleep, John S., 139, Pitt-street. 

Sloper, Fredk. Evans, 360, Liverpool-street. 
tSmith, John, The Hon., C.M.G., M.D., LL.D., Aberdeen, M.L.C., 
F.C.S., Hon. Mem. Roy. Soc. Vic, Professor of Physics and 
Chemistry in the Umversity of Sydney, 193, Macquarie- 
street. 

Smith, Robt., B.A., S^d., Solicitor, Bridge-street. 

Smith, John M'GJarvie, 404, George-street. 

Smith, R. S., Surreyor General's Office. 

Southey, H. E., Oaklands, Mittagong. 

Stackhouse, Thos., Commander R.N., Australian Club. 

Stephen, Goorge Milner, B.A., F.G.S., Mem. Geol. Soc. of Ger- 
many ; Cor. Mem. Nat. Hist. Soc, Dresden ; F.R.G.S. of 
Cornwall ; Five Dock. 

Stephens, William John, M.A. Oxon., 233, Darlinghurst Road. 

Stopps, Arthur J., Surveyor General's Office. 

Strong, Wm. Edmund, M.D., Aberdeen, M.R.C.S., Eng,, Liver- 
pool. 

Stuart, The Hon. Alexander, M.P., Colonial Treasurer, Clunes, 
Cambridge-street, South Kingston, Petersham. 

Stuart, Clarendon, Upper William Street South. 

Suttor, Wm. Henry, jtP., Cangoura, Bathurst. 



Taylor, Chas., M.D. S^d., M.R.C.S., Un//., Parramatta. 
Tayler, William George, F.R.C.S., Lond., 219, Pitt-street. 



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XXXIV 



Elected 
1862 
1870 
1875 
1877 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1873 
1876 
1877 
1868 
1876 
1876 



1874 
1876 



1867 
1870 
1867 
1877 

1876 
1876 
1876 
1877 
1859 
1874 
1876 
1876 
1867 

1877 
1874 
1875 
1877 

1876 
1876 
1876 
1874 
1876 
1862 
1876 
1873 
1874 
1877 
1876 
1872 



P6 
PI 



Tebbutt, John, F.R.A.S., Observatory, Windsor. 

Thompson, H. A., O'Connell-streefc. 

Thompson, Joseph, Potto* Point. 

Thompson, Thos. James, Pitt-streot, Sydney. 

Thomas, H. Arding, Narellan. 

Thomas, Wm. Smith, M.B.C.S., Eng,, WoUongong. 

Tibbito, Walter Hugh, Dubbo. 

Toohey, J. T., Melrose Cottage, Cleyeland-street. 

Trebeck, Prosper N., George-street. 

Trouton, F. H., A.S.N. Company's Offices, Sydney. 

Tucker, G-. A., Superintendent, Bay View Asjlum, Cook's BiFer. 

Tucker, William, Clifton, North Shore. 

Tulloh, W. H., Margaret-street. 

Turner, G-., 3 Fitzroy Terrace, Pitt-street, Bedfem. 



Vessey, Leonard A., Survey Office. 
Voes, Iloulton H., Union Club. 



Walker, Philip B., Telegraph Office, Geor^-strect. 

Wallis, William, Moncur Lodge, Potts' Pomt. 

Ward, R. D., M.R.C.S. Eng., North Shore. 

Warren, William Edward, M.D., M.R.C.S., 26, College-street, 

Sydney. 
Waterhouse, J. M.A. Syd.^ Newington College, Parraroatta. 
Watkins, John Leo, B.A. Cantab.^ M.A. Syd.j Randwick. 
Watoon, C. Russell, M.R.C.S., JFw^., Camden Terrace, Newtown. 
Watt, Alfred Joseph, Ashfield, Parramatta Road. 
Watt, Charles, New Pitt-street. 

Watt, John B., The Hon., M.L.C., 104, Macleay-strcet. 
Waugh, Isaac, M.B., M.C., T.C.D., Parramatta. 
Webster, A. S., Union Club. 
Weigall, Albert Bythesea, B.A. Oxou., M.A. %<;.,Hcad Master 

of the Sydney Grammar School, College-street. 
Weston, W. J., Union Club. 

White, Rev. James S., M.A., LL.D., Svd.t Gt)wrio, Singleton. 
White, Hon. James, M.L.C., Cranbrook, Double Bay. 
White, Rev. W. Moore, LL.D., Arthursleigh Terrace, Elizabeth- 

street. 
Wilson, F. H., Newtown. 

Windeyer, Hon. W. C, M.A., Syd., M.L.A., King-street. 
Wise, George Foster, Immigration Office, Hyde Park. 
Wilkinson, C. S., Government Geologist, Department of Minft. 
Wilkinson, Henry Toller, Department of Bfines. 
Williams, J. P., New Pitt-street. 
Williams, Percy, Treasury. 

Wood, Harrie, Under Secretary for Mines, Department of Mines. 
Woodgate, E., Parramatta. 
Woods, T. A. Tenison-, Phillip-street, Sydney. 
Woohych. F. B. W., 138, Castloreagh-street. 
Wright, Horatio, G. A., M.R.C.S., Eng,, Wvnvard Square. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XXXV 



HONOBABY MeMBEBS. 

Elected, August, 1876. 

Agnbw, Dr., Hon. Secretary, Bojal Society of Tasmania, Hobart Town. 

Bablbb, The Hon. F., late Colonial Secretary of Western Australia. 

Bebkays, Lewis A.,F.L.S., Vice-President of the Queensland Acclimatization 
Society, Brisbane. 

Ellbet, Robert F., F.R.S., F.E.AS., Gk)Tepnment Astronomer of Victoria, 
Melbourne. 

Gbbooby, Augustus Charles, F.R.G-.S., Surveyor General of Queensland, 
Brisbane. 

Kaabt, Dr. Julius Ton, Ph. D., F.R.S., F.G.S., Government Geologist and 
Director of the Canterbury Museum, New Zealand. 

Hbctoe, James, C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S., Director of the Colonial Museum and 
Geological Survey of New Zealand, Wellington. 

M'CoY, Frederick, F.G.S., Hon. F.C.P.S., C.M.Z.S., Professor of Natural 
Science in the Melbourne University, Government Palseontologist, and 
Director of the National Museum, Melbourne. 

MuiXBE, Baron Ferdinand von, C.M.G., M.D., Ph. D., F.B.S., F.L.S., 
Government Botanist, Melbourne. 

ScHOMBTTBOH, Dr., Director of the Botanic Gardens, Adelaide, South 
Australia. 

Watbbhofsb, F. G., F.G.S., C.M.Z.S., Curator of the Museum, Adelaide, 
South Australia. 

Woods, Rev. Julian E. Tenison, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., Hon. Mem. Roy. Soc., 
Vic, Hobart Town, Tasmania. 

JSlectedj 6 December^ 1876. 

CoCKLB, His Honor Sir James, Chief Justice, M.A., F.R.S., Brisbane, 
Queensland. 

Db Koninck, Prof., M.D., Li^ge, Belgium. 



Obituabt, 1877. 

Elected. 

1870. Allen, The Hon. G^eorge, M.L.C., Toxteth Park, Glebe. 

1868. Fairfax, The Hon. John, M.L.C., Herald Office, Hunter-street. 

1874. Pedley, Frederick, Wynyard-square. 



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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. 

By H. C. EussELL, B.A., F.R.A.S., Ac, Vice-President, 



ll>divered before the Royal Society of N.SJT,, 2 May, 1877.] 



Gentlemen, 

At the commencement of last session it was your pleasure^ 
to elect me one of your Vice-presidents, and in so doing to lay 
upon me the duty of giving the opening address this session. I 
wish your choice had fallen on some one with more leisure than 
myself, or that we might, as in years past, have had the pleasure 
of listening to our honored and senior Vice-president, whose 
unceasing labours on behalf of our Society have earned for hiH> 
such a high place in our esteem. 

Fifty-six years have passed since a few (ten) earnest workers 
met together in Sydney, and formed the first Scientific Society 
in Australia. We are proud that we can trace the origin of oup 
Society to that early effort made to plant science on a new soil ; 
and although there have been periods of depression — " droughts'* 
in our scientific world during which no progress was made — yet 
the Beport you have just heaid contains ample proof that the 
young Society was planted on congeiUQl soil. 

You have heard, then, what we have done during the pastf 
yeiM*, and I need not dwell upon it, except on one or tf^o points,, 
for which I ask your forbearance. 

First, however, allow me to congratulate you upon our flourish- 
ing condition. 

With 132 members added to our number during the year, witb 
seven working sections formed, with 1,000 bookq added to our 
library, berides furniture and instruments purchased for our use, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



2 AUnXTTEBAASY ADDRESS. 

with a Tolume showing our year's work larger than any which 
has preceded it, with friendly exchange relations established with 
no less than 107 kindred Societies scattered ore^ all parts of tiie 
world, with a growing spirit of work amongst our members, and 
with a fair prospect that a liberal Govemment will he^ us to 
<»irry out our purposes, we certainly have good reason to con- 
gratulate ourselves on the year's progress. 

The following list of papers read does not include those read 
i>o the Sections ; but the number (15) bears favourable comparison 
with the number (10) read the preyious year : — 

1. Anniyenaiy AddiMs. By the Ber. W. B. Clarke, MJL, F.KS. 

2. Notes on eome remarkable Errors shown by Thermometers. By H. C 

Russell, B JL, F.B.A.S. 
Z. On the Origin and Migration of the Polynesian NatioiiB. By Ber. 
Dr. Lang. 

4. On the Deep Oceanic Depression off Moreton Bay. By Ber. W. B. 

Clarke, M.A., F.B.S. 

5. Some Notes on Jupiter during his Opposition of 1876. By Mr. Q-. D. 

Hirst. 

6. On the Genus Ctenodus. By Mr. W. J. Barkas, M.B.CS.E. 

7. Part 2 of aboTC paper, being Microscopic Structure of Mandibular 
\ and Palatal Teeth of Ctenodus. 

8. Part 3 of abore, Vomerine Teeth of Ctenodus. 

- 9' Part 4 of aboTC, on the Dentaiy Articular and Pteiygo-palatine Bones of 
Ctenodus. 

10. On the formation of Moss Gk>ld and Silrer. By Afchibakl LiTersidge» 

Professor of G^logy and Mineralogy in the IJniyersity of Sydney. 

11. Recent Copper-extracting Processes. By Mr. S. L. Bensuaan. 

12. Meteorological Periodicity. By H. C. Russell, B JL, F.BJLS. 

13. Effects of Foiest Vegetation on Climate. By Ber. W. B. Clarke, 

M»A.| F.A.O* 

14. Fossiliferous Siliceous Deposit from Richmond River, New South Wake. 

By Archibald liyersidge, Professor of Geology and Iffineralogy in the 
Uniyersity of Sydney. 

15. On a remarkable example of Contorted Slate. By Arehitlald Liyenndge, 

Professor of Geology and Biineralogy in the Uniyersity of Sydney- 

In addition to the above, four papers were read in tbe Astro- 
nomical Section, three in the Section for Chemistry and Mineralogj, 



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AinnYEBSABT IDDBESS. & 

five in the Microscopical Section, one to Fine Arts Section, seyeral 
read to the Medical Section (number not given in Beport), two to 
the Sanitary Section ; besides which, a great deal of useful work 
was done in the Sections, and several of them formed a basis on 
which they will be able to increase their usefulness during this 
session. 

The work done by our Sections was therefore considerable, and 
will appear still more so, if it is borne in mind that, owing to the 
time lost in preliminary arrangements, they could not begin until 
July. 

When it was announced at our last Annual Meeting that Sec- 
tions would be formed, some of the most sanguine amongst us 
thought that not more than three or four could be formed on a 
working basis ; and I confesji that I was nofc a little surprised 
when seven out of the nine proposed were formed. Surely no 
better proof could be desired, that the wish to be at work was 
increasing amongst us. And the progress made last session justi- 
fies the hope that, during the one on which we are entering, much 
jnore will be accomplished. There are amongst us, no doubt, many 
workers who have not the leisure required to prepare such a 
formal paper as the Boyal Society requires, who will find in the 
Sections ample opportunity for bringing their work forward. 
And, if I may venture to make a suggestion on this subject, it is 
that they should devote themselves specially to such facts and 
phenomena as are peculiar to Australia, for by so doing our 
Journal will become of very great value in the estimation of those 
to whom we send it in exchange for the valuable works which 
they publish. 

The Seport has justly reminded you of the obligation we are 
under owing to the liberality of our Q-ovemment in printing our 
.Journal ; but I cannot let the allusion pass without calling your 
attention to the difficulty there is in getting much of the technical 
matter we publish through the Press, and the obligation we owe 
both to Mr. T. Bichards, Government Printer,and to Mr. C. Potter, 
Acting Government Printer, for their uniform courtesy and atten- 
tion to our wants while getting the Journal through the Press. 



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4 ANKITEBSABT ADDBE88. 

Another matter which should not be passed over with so short 
a notice as is given to it in our C!ouncil*s Seport, is the establish- 
ment of exchange relations with no less than 107 other and 
kindred Societies scattered over the world. By this means we 
have, in return for 679 volumes sent out (our own and others 
given us for distribution), seicured at least 1,000 new works for 
our library, very many of them valuable ones, which could only 
have been obtained for use in the Colony in exchange for works 
of a kindred Society like ours. This alone is no small matter to 
record for the past year, and it reminds me of something I wished 
to say. You all know how our Bules set forth that the ** object 
of this Society is to receive original papers on scientific subjects, 
art, literature, and philosophy ; and especially such subjects as 
tend to develop the resources of Australia, and illustrate its 
natural history and productions*' ; and you also know how, in a 
humble way, we have steadily kept to our purpose, but by adding 
to it this year the distribution of our own and other publicationB 
of a L'ke character, partly for the return we knew we should get, 
and partly with the object of spreading knowledge, we have, so hi^ 
as our means permitted, taken in this Colony the position held by 
the Smithsonian Institution in America. That institution had, as 
you are aware, an origin very different from ours, it is a mona- 
ment to the love of knowledge and munificence of an Englishman 
named *^ Smithson," who, on condition that the money was spent 
for the "Increase and diffusion of knowledge among men," 
devoted his fortune (about £100,000) to found it. Eight nobly 
the work is carried on by the Regents or Council of the institu- 
tion, in publishing new works, and in sending them, together 
with all the scientific books they can get, the world over. 
Sustained by ample funds from the endowment, they can act 
tiB their love of science dictates, while we who have only our 
subscriptions to work upon, are following their example as far as 
we can. It is a laudable position for us to aspire to ; and I hope 
that as our " Smithson" has not yet appeared, our Government 
will help us to do this work, which is for the puMic good, until 
he does. 



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AirSlTEBSART ADBBESS. ^ 

The Eeport also alludes to two other matters which I should 
like to bring more particularly under your notice. One is that 
we have devoted a considerable sum of money to the purchase of 
scientific periodicals for our library, and although it has helped 
materially to reduce our Treasurer's balance, it is a good invest- 
ment. 

The other is the number of valuable donations that have been 
received from our members. Their names as donors have already 
been laid before you at the monthly meetings, and will be found 
recorded in our annual Journal, now on the table. I would like 
to read them over, but the list is too long. I cannot, however, 
refrain* from calling your attention to one fact, that the spirit 
amongst us which these donations evince is a most satisfactory 
one to recognize. It is the source from which kindred Societies 
in England and elsewhere derive so many valuable books and 
instruments. And I have no doubt that when it becomes known 
that the donors* names are permanently recorded as benefactors 
of the Society, and that such gifbs in the hands of the Librarian 
become extremely valuable to the members, we shall have many 
more to record. From the three sources I have named, we are 
collecting a library, which as many of you are aware, is rapidly 
filling our small council room. 

I hope that I have not been tedious in making these remarks. 
I have done so because I think we have arrived at a most 
important period of our history, and much of our future progress 
will depend upon the course we now adopt. For we have 
grown to be a large Scientific Society; we have divided 
ourselves into Sections, and find many willing to work — 
more even than we expected, and we have no elbow-room in 
which to accommodate them. If this continues, it will be found 
one of the most efiective things in checking the usefulness of the 
members, who at least expect a comfortable place to work in. 
Indeed, the Society has always wanted house-room, and it may be 
Baid, perhaps to its credit, that it has heretofore thought more 
of its work than its home. And I hope it will continue to do 



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6 AITKIYEBSABT ADDSE86. 

80. But I am sure I am only speaking tLe conviction of tiie 
majority of our members when I say tliat the time has 
arrived when we ought to have, when we muH have, a home of 
our own. Every kindred Society that I know of is provided with 
a home at Government expense, both here and in other places. 
In England, the Boyal and other Societies are provided with 
splendid rooms in Burlington House, which must have cost tiie 
Government upwards of £100,000. They receive also annual 
iprants from the Government, and this year the Boyal Socie^^s 
share is £5,000, a dear proof of the value of such an institution 
in th« community. Coming nearer home, the Boyal Society in 
Victoria received from the GK>vemment a piece of land In Mel- 
bourne, and £2,000 towards their building, together with an 
annual grant of £200. In Tasmania the Boyal Society is pro- 
vided by the Gk>vemment with fine rooms, and has an annual 
grant of money, and so in other places ; while tiie Boyal Socieij 
of Sydney has never received any assistance from Government 
OKC^t the printing of our Journal since 1878. This is not a har 
position for us to be in ; and I am convinced that if we rightly 
represent the matter, we shall obtain the assistance we need to 
enable us to extend our usefulness. I will not here discuss the 
question of how this should be done ; but I think it is a proper 
object to place in the hands of a committee of the members^ 

With one remark bearing upon the subject I will leave ii 
The question may be asked, does it pay to foster science P We 
have not far to look in the experience of other countries for an 
answer, and their experience points unmistakeably to the &ct 
that science ia the mainspring of advancement in arts and 
manufactures. Let science keep in the back-ground, and art at 
once becomes a machine, reproducing the saine thing age after 
age, with a gradual deterioration proportionate to the wear and 
tear, as we see in Eastern countries ; but let science take iis 
legitimate place, let instruction and means be given to the 
thoughtful workers in its fields, and it is soon found to be but 
an easy step from pure science to pure art. 



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ANKIYEBSABY .AJ)DB£83. .7 

It is not many yeare since England was the workshop of the 
world ; and Germany, like s^me other nations, looked on, wishing 
to sluure the profits, but unable to do so. Her rulers wisely 
thought ^that the reason was a want of education in the physical 
sciences, and they made her schools of chemistry the best in 
Europe. Students flocked there — even from other countries — 
and they came away full of the spirit of research, and ennobled by 
daily contact with heir renowned professors. What is the result ? 
Torty years since, industry in the arts could scarcely be said to 
exist in Germany. Now England has lost one of her best 
customers and found a rival instead ; and not to mention other 
articles, in the newest European industry, that of the manur 
&cture of dyes. Germany, last year, made more tiian all the 
rest of Europe, England and France included. 

So much for ihe culture of science, and it affords a lesson which 
JSngland has not been slow to profit by, for she is now devoting 
money freely to science culture. And if we are to keep pace with 
the world we must do likewise. As one of the leading men of. the 
day has recentlyaaid — "There can be no doubt that, whetherscience 
be looked upon as a means of culture or as a means of commercial 
progress, it is both our duty and our interest to promote it." 

Turniag now to ihe scientific progress made during the year, I 
feel that it i» hopeless to try to condense within the limits of tlu» 
address what would fill a goodly volume ; and the field is so laige 
liiat I fear even to enter it lest I should not get out before your 
patience was exhausted, especially as we have another importanit 
paper to read to-night. I will therefore try and select cmly a 
£ew facts from the great multitude. 

In spectrum analysis no ^reat discovery has been made, bni; 
much has been done in its various branches. Messrs. Eoseoe 
And Schuster's valuable inve8tigati<m8 into the absorption of bands 
<yf potassium and sodium, together with Lockyer*s work on the 
varying absorptive powers of metallic and metalkndal vapours 
under different temperatures, and especially with regard to 
ealcium, which gives two distinct spectra — are most valuable 
e^itiibutions to sdence. 



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8 AKiaTEB8i.RY ADDRESS. 

Mr. Christie, using the large spectroscope of the Greenwich 
Observatory, has confirmed Dr. Huggins's marrellous discovery of 
the proper motion of stars, but he has not been able, any more 
than Dr. Huggins, to find proofs of motion in the nebul». No 
doubt this is owing to the inherent difficulty of getting exact 
measures of the bright lines of faint spectra. Dr. Huggins has 
this year made another advance in the examination of star spectra, 
and has succeeded in so improving his apparatus that a star can 
be kept on the slit of the spectroscope until a photograph is 
taken ; and he has secured the finest photographs of star spectra 
yet obtained. The advance thus made is most important, for the 
spectra can now be measured and compared at leisure, free from 
all the difficulties which beset the direct analysis of the star- 
light. 

In the magnificent physical observatory which has just been 
^constructed at Potsdam, near Berlin, no expense has been spared 
to provide it with the best optical instruments. Dr. Vogel, the 
director, says that the spectroscope made by Hugo Schroder, of 
Hamburg, is a splendid instrument, and its twenty-one single 
prisms, combined into a system on Butherford's plan, will enable 
him to measure one-hundredth part of the space between the D 
lines, and shows in the same space nine fine lines. When I saw 
this statement recently published, it recalled the information 1 
liad given you in November, 1875, viz., that nine fine lines had 
beei^ seen at Berlin between D 1 and D 2 with the spectroscope 
then in use ; that some years previously (1868) Dr. Hu^ins, 
rusing the great spectroscope 'at Oxford, saw twelve lines in the 
same space; and that Colonel Campbell, with a spectroscope 
made by Hilger, had in London seen nineteen lines betiii-een the 
two Ds ; and comparing these statements with my own experience 
here, using a much finer spectroscope (also by Hilger, of London) 
-which shows me seven lines between the two Ds, I was led to 
think that these differences must be due to atmosphere, and not 
to the quality of the spectroscope. If so, it is a most important 
•question to determine ; and I have therefore carefully examined 
these lines with our large spectroscope, which has a dispersion 



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AlfNITE1ISi.BT ADDBESS. 9 

equal to eighteen, 64^ prisms, while Colonel Campbell's was 
only equivalent to eight. The measuring apparatus of mine 
also admits of measuring one three-hundredth part of the space 
between the D lines. In order to identify the lines I have 
numbered them 1 to 7, beginning at Dl, and their positions as 
determined by a number of readings with the micrometer are as 
follows: — 

Dl 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D2 D3 
000 I 41 I 67 I 124 I 161 I 173 | 213 | 232 | 291 | 299 

4 is the nickel line always seen ; 7 is the position or very near it 
of the zinc line ; 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 are evidently atmospheric 
lines, as they increased in distinctness very fast as the sun neared 
the horizon ; 4 also seems to enlarge as if there were an atmo- 
spheric line coincident with it, and 6 increased faster than any 
other; when the sun was near the horizon it was as thick again 
as Dl ; 7 did not increase at all, and almost disappeared when 
the sun was near setting. 

The line D3 has not, I think, been described before. It is a 
difficult line to see, and only to be made out with high powers. 
I have not ^uced my measures to wave lengths, because the 
results obtained by Dr. Huggins and Colonel Campbell are only 
recorded in drawings, without measures. I have had prepared 
enlarged drawings of those obtained in Oxford and London, 
with a careful plot from my own measures, which I now show 
you. 

There are not many of the lines which agree ; but as Dr. 
Huggins used bisulphide of carbon prisms, and Colonel Campbell 
only eight prisms, some of the differences might disappear if all 
could be reduced to wave lengths. On closely comparing the 
drawings, it will be seen that five lines were recorded in London 
between my 7 and D 2, two others between D 1 and No. 1, and 
three between Nos. 2 and 3. These spaces appear in Sydney, 
even under the most favourable conditions, entirely free from 
lines, or any sign of them. It would appear, therefore, that 
there must be some gases m the atnfosphere of Europe, and 



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10 AKiriTSBSAST AS^BESS. 

especially of LondoD, which are not present in AuBtMilia. What- 
oyer these may be, they have eluded chemical analysis, and Ihef 
may prove to be of importance in judging of tiie purity of aa 
atmosphere. If it should prove so, it will be rather curious &at 
we are obliged, after all, to use our eyes to see what we breatiia 
Whether these lines indicate substances which make the diffisrence 
between health and disease, cannot yet be decided ; but there is 
no doubt that the air at times contains the cause of disease in 
such a subtle form as to elude all the ordinary modes of investi- 
gation. 

As1ax)nomers have this year to chronicle another temporary 
star, showing spectroscopic evidence of a sudden and extraor- 
dinary increase in its temperature. The new star, which was 
discovered on the 24th of November last by Professor Schmidt, 
of Athens, was of the third magnitude, and not far from Bho 
Gygni. On the 2nd December it was spectroscopically examined 
by M. Comu, of Paris, and found to give a spectrum of bright 
lines, the positions of which were fortunately determined, 
although the star was then only of the fourth or fifth magnitude. 
Eight lines were measured, and five of these were found to be 
almost exactly coincident with C, D, E, F, and G- of the Prauen- 
hofer lines. So that the principal lines in the star spectrum 
coincide with the brightest lines of the sun's chromosphere seen 
in total eclipses, which seems to prove that the materials of the 
star were in a state of incandescence. It will be remembered 
that a still more remarkable star, giving a bright line speckimi, 
appeared in 1866 — T. GoronsB Borealis— and in ten days Med 
beyond the.limits of unaided vision. 

Mr. Crookes seems disposed to give up the theory that jfche 
radiometer motions, or any part of them, are due to light only, 
for he says : — ** 1 have recently succeeded in producing buA a 
complete exhaustion in the radiometer that I have not only 
reached the point of maximum effect, but gone so far beyond it 
that repulsion nearly ceases, and the results I have thus obtained 
•eem to show conclusively that the true explanation of iit 
action of the radiometer is that given by Mr. Johnstone Stooey, 



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A5iaTEBSJLBY ADDBESS. 11 

according to wUch the repiilsion seen in the radiometer is due to 
internal moyements of the molecules of the residnal gas." 

On the other hand, a French Movant (M. Ledbu), in a paper 
read before the Frendi Academj, remarka, that Hie ilieoiy whidi 
explains the action of the radiometer by saying that light fiJUng 
on black discs becomes heat, and so establishes a difference in 
temperature between the discs and the gas in the case, which 
produces the motion, expressly requires that there shall ne?er be 
an equilibriimi of temperature between the discs and the gas in 
the case of the radiometer ; but this cannot be admitted, for the 
arms keep rerolying at a uniform speed so long as the light ia 
present. He had tried many experiments, and in one of them 
the instrument was heated nearly to redness, and the discs began 
to more, but the speed was sensibly accelerated by the momentary 
presence of a single flame, which joined its action to that of the 
radiant heat ; and he had obUuned perfect rotation in an instru- 
ment in which both sides of the disc were equally polished. 

It will be remembered that in 1872 Herr Oroneman, of GKmin- 
gen, propounded a new theory of the origin of the aurora. T3jb 
hypothesis is that there are in spaoe streams of minute particlea 
of iron, revolTing abour the sun in the same way that meteors i% 
and that these, when passing the earth, become attracted to its 
poles, and from them stretch out as long filaments into space ; 
but as they meet the earth's atmosphere with planetary velociiy, 
they become ignited, and thus form the luminous aurora, giving 
with the spectroscope a green iron line. He has recently returned 
to this theory, and brought forward much additional matter in its 
favour. In connection with this subject the researches of Pro- 
fessor Nordenskiold are very interesting. He has been examin- 
ing the purity of snow, both at Stockholm and near the North 
Pole. To north-west of Spitzbergen he found the snow con- 
taminated with minute black particles, which proved on examina- 
tion to be exactly the same as those found at Stockholm, and con- 
sisted of particles of metallic iron, phosphorus, cobalt, and frag- 
ments of DiatomacesB. 



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12 AKIOTEBSABY ADDBESS. 

From observations made in June last on two bright spots seen 
on Jupiter, Mr. John Brett infers that such spots have a proper 
motion on the surface of the planet, and that they are globular 
bodies almost as large as the earth ; and he further infers, from 
their gradual disappearance as thej approach the limb, that they 
are wholly immersed in the semi-transparent mateiial of the planet. 
The rate of proppr motion assigned to them is 165 miles per hour. 

A most interesting inquiry is opened up by this observation— 
viz., whether there are such bodies revolving about Jupiter. The 
white and black spots so frequently seen, though better defined 
in outline, would seem to belong to some such system. Analogy 
of course would teach us to expect such forms as the results of 
cyclones in the atmosphere of a planet, in consequence of its rota- 
tion. But the rate of motion — 165 miles in a hour — is certainly a 
difficulty, as the motion of storm centres on the earth is only 
4 to 6 miles per hour ; but it must not be forgotten that there 
are some barometer waves transmitted through our atmosphere 
at the rate of 50 miles an hour. 

Professor Hall, of "Washington Observatory, using the great 
26-inch refractor, recently detected a small well-defined white 
spot on the planet Saturn. Jt was reported to six other American 
observatories and carefully watched ; the mean of the observations 
gives a rotation period to the planet of 10 hours 15 minutes, 
which agrees very well with Sir. W. Herschel's determination, 
made in 1793-4, of 10 hours 16 minutes 0-4 seconds. 

Professor Langley, of Allegheny Observatory, has just pub- 
lished some results of his solar observations, and gives it as his 
opinion that the solar atmosphere is proved to be a thin stratum, 
which cuts off one-half of the heat that would otherwise reach 
the earth. This, he considers, is proved by its action in produc- 
ing the dark lines in the spectrum, or, in other words, stopping 
the light and heat of the sun ; and he calculates that should this 
envelope be increased 25 per cent, in thickness, the mean tem- 
perature of our globe would be reduced 100° Fahrenheit, and 
possibly some such phenomenon took place in the glacial period. 



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ankitebsabV abdbsss. 13 

The pendulum experiments which have heen carried on in 
Indiain connection with the Trigonometrical Survey since 1865 have 
been reduced at Kew, and, it is said, offer incontestable evidence in 
confirmation of the hypothesis of a diminution of density in the 
strata of the earth's crust which lie under continents and moun* 
tains, and an increase of density in the strata under the sea. 

The progress of meteorology during the past year has not been 
so rapid as many persons desire and think possible, but there can 
be no doubt that the widespread interchange of ideas and obser- 
vations is tending to place meteorology in the position of a true 
science, from which we may expect a complete account of the 
motions of theearth'satmosphereand ocean, as well as of the various 
other elementfi which form climate ; as well as the relations which 
subsist between them ; and the cosmical phenomena which, with- 
out doubt, have much to do with the changes we see. Each step 
in advance seems to bring fresh proof of the intimate relations 
which subsist between the earth's atmosphere and the sun's sur- 
roundings, and of the necessity for combining the study of these 
branches of science. 

How far the former is a result of the latter no one is at present 
prepared to say ; but the many efforts which have been made to 
show the dependence of meteorological changes on sun spots, and 
the amount of evidence brought forward to prove it, show how com- 
monly the belief is entertained by those who reason on the suigett. 

Meantime meteorology is rapidly extending its practical side, 
and the great success of weather maps and storm warnings in 
England, France, and America, especially the latter country, has 
led to their adoption by other European States ; and iJiere seems 
little doubt that Europe will soon be covered by an international 
system which will afford as much information to the seaman and 
the farmer as the weather-map of America does. In Australia 
we may congratulate ourselves on having made a beginning ; and 
the weather-map that has been published daily in Sydney since the 
3rd Eebruary, 1877, is only the first of a series which wiU be pub- 
lished daily in each Colony ; by which means the information which 
is now being freely exchanged by the four Colonies, South Aus- 



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14k AJTNIYZBSABT ABDBESS. 

traUa, Victoria, Queensland, and New South "Wales, will be plaeed 
before the public. As the method of producing the weather-BU^ 
here is novel and different to that adopted in England and America, 
perhaps a few words of explanation may be devoted to it. In 
England, after the telegrams are received, a map is prepared by 
hand for lithographic printings and 500 copies are printed bj 
8 p.m. each day, and distributed to subscribers, who pay a moderate 
gum for the information. Several of the daily newspapers repro- 
duce portions of this map by engraving it on a block, and taking 
a cast from it, which is again stereotyped ; such at least was the 
method when I last heard. In America a stock of outline maps 
of the States is kept ready to receive the weather information. 
Such parts of it as can be given in lype are set up and printed 
on the outline map. The isobars are then put on a lithograph 
stone and printed on the map, which is then transferred to the 
stone containing isotherms, and there receives its fourth and last 
printing, and is ready for distribution eady in the afternoon ; but 
it is not, so far as I am aware, reproduced by the newspap^s. 
About 2,000 copies are distributed daily by post^ and must of 
course take days in reaching some places. 

In Sydney the map is prepared in this way : — ^A block of metal 
of the size of the map, and one-eighth of an inch less in thickness 
tiian the height of ordinary iype, haa fixed upon it an electro 
outline of the coast and mountains of the eastern half of Aus- 
tralia ; the electro is just of the thickness required to make it lype 
high. At the position which each station occupies a hole is cut in 
the block, of the right size to receive'the wind symbol, and the 
lype necessaiy to express the force of wind, height of barometer, 
letter for rising or Mling barometer and the temperatures. Spaces 
are also cut out to receive the list of temperature and ndn&ll, 
also for tiie explanatory matter. The rest of the block is flat, 
and, as I have stated, i-inch lower than the type. When the 
telegrams have been reduced and corrected, they are given on a 
convenient form to a compositor, who in a short time makes all 
the changes that are necessary to convert the figures of yesterday 
into those of to-day. 



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AN51VEJIAABT ADDSBSB* 15 

The compoBitor liae also a set of sea sjanbols, wind arrows, 
words, &c.y to express any informatioii that is to be given on the 
map ; these are simply glued on to the block wherever they may 
be I'equired, and as they are only ^-inch high, they just come to 
the height of the tjpe. If any curves are required on the map, 
they are bent by hand from strips of soft metal rolled i-inch 
high, and are glued on to the surface in the same way as the 
other symbols. As soon as this is done it is ready to print from 
in an ordinary press, and a few copies are printed off for distri- 
bution. The map is then sent to the Herald Office, and there 
stereotyped for the momiDg's paper, after which it is returned 
to the Observatory for next day's map. In this way it is thought 
that the infonnation reaches the public sooner than it could by 
any other method. There is, however, nothing to stop the issue of 
copies each day soon after noon if thought desirable ; for it is 
evident that the time required to prepiure this map is less than 
others referred to, and printing from type can be done much 
quicker than irom a lithograph stone. 

Turning now to other matters : it will be remembered that 
experiments on the amount of sunshine were made in London, 
by placing a globe of clear glass in a hemispherical cup of wood, 
and estimating the amount from the wood carbonized. The 
method was, it is true, exceedingly rough, but it yielded an 
interesting result ; unfortunately it turned out that no satisfactory 
estimate of the amount of energy could be obtained. Dr. 
Boscoe invented a small machine to get over the difficulty, by 
exposing, at regular intervals diiring the day, small pieces of 
sensitive paper, with the object of calculating the sun's heating 
power from the amount of silver decomposed, ^ut it has not 
been found to give the information required, that is, a continuous 
record of the sunshine. Mr. Scott, Director of the Meteoro- 
logical Office, London, has now designed a modification of the 
original instrument. Instead of wood to be burnt he uses slips 
of cardboard ruled into hours ; these are placed daily at the back 
of the glass bulb, and each day therefore has its own record. 
This is a great improvement, but we are not told how the effect 



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16 ANKIYEBSABY ADDBE8S. 

is DOW to be measured ; and there is some diflSculty in the way, 
since the weight of the cardboard would vary with the stale of 
the weather, and this would be a serious difficulty if the sun*s 
efEect is to be ascertained by weighing. 

In connection with this subject, it will be remembered that 
about seven years since a French inventor, M. Mouchot, exhibited 
before the Emperor a steam-engine worked by direct sun heat. 
He has been working at the machine ever since, and some of his 
recent results are so good that it seems probable that direct son 
heat may in warm, fine countries become an economic source of 
power. 

The machine is thus constructed : — A mirror in the form of a 
truncated cone, 74 inches in diameter, has its axis converted into 
a boiler 11 inches in diameter and 31 inches high. With this 
the mirror makes an angle of 45^, so that all the rays falling on 
it are reflected into the boiler. To prevent loss of heat by 
radiation, the boiler is covered with an air-tight glass case. This 
apparatus is placed on an axis parallel to that of the earth (a 
polar axis) and then turned so that the axis of the cone points to 
the sun. Clock-work is then connected to the polar axis, and 
keeps the mirror turned to the sun. The results obtained in 
ordinary weather are as follows : — 4 gallons of water introduced 
at a temperature of 68° Eaht. at half-past 8 a.m. were turned 
into steam of 30 lbs. pressure per square inch in forty minutes. 
The pressure was then allowed to rise to 75 lbs. on the inch, 
which it did in a few minutes, but the boiler was Hot strong 
enough to carry the test to a greater pressure. The steam was 
used to drive an engine and a pump. At another trial the 
machine distilled a gallon of wine in fifteen minutes. 

These are surprising results to be obtained in the climate of 
France, and seem to make the experiment worth trying on our 
sunny plains. 

Another use, however, might be made of it. Such an instru- 
ment, properly constructed, might be kept at work always, and 
made to deliver the water distilled into measures placed at fixed 



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ABTNIYBBSABT ADDKE8S. 17 

intervals (hours or minutes) during the day, and the water so 
collected would form an exact measure of the sunshine. 

Mr. Olashier, in a paper on the mean temperkture of every- 
day at Greenwich, from observations taken there from 1813 to 
1878, has made a valuable contribution to science. The results 
have been plotted into a curve, representing amongst other things 
the variation of the temperature throughout the year. Erom 
this it appears that in January the curve is normal, but in 
February there is always a considerable rise between the 5th and 
the 10th of the month, and a fall between that and the 15th. 
The curve is rather unsteady during March arid April, and in 
May it shows a remarkable depression between the 10th and the 
15th, which Mr. Glashier thinks is probably due to some astro- 
nomical cause. The curve also shows rather sudden depressions 
about the 30th June and 8th July, and is then normal until the 
5th or 6th of November, when a remarkable depression sets in 
and lasts about three weeks. (During this time the earth passes 
through the November meteor shower.) During December the 
curve is normid again. Considering the length of the series 
from which these results are obtained, it would seem probable 
that all the irregularities in the curve are due to some external 
cause ; or, in other words, to the intervention of something', 
between the earth and the sun, which for the time adds to or 
absorbs the sun heat. 

Turning from these interesting mean results^ w^e find that 
during the year extremes have been reached both in the earth 
and near the pole. A remarkable series of observations on 
underground temperatures have been taken in a boring made at 
Sperenberg, near Berlin. The bore was carried to the extraor- 
dinary depth of 4,172 English feet. The first 283 feet of it were 
made in gypsum, with some anhydrite, and the remainder 
entirely in rock-salt. The greatest depth at which the tempera- 
ture was obtained was 3,491 feet, as the upperfpart of the bore was 
line4 with iron pipes^and cpuld not th^ of ore be plugged to prevent 
OHwecfeion of heat. The first temperature was taken at 721 feet 
fisom the anr&ce. Two plans wereadof^ed for lecaring the actual 



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18 



AKKIYEBSABY ABDBESS. 



•temperature of any part of the bore. Eirst, in Binking it, wlieii 
the temperature was to be taken, a smaller bore was driven m 
-advance for several feet ; into this the thermometer was low^ed, 
«and a wooden plug driven into the top of the small bore, so as 
ito prevent convection affecting the temperature. After the ther- 
mometer had remained in from twenty to thirty hours, it wag 
withdrawn and read. The other ipethod was, to cut off by means 
<of two plugs sections of the well, in which a thermometer was 
kept about the same number of hours. I give the results of 
these measures : — 



Depth in feet 
Wuah. 


Diiferenoe. 


Temperature oor- 
Fftht Bcala 


DUIeraice. 


Inoreue 
lOOfeet 






•48-2 






721 


206 


70^ 


...••. 


..*••• 


927 


206 


74-8 


8-4 


1-7 


1,138 


206 


79-6 


6-8 


27 


1,889 


206 


80-4 


0-8 


0-4 


1,546 


206 


84-4 


4-0 


2-0 


1,761 


206 


87-6 


82 


1-6 


1,967 


206 


91-6 
96-6 


40 


2-0 


2,168 


206 


4-9 


2-5 


8,491 


1,828 


116-8 


19-3 


1-5 



* Mean temperature of air at the welL 
This gives an average of 1® Faht. for every 51'5 English feet,an3 
the increase for the last 1,800 feet was not so rapid as in tHe 
.higher levels. 

Turning now to the other extreme, we learn from Captain 
Marham's letter to Commodore Hoskins, re Polar Expedition, 
that :— 

"The cold up to the end of Eebruary, 1876, was not fdfc 
aeverely, although the temperature was ranging from ~ SO^ to 
- 60° ; but during the last few days of that month and beginnii^ 
of March the cold vras intense, the temperature foiling as low 
-as - 74^. This, I believe, is the lowest tiiat has era. been 
Tecorded. In this temperature glycerine became perfectly solid 
-and quite transparent, rectified spirits of wine became of the 



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AKKITEBSABY ABDBESS. 19 

consistency of hair-oil (for want of a better simile), wWsky froze 
hard, and we were able to break ofE pieces and eat it. Concen- 
trated rum, 80 o.p., also froze hard in a shallow saucer, and in 
a bottle resembled frozen honey or molasses in regard to thick- 
ness. On chloroform, however, no apparent effect was produced. 
The lowest mean temperature for twenty-four consecative hours 
was - 70'3 ; for thirty-six consecutive hours it was - 69*93, and 
for six days the mean was - 60° or 92° below freezing point. 
Latitude of station, 83° 20' 26^. May 12, 1876." 

*If will be remembered that the lowest temperature ever 
recorded in baUoon experiments was 44° below freezing point 
- 12°, at six miles high (32,000 feet), on September 5, 1862. 

I have already detained you too long, and with just an allusion 

to an interesting question raised by Mr. J. A. Brown, of London, 

I will close. Mr. Brown, in a paper on simultaneous variations 

of the barometer, shows, from observations made iu Europe, Asia, 

Africa, America, and Australia, that during the week, March 31 

to April 5, 1845, all the barometer curves exhibit a maximum 

near the beginning, and another near the end of the week, with 

a minimum near the middle ; and he asked whether there may 

not be other causes of varying atmospheric pressure than a change 

of the mass of the air ; in other words, whether the attraction of 

graritation is the only force concerned in barometric oscillations. 

Admiral Fitzroy strongly objected to the theory that the curve 

of the barometer indicated the height of atmosphere over it, or 

that it represented atmospheric waves; and he thought these 

effects were due to the action of the polar and equatorial currents 

on each other, and showed that these waves of pressure travel to 

north-east and south-west, and are quite distinct from the local 

changes in pressure due to storms, &c. Their rate of motion 

also is quite different from that of storms, which make from 4 ^ 

6 miles per hour only ; while these waves of pressure travel here 

over south-eastern Australia at the rate of 20 miles, and in some 

cases 50 miles an hour. They are a very marked and interesting 

feature in our meteorology, and their uniform progression over 

the whole of south-east of Australia at the rate mentioned seems 



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20 ANNIYEESABT ADDEESS. 

to me at variance with Fitzroy's theory that they are caused by 
air-currents. A glance at the curves, plotted for a year over the 
whole Colony, shows that these waves uniformly travel from west 
to east, and in most cases so rapidly that the crest appears all over 
the Colony on the same day. Such a rapid translation seems to 
me to point to some external cause ; and on comparing Sydney 
barometer curves for 1873 with those of Greoawich for the same 
year, I was struck with the number of coincidences in the 
character of the curves. In many cases the points of elevation 
and depression occur on the same day. at both places, and in 
several instances the curves follow the same form for more than 
a month. There are great temporary differences, due no doubt to 
local causes, but the similarity is very striking. 

It is somewhat difficult to see what could make a simultaneous 
loss of atmospheric pressure in the two hemispheres, unless it be 
the heat of the sun acting more intensely on the equator, and so 
making a great demand on the trade winds which are suppHed 
from temperate latitudes, and would, in that case, draw off the 
pressure. The fact that such a loss of pressure causes an in-rush 
of polar wind seems to confirm this view. That there are such 
sudden changes in the sun's' heating power has been shown in 
many ways, and notably by Mr. Q-lashier, in the paper I have 
alluded to to-night. 



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21 



The Forest Vegetation of Central and Northern 
New England, in connection with Geological 
Influences. 

By "W. Cheistie. 



IRead before the Eot/cU Society of N.S.W.^ 4 November, 1876.] 



In venturing to consider the subiect of forest vegetation in con- 
nection witn its geological influences, I purpose limiting my 
remarks to that portion of the Colony with which my ordinary 
avocation has, by bringing me into daily contact with it for the 
past few years, made me the more familiar, viz.. Central and 
Northern New England. 

Various important reasons have led me to thus limit the terri- 
tory under consideration. The first is — That by confining myself 
to one district, with which I am intimately acquainted, my remarks 
will be more accurate and reliable than would be possible were 
I to extend them to. those portions of the Colony over which my 
observations have been more limited and casual. Secondly — 
That the region in question presents a sufficiently varied geolo- 
gical character to illustrate many of the effects of geological 
influence on the indigenous forest vegetation. Thirdly — fiiat, 
inasmuch as the climate of this region is nearly uniform over its 
whole extent, the question may be considered more directly 
within itself than it could be were the complications arising frotn 
climatic changes to be entered upon in connection with it. And 
fourthly — That as the general rules which may be strictly appli- 
cable in this and other districts having a similar climate may and 
in fact in many cases do not apply in those districts which, from 
geographical position or other causes, are subjected to different 
climatic influences, it is probable that the interests of the subject 
under inquiry may be better served by first considering the rules 
obtaining in separate and limited areas ; and then, by considering 
their di&rences in connection with the known effects of climate 
on vegetation, we may arrive at a knowledge of those laws which 
appear to govern the forest growth in connection with its geo- 
logy. It IS with the view 'only of offering my contribution to" 
the first of these aspects, that I nave ventured to compile my notes 
on the subject, feeung that the question in its entirety involves 



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22 FOEEST TEGETATION. 

BO many and varied considerations, wliicli are intimately blended 
one with the other, as to render it almost impossible to even touch 
upon them all in a brief paper like this. 

Having been disappointed in arrangements which I had made 
for the illustration of my remarks by photographs of portions of 
the characteristic forests of this distnct, I have adopted what I 
conceive to be the next best course, viz., that of accompanying 
them with specimens of the principal timbers and soil. The speci- 
mens number about sixty, and I trust will give a tolerably clear 
idea of the various combinations of soils and timbers which I 
purpose to consider. Of the genus Eucalyptus^ which occupies 
by far the most prominent place in the forests of New Ensland, 
I have collected twenty species. The total number inhabiting 
this district probably amounts to thirty or more ; but while a 
large number of the varieties of this genus which prevail on the 
eastern slopes below the steep escarpments which so well define 
the boundary of the plateau to the east does not ascend to the 
elevated and colder regions of New England, and many varieties 
which are common in the region to the -west of the table-land do 
not encroach upon its naturally defined limits, there are yet some 
which, I believe, are peculiar to it. Those are, at 'any rate, not 
found on or below either of the slopes, nor have I seen them 
in any other part of the Colony north or west of Murrunindi« 

As an instance of this change of species, which occupy ap- 
parently the same relative positions in different localities, and as 
showing the difficulty of defining any general conclusions from 
observations in any one district, I will mention the river gum of 
of the interior (JE, rostrata). This tree, according to Dr. WooUs, 
does not occur at all to the east of the Dividing Bange. It is, 
however, common on the western rivers. I have observwi it on all 
the waters from the Mooki and Namoi Bivers north to the Duma- 
resq. It lines the banks of those rivers to within a few miles of 
th6 plateau, when it generally yields its place to the river oak, 
one of the Casuarina, On the plateau, however, the gumrtiee 
which occupies the place of E, roatrata under exactly the same 
conditions, so far as soil and geological formation are*concerned, is 
known by the local name of "Sally" (described No. 8). The 
name is probably a corruption of E, saUgna, (I do not think, 
however, that this is the species which frequents the low grounds 
about Parramatta, as mentioned by Dr. Woolls in his '* Flora of 
Australia,'* p. 231.) But on the eastern waters a species distinct 
from either of those mentioned frequents the river banks. It is 
known as the flooded or blue gum {E, Eugenioides), 

The fact of those three species inhabiting the same kind of soils 
and localities in their respective districts, while neither of them 
appears to encroach on the territory of the others, seems to 
show that they are not only influenced and kept within their own 



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F0BE8T TEOETATION. 23 

proper limits by climatic iofluences, but that the impregnation 
of Uie atmosphere by the salts of the ocean has some snare in the 
idivision of the forest vegetation. What that share is, or what 
influence the climatic e&cts exert, is beyond the object of thia 
communication ; but they may be incidentally I'ef ered to, wh^re 
a comparison between the occurrences on the plateau and those* 
in its vicinity may tend to eliminate any point in the inquiry. 

The greater portion of Central New England is composed oF 
granitic formations. These occupy very large tracts, and in the 
stanniferous regions the country is generally characterised by 
rough, almost inaccessible, ridges, covered with huge blocks^ 
alternating with swampj valleys of a soft, rotten nature, over 
which in wet weather it is almost impossible to travel. The 
granite for the most part is similar to specimens marked Q, and 
the soil formed from its detritus retains a verv large amount of 
moisture ; so that if the wheels of a vehicle break through the* 
outer crust, the argillaceous matter from, below spirts up and is* 
soon worked into a bog, out of which it is almost impossible to be 
extracted. Xumerous tracts of such country as this occur about 
Guy Fawkes and Oban ; and the Dividing Bange, between the 
Severti and Mole Bivers, is composed almost exclusively of such 
formation. Those localities are all characterized by the same 
description of forest vegetation. Stringy-bark (specimen 19)^ 
Eucalyptus amygdaUna^ attains here large dimensions, more 
particiUarly in the rough and elevated ranges, where it is the 
prevailing timber, and is usually accompamed by undergrowths- 
of saplings. Acacia, and frequently Banksia integr^oUa, There the 
Bwara is generally composed of blady grass and rushel. Tracts* 
of undergrowth of scrub oak generally occupy the summits ; but 
as we descend into the valleys, the peppermint (specimen No. 18)^ 
Eucalyptus hemiphloia, mixes in the forest with occasional re& 
gum (specimens 2 and 2a), Eucalyptus resihifira, and blue gunr 
(specimens 3 and Sa), Eucalyptus tereticomus (?) As we leave 
the more rugged tracts, the peppermint becomes more and more- 
the predominant timber ; and f requentlv the low ridges f orming- 
the valleys of the larger streams are eiothed with a fine open' 
forest in which no other timber mixes. This timber is almost 
invariably found on granitic soils, and generally where it occunr 
the underCTowths are less dense, and the grass richer and better^ 
than in other ^^rowths on those soils. On the banks of the streams 
m such localities the sally occurs, and occasionally enters into 
combination with the peppermint for some little distance back.. 
The small-leafed shrubby tea-tree, Leptospermum parvifoliumy 
grows in the bed of the streams, but is never found beyond 
the limits of the bank. In those tracts in. which the granite 
contains a larger proportion of quartz than that described, variousr 
species of the group XeiophloitB, smooth-barked trees, of the genus 



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24 F0BX8T TSaETATIOK. 

Eucalyptus^ mix in the forests. The most common of these are 
the white gum (specimen 'No. 9), JSucalyptus hamastoma, the 
grey gum (No. 7), Eucalyptus sp,, red gum (Nos. 2 and 2a), 
JSucalypfus resinifera, and a species of spotted gum (Nos. 1 and 
1a), Eucalyptus sp. There are, I think, only four members of 
the group JSemiphloicd found in this district, two species of yellow 
box, the white box (E, hemiphloid), and a timber sometimes called 
black-but, and sometimes messmate. Eucalyptus obliqiM (Nos. 10, 
20, 11, 12). The white box, so far as I have seen, never occurs 
on granitic soils. A species of yellow box (No. 20), however, 
appears to be peculiar to granitic, elvanite,.and sandstone forma- 
tions, and is so very like the white box that it is frequently taken 
for it. This tree, however, has a small leaf, and the shape of the 
seed-vessel is quite different from that of the latter ; it is also 
very much more fully barked, and, on examination, I have found 
that in various localities in which box was said to esdst on grani- 
tic or elvanite soils that this tree had been mistaken for it. The 
other three members of this group, however, are in some localities 
numerous among the combination mentioned, and it .appears that 
the ijiore sandy the detritus from the granite is, owing to the larger 
amount of quartz contained therein, the greater the diversity of 
this genus, and the greater the liability to the intrusion of trees 
of other characters. The BanJcsia integrifolia (No. 88), Acacia^ 
and various undergrowths, generally occur more plentifully in those 
soils. It may be worthy of remark that, in all the localities of 
this district in which I have seen the Banksia growing, molyb- 
denite has been or may be obtained in the fock. This, howevor, 
is probably accidental. 

The soils of granitic formation are generally considered unsuit- 
able for sheepwalks. It is certain that on those soils sheep are 
very susceptible of " foot-rot" and "bottle," unless thev are under 
very careful manaffement ; but that they can be prontably kqit 
on them is proved by the fact that during the past few years 
' numerous farming selectors have settled on this formation, and, 
having given their attention to sheep-breeding, are becoming 
quite prosperous on portions of countW which were said to be 
unfit for anything but cattle. At Wellington Vale, which is of 
almost exclusively granitic formation, under the able superinten- 
dence of my friend Mr. A. E. Gaden, I recently saw an offer of 
£2 per head refused for 100 out of a small flock of 300 ewee 
which had been bred on that run. These facts are more eloquent 
than language, in pointing out what may be done by careful 
attention on the generally despised granitic sheep runs. 

"With reference to the ** bottle" disease, — a selector about two 
years ago pointed out to me a small plant which he called the 
bottle weed, and he assured me that sheep contracted the disease by 
eating it. The plant grows to a height of from four to ais inc]isa»> 



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F0BE8T TBGETATIOir. 25 

bearing a small pink flower ; and having had my attention thus 
direct^ to it, I watched it carefully on every opportunity that 
oiffered, and find that it is carnivorous, preying upon gnats, 
mosquitoes, and such small winged insects ; it is botenically £iown 
as Drosera peltata. 

The weed, however, grows on swampy or damp granitic or 
elvanite flats, and it is in those localities that the bottle disease 
is generally contracted. Whether the plant really has anything 
to do with it, I cannot of course say ; but I think it more likely 
that the disease arises from the animals inhaling some miasmatic 
atmosphere obtaining in those localities to which the plant is 
peculiar. 

The apple tree (Angovhera stibvelutma) occurs in some localities 
on granitic soils ; but there appears to be a difference in the leaf 
between this and the apple tree of black basaltic alluvia. In the 
latter tree I believe the leaves are invariably opposite, with a 
very short petiole ; but in the former, numerous branches may 
be obtained on which the leaves are alternate, and having a 
petiole of from half to three-quarters of an inch in length, giving 
the tree the appearence of havmg been influenced by hybridization. 
In other respects I have been unable to trace any diflerences 
between them. 

In those tracts covered by elvanite formation, which are nume- 
rous and extensive on the north-western slopes of New England, 
88 well as in many other localities scattered throughout its area, 
and which occupy a large proportion of the rough and broken 
country lying oetween Stratnbogie and the Dumaresq Eiver, 
the vegetation is characterized by plants which seldom, if ever, 
occur in granitic soils. The yellow ironbark (No. 17), Eucalyptus • 
leucoxylon, and the common ironbark (No. 18), Eucalyptus side- 
rophloiaj occupy the most conspicuous place in the forest, and are 
frequently accompanied by a stunted red gum (a smooth-barked 
tree, attaining a height of fifteen to twen^ feet, with a diameter 
seldom exceeding twelve inches), and occasionally by stringy- 
bark. In the warmer portions, such as at or near the base of 
the mountains forming the southern side of the valley of the 
Dumaresq River, and where the character of the rock merges 
more into that of sandstone, pines occur to a limited extent. On 
those soils (the characters of which are exhibited by specimens 
marked a, h, ih, and m, from various portions of the district) the 
dogwood {Jacksonia scoparia) and grass-tree {Xanthorrhaea media) 
are invariably found as undergrowths, accompanied by a stunted 
species of acacia. Most of the undergrowths of this soil are ex- 
hibited by specimens Nos. 21 and 29. 

The timbers generally on this class of soil are hollow, and do 

.not attain that luxuriant growth which marks nM)8t of the 

vegetation occurring on granite. This is frequently more masked. 



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26 FOBEST TEO£Tl.TIOir. 

in those localities contiguous to soils of a more fertile kind, such 
as where basaltic formations overlie the elvans, and the timbers 
generally appear to dwindle and lose a great portion of the 
limited vigour which they attain at a greater distance from the 
better class of soil. 

In localities where the prevailing rocks are micaceous quartzose 
granite, with numerous outcrops of quartz and dykes of slate 
(as specimens b, s, and t), such us on the Dividing Range between 
Dunaee and Glen Elgin, scrub oak, and two or three species 
of acacia, among which is that known as lAgnum vit€B, combine 
in forming dense undergrowths in a forest composed for the most 
part of stringy-bark aud red gum. Forest oak is of frequent 
occurrence on the adjacent flats in this and the preceding forma- 
tion ; but this timber appears to be more common about their 
edges, where the detritus from the adjoining formations mix. 
Under such circumstances there is always a marked difference in 
the forest vegetation, as the different species which abound on 
the separate formations in their pure state become combined in 
the same groups, and frequently trees which are not to be found 
in either take up their positions here. The spotted gum (Nos. 
ly 1a) Eucalyptus species, in many cases assume very defined limit 
under those circumstances, when it is not found growing in either 
of the surrounding soils. 

New England owes much of its prosperity to the influence of 
its extensive tracts of soil of basaltic origin, which extend over a 
very lai^e portion of its western slopes, and form those rich 
alluvial flats which ofier so great an attraction to the agriculturist, 
and the good sound ridges, so excellent as sheepwalks. 

On those soils the efiects of climatic change on the forest 
vegetation appear to be more visible and marked than on any 
others in New England ; and although they vaiy considerably 
in different localities, ana generally die variations are distin- 
guished by a corresponding change in the vegetation, yet in most 
cases the changes, owing to climatic effects, are so well marked 
that no reasonable doubt can exist as to their cause. For instance, 
the white gum (No. 0), Eucalyptus hcsnutstoma, in the colder 
portions, such as about Ben Lomond and Glen Innes, forms open 
forests, for the most part of large timber, with a slig^ht inter- 
mixture of peppermint. On rich black basaltic soils it is almost 
wholly replaced as we approach those warmer regions below the 
falls to the west by the white box (E, hemiphloia). The pepper- 
mint disappears altogether on exactly the same class of soil on 
which it flourishes in the lower temperatures, while the number of 
species of the genus Eucalyptus which enter into combination 
appears to be increased. 

On the soils of the colder regions the prevailing timbers are 
this species of white gum, with apple-tree ; the vegetation in tiie 



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P0BE8T VEOETATIOW. 27 

warmer is usually composed of white box and apple-tree, inter- 
mixed more or less with yellow box (sp. No. 10), S, hicolor (?), 
two species of white gum (Nos. 5 and 9), Eucalyptus Stuartiana 
(?) and Eucalyptus hcemastoma and a little acacia and native 
cherry {Exocarpus cupressiformis). These latter, however, are 
common in both the climates as an occasional undergrowth to the 
forests named ; but while they are frequently found in this class 
of soils, they are by no means peculiar to it, being found largely 
in ar<>illaceous rock formations, granite, <&c. 

The rich red friable basaltic soils, such as specimen marked a, 
appear to be always characterized by a forest growth, consisting 
for the most part of stringy-bark (36), with one or two specimens 
of half-bark^ trees, such as messmate or blackbut, with a dense 
undergro>vth of wattle, acacia, and wild hop {Daviesia latifilia) . A 
very large tract of this class of soil occurs to the west of Vegetable 
Creek, and another of similar nature, but smaller, at the back of 
Glendon estate. Those localities differ some 1,500 feet in eleva- 
tion, but the vegetation is very similar throughout. There is a 
similar tract of country some 20 or 30 miles north-easterly from 
Tenterfield, and another 10 miles north of Wellington VaJe. 
Although those localities differ considerably in elevation above 
the sea level, and their climates vary quite sufficiently to show 
their effect on the forest vegetation, so far as other timbers are 
concerned, they are all characterized by the same kind of vegeta- 
tion ; and I have never observed any timbers on one of them that 
are i«ot found on the others. 

The white box appears to grow chiefly on stiff red or black 
trappean soils, and while it occupies- the largest portion of the 
ridges and elevated ground, the apple-tree {Angophera subvelutind) 
pr^ominates on the flats. A wnite gum (specimen No. 9), how- 
ever, occasionally ^ows in those situations — in fact, so far as the 
particular region m question is concerned, this species appears 
to be common to more classes of soil than any other ; but on the 
colder portions the parasite Zaranthus aurantiacus, a species of 
mistletoe, is common on it, while in the warmer regions it is of 
more frequent occurrence on the red gum (specimens 2 and 2a), 
E, resinifera, which for the most part grows on poor soils. 

On those soils the Darling pea (Swatuonia galegtfolid) app^u^ 
to flourish luxuriantly. This pest is gradually but surely making 
its way up to the table-land from the warmer and richer regions 
to the west, and is a source of great trouble and annoyance to 
flockmasters. Two years ago this plant was comparatively rare 
on the Rocky Creek Kun, which is situated to the east of Ashford, 
and just within the confines of New England ; but I was informed 
the other day by Mr. Gordon, propnetor, that at the present 
time this noxious weed had spread to such an extent as to curtail 
the carrying capacity of the run by nearly one-half. I have not 



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28 FOBEST TEaSTATIOK. 

yet observed this plant on the table-land, and I trust that many 
years will elapse before it makes its appearance there. 

The Bathurst burr (Xanthium spinonm) and two species of 
thistle have, however, not only made their appearance on New 
England, but are already making considerable havoc on many of 
our best tracts of agricultural land. Those well-known plants 
appear to be little affected by the influence of cither soil or 
climate ; wherever the seed majr chance to be dropped they spring 
up most vigorously, soon choking all the other vegetation which 
existed on the spots overrun by them. 

The degree of decomposition which the highly ferruginoos 
basaltic soils have undergone appears to have a considerable effect 
on the indigenous vegetation. On those rich friable soils, such 
as specimen marked a, which is irom a continuoiis range which 
I have traced for more than 30 miles, and is almost ail of the 
same character, witli occasional pisolitic nodules scattered over 
the surface, the vegetation is throughout stringy-bark, acacia, 
wild hop (JDaviena laUfolid). 

This soil is to all appearance composed of exactly the same 
material as that exhibited in specimen b, but has undergone a 
greater amount of decomposition, to which, I l^nk, it owes its 
much higher state of friability. On this latter, however, which 
for the most part in this district occurs in patches, the vegeta- 
tion is in all cases totally different to what it is oa the former, 
being a white gum — specimen No. 5 — (JS. Stuartiana ?) uid 
apple-tree {Angopherd)^ with occasional accada. The Ime of 
division between those two soils is usually very easily defined ; 
and although the patches* of the latter, which 6on8ist almost 
entirely of pisolitic nodules, with very little real soil, may be 
entirely surrounded by other vegetations, they are seldom if ever 
encroached upon by tnem. 

In reviewing the various facts which I have endeavoured, with, 
I fear, but inadequate success, to lay before the Society, with 
reference to the connection between the indigenous forest vege- 
tation and the principal geological formations of Central and 
Northern New !migland, it will be observed that, while many of 
the timbers are common to various soils, and some are common 
to them all, there are others which frequent only one class. 
Thus, the common wattle {Acacia decurrens) is found in almost 
every formation; so also is the stringy-bark in some of its 
varieties, and many other trees of the genus Eucalyptui ; but the 
timber known as peppermint (E, amygdalina ?) is almost exclu- 
sively found on granitic country, as aUo the '* Sally*' (E, saligm^ 
and the grey gum {E, coracea ?), On this soil those timbers are 
generally found in the drier localities, while the stringy-bark 
frequents moister regions. Varieties of iron-bark — the dog-wood 
{Jachionia scpparia) and grass-tree — frequent elvanite aiia por- 



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TOEEST TEGETATIOy. 29 

phyritic regions, and are seldom found on any other ; while the 
white guin (specimen 6), j&. Stuartiana ? Daviesia, the wild hop, 
appear to be peculiar, or nearly so, to basaltic soils, and 
Btnngy-bark to tnose soils in its driest and most friable portions. 

There appears to be an amount of regularity in the various 
combinations of timber trees in the forest vegetation in counec- ' 
tion with its geological alliattices which can hardly be accounted 
for, except by the supposition that there is some general law 
which governs them. Although the observations made in one 
limited district will probably not afford suflRcient information on 
which to determine what that law is, still I venture to tiink that 
a comparison between its effects in a few districts where, the 
climates being known, their effects may be considered in conjunc- 
tion, will BO far illustrate its general principles as to render an 
acquaintance with them of great practical utility. 

Nor do many of the effects of this law differ to so great an 
extent in various localities and climates as may pemaps be 
supposed. Many of them have for several years had their 
recognized significance in pastoral and agricultural matters. 
Such phrases as "Box Forest," " Iron-bark Eanges," "Apple-tree 
Flats," "Stringy-bark Kidges," "Myall Plains," Ac., have all 
had their own respective associations in the minds of those 
interested in the pastoral or agricultural capabilities of land, ever 
since the Colony began to assume a prominent position in these 
pursuits ; and, what is more, those associations are the same 
throughout all parts of this Colony and Queensland, showing 
that those timbers, being more widely spread than most other 
species, obey the same general law throughout. But the associa- 
tions resulting from those observations were thus early arrived 
at because, involving as they did a large amount of pecuniary 
interest, the observers were much more numerous than they 
otherwise would have been ; and while those results which imme- 
diately affect individual prosperity are well known, all the 
surrounding circumstancesr appear to point to the same geological 
influences over the other forest vegetation as control the few 
examples named, which, although subject to certain local varia- 
tions arising from climatic or other consideratioDs, are regular 
when the v^ue of those causes of variation is considered and 
allowed for. 



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80 70BEST TEOETATIOK. 

APPENDIX. 

The f oUowiDg are deBcriptions of twenty-one species of the 
genus Euealyptu9 found in Central and Northern New England. 
Bpecimens were exhibited at the maeting when this paper was 
read: — 

Spotted Q-xtm. — Group LeiophlouB (specimens No. 1 and 1a.) 
— ^The bark of this tree is smooth, but more of a lead colour than 
most of the ordinary species, and is mottled with light and dark 
patches, caused by the falling off of the outer skin. Leaf: The 
leaves are lanceolate, from five to six or seven inches lon^, and 
alternate, supported on petiole 1 inch in length. The midrib is 
slightly above the plane of the leaf, and the marginal nerve is 
in^stinct ; a distinct nerve runs round the outer ed^e of the leaf. 
Seed-vessel: The umbels contain generally seven florets, six of 
which are set on the peduncle at right angles to it, and the 
seventh stands upright in the centre. The operculum is three 
timed as long as the capsule, and is conical, the pedicle about a 
quarter of an inch long, and peduncle about the same length. 
iVood : The wood is hard and tough, and is said to be durable as 
fencing material. HabitSy Sfc, : This timber grows generally about 
the junction of rich soil with that of a poorer class ; in localities 
where the wash from a rich basaltic ridge mixed with that from 
granite or sandstone, this tree would be found growing. In some 
localities this is verjr much defined. At the Nine-mile 6eek, where 
one ridge is basaltic and the other granitic, a tin miner informed 
me that he worked as far as the line of gums, and that the stan- 
niferous washdirt never encroached on ttie ground occupied by 
them. The gums there are of this species, and I have observed 
that it always in this distriot grows under those conditions men- 
tioned. 

Eed Gum. — Group Zetophloue (specimens Nos. 2 and 2a). — 
The bark of this timber is of a greyish-brown colour, and the 
wood is red, and very hard and brittle. It is a durable timber 
for fencing material. Seed-vessels: The umbels contain from 
seven to ten florets. The operculum, which is conical, is two and 
a-half times as long as the capsule. The capsule is four-celled, 
and the valves protrude. Its margin is not well-defined on the 
fully developed seed-vessels. A red streak runs round the 
junction of tne operculum with the capsule. It sometimes has a 
smeared appearance, as if the streak had been drawn with red 
ink and partly wiped ofE again. Leaf: Alternate, and from six 
to eight mches lon^. When held to the light it appears mottled. 
It is of a'dark bluish-green colour, not glaucous, and the midrib 
is prominent on under side. The^marginal nerve is well-defined. 
SabiiSy Sfc: This tree is foimd generally on patches of poor 
elvanite outcrops, among basaltic soils, in companv with box and 
apple ; but where the soil is granitic with elvans, its combination 



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rOEEST VEGETATION. 21 

is stringy-bark and iron-bark, with yarioiis undergrowths. The 
parasite Loranthus awantiaeus (mistletoe) frequently grows on 
this tree in the latter kind of soils. 

Blue Gtjm. — Group Zeiophlaia (specimen No. 3). — This tree 
is very similar in general appearance to the spotted mm and red 
gum of this district. It is difficult to distinguish between the 
barks of those three timbers. The wood is ha^ and brittle, of a 
deep red colour, and has a high specific gravity. The leaf is 
ovate on this species, whereas on the other two named above it is 
lanceolate. It is of a bluish-green colour, slightly glaucous ; the 
midrib is prominent on both sides of the leaf, and the veins are 
very distinct. Generally alternate, but sometimes opposite, the 
leaf is from 4 to 5 inches long and 1 wide, supported on petiole 
of i of an inch in len^h. Seed-vessel : The seed-vessel differs 
considerably from all the other species on New England. The 
umbels are not regular in either the number of florets or their 
systematic arrangement on peduncle. Many of the florets appear 
as if they had been stuck on at random. The operculum is two 
and a half times as long as the capsule, and is of about the same 
dimensions throughout, having a blunt, rounded extremity. The 
capsule is thicker than the operculum, and forms a defined step 
at the junction, looking as if the operculum had been stuck into 
the capsule. The peduncle is three times as long as the pedicel, 
and twice as long as the capsule. The vessel, after parting with 
the operculum, has a well-defined lip round the orifice, t&ough 
which the valves, which are very pointed, protrude. It is some- 
times three and sometimes four celled. SahitSy Sfc: Grows 
chiefiy on poor soils, partly granitic and partly elvanite ; accom- 
panies iron-bark, stringv-barik, and some other gums. In the 
swiampv portions of such soils a plant known as Drosera peltata^ 
or hottU'Vjeedy which is a fiesh-eater, grows. 

Blue Gum. — Group Lewphlioce (specimen No. 3a). — This tree, 
in the arrangements of the florets in the umbels, is somewhat 
similar to the previously described blue gum, and the barks are 
very similar ; but the wood of this species is not so red, nor does 
it i^pear to be so hard. The leaf is more lanceolate than that 
of the tree named. The midrib is prominent on both sides of 
the leaf, and the marginal nerve and veins are coarse and well- 
defined. The leaves are alternate. The petiole is three-fourths 
of an inch long. Seed-vessel : The operciuum is two and a half 
times as long as the calyx, and before it is cast off the vessel has 
a bloomine red mottled colour, similar to that on ripening 
peaches. The peduncle is about as long as the operculum and 
calyx together. The umbels generally start from junction of 
leaf stem, but not always ; this appears in some way to depend 
upon the age of the tree. Habits^ Sfc, : Grows on similar soils 
and in simuar situations to that previously described. 



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88 F0BX8T TXOETATION. 

Bbown-babked Gitm. — Group LeiophlouB (specimen No. 4). — 
Bark reddish, brown, smooth and slightly mottled. The wood is 
red and hard. The leaf is from 3 to 4 inches long, and 1 ¥ride, 
supported on petiole J of an inch in length, alternate, midrib 
well defined, marginal nerve rather indistinct, Teins very 
numerous, light bluish-green in colour, and very glaucous. Seed- 
vessel : The umbel generally contains seven florets, six of which 
radiate, and the remainder stand in the centre. On the young 
vessels the pedicel is short and thick, but as the calyx becomes 
more developed the pedicel becomes, thinner. The peduncle is 
three-tenths of -an inch long. The capsule is about one-i^urd 
shorter than the operculum. The glaucous appearance is veiy 
observable on the young seed-vessels. The calyx is generally 
three but sometimes four celled, and the valves protrude. The 
flower is of a yellowish-white colour. Rahits, Sfc, : Grows gene- 
rally on patches of poor soil, on otherwise good country ; such, 
for instance, as about porphyritic or elvanite dykes, or outcrops in 
basaltic formations. In sucn situations it generallv has an under- 
growth of dogwood (Jacksonia scoparia) and a little grass-tree. 

White Gum. — Group Leiophloice (specimen No. 5.) — Bark 
smooth and clean, slightly mottled, and at the present time 
(November) the outer skin hangs in long strips from upper 
branches. The leaves are generally opposite, many are stem- 
clasping; the petiole seldom exceeds a quarter of an inch in 
length. The midrib is well defined and prominent ; the mar- 
ginal nerve and veins are delicate. Wood : Light-coloured ; 
heavy but soft ; it is not considered durable where exposed io 
the action of the weather. Seed-vessels : The seed-vessels are in 
umbels of three florets ; the operculum is slightly longer than 
the capsule ; the pedicel is one-third as long as the peduncle ; 
some capsules are three and some four-celled, and the valves 
protrude slightly. Habits, Sfc, : This timber generally grows in 
rich red bawiltic soils which are stony — pisoutic — ^in company 
with apple. 

FiNKF.D-Bi^KiCD Gum. — Group Leiophloics (specimen No. 6.) — 
This tree attains a height of from fifty to sixty feet, and 
diameter from fifteen to twenty inches. The bark is smooth 
on trunk and branches, and is of a pink colour, and slightly 
mottled. The wood is hard. Seed-vessels : Arranged in uihbelB 
of three florets, on short thick pedicel and peduncle one-fourih 
of an inch long. The operculum is equal in length to the capoule. 
The calyx is as frequently three as four celled, and the valfes 
protrude. Leaf: The leaf is long, and ratiier thick, and the 
midrib well denned ; the marginal nerve is delicate, and dose to 
edge of leaf. It is frequently covered with small carbuncles • 
About the sise of fly-dirt, which gives the leaf a dirty and loogh 
appearance. The midrib is particularly prominent on under mi^ 



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FOBBBT TSaiTATIOir. 88 

MiahitSf Sfe. : Frequents basaltie soils, generaUj, in the warmer 

•parts of New England, in conjunction with box and apple, with 

occasional native cherry (Ikoiarpw eupresnfomm). The tree 

is of a rather drooping habit, and is not common in New England. 

Gbet Gum. — Group Leiophlota (specimen No. 7). — Bark: 
Smooth, blotched dark and light lead colour ; ver j slightly fibrous. 
!Boiigh for about six feet up trunk. Wood : Light-coloured, soft 
andheayy; fairly durable as fencing material. Leaf: Five to 
six or seven inches long ; some alternate and some opposite on 
same branchlet ; petiole half an inch long ; midrib prominent 
and well defined. The marginal nerve is narrow, and two or 
three well-defined longitudinal veins run parallel to the midrib 
on either side ; the transverse veins form with these a lattice. 
Seed-vessels : Are arranged in umbels of three, four, five^ or six 
florets, standing generally in junction of petiole and twig, on 
peduncle about one-third of an inch long. Some capsules are 
tri-valved and some quadri-valved ; the valves protrude. The 
operculum is equal in length to the calyx. SahiU, Sfc, : This 
gum is generally indicative of poor soil ; it enters into combina- 
tion with all the timbers found on granitic formations. 

Sally. — Group Leiophloia (specimen No. 8.) — Bark : Sough 
at butt, but after a height of a lew feet, it is smooth and of a 
dark green colour ; it is thinner than the generality of the barks 
oi the genus. Wood : The wood is almost useless, except as 
fuel ; it is usually very much eaten bv lepidopterous larvsa, and 
the aborigines frequently cut up small trees for the purpose of 
obtaining those grubs. Leaf: The leaf is alternate. On small 
shoots from the root it is almost circular and large, but in older 
trees it is from three to four inches long and about one inch 
wide, and is lanceolate. It is ribbed very much like the leaf of 
the i!,' eoriacea. Seed-vessel : The seed-vessels are about one- 
tenth of* an inch in diameter, and are arranged in umbels of 
twelve florets, on short pedicels ; the peduncle is not more than 
one-eighth of an inch long, and about one-sixteenth thick. The 
capsule is three-celled, and the valves sunk, and operculum short. 
Mabits, Ste. : This tree usually does not exceed a diameter of 
from eight to t^f^elve inches, but there are numerous specimens 
which assume. a diameter of thirty inches or more. The latter 
are of rather a drooping habit, and are pretly trees ; but the 
smaller ones appear too straggling to be beautiful. It frequents 
granitic soils with slight mixture of the detritus from argillaceous 
rocks, and never grows far from watercourses. It is is very 
common on the banks of the Henry Eiver, the Mann, and Mitchell 
Bivers, also on the Severn, above Dundee. AH those are cold 
locaHt^ in the most elevated portions of New England, and I 
Lave never seen this tree in warmer regions, nor have I seen it 
growing in the vicinity of river tea-tree. 



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84 FOREST YEGETATION. 

Whitb Gum. — Group Leiophloia (specimen No. 9). — Bark: 
Bough at butt for a lew feet, but aboye that* is smooth and 
stref^j, showing; long light and dark coloured stripes along the 
bola Leaf: Toe leaf is from five to eight inches long, with 
well-defined marginal nen'e and protuberant midrib. The veins 
are very distinct, alternate, but not regularly so : in many cases 
they are nearly opposite. Petiole, about an inch long, lanceolate. 
Wood : The wooa is soft, and is not considered durable. It is 
generally difficult work with wedges, and, owing to the numerous 
sap veins, it is not a profitable tmiber for sawing. It is a bad 
fuel, and as the tree generally attains a diameter of from two to 
four feet, it is impossible to clear land by burning offy as the 
heavy logs cannot oe kept alight. Seed-vessel : The seed-vessels 
are m umbels of three, four, or five florets, supported on very 
short pedicels. The peduncle is about three-tenths of an inch 
long. The capsule is a fifth of an inch in diameter, and is as 
frequently trivalved as quadrivalved. The valves ^re slighUv 
protuberant, and a rim runs round the mouth of the calyx. It 
IS about one-third longer than the operculum, and on the younger 
seed-vessels the pedicel appears to be part of the capsule. 
Habits^ Sfc, : This gum grows chiefly alone, forming open forests. 
On rich black or red clayey soils it combines with apple, a little 
acacia, and native cherry, in the colder regions, as about Glen 
Innes ; but the white box mixes largely in the forest on similar 
soils in warmer climates, as on parts of Strathbogie Bun. ThoA 
combinations, however, are chiefly on ridges, as the gum forms 
the prevailing timber on the flats. It also grows on granitic 
soils, where peppermint mixes with it slightly. On basaltic soils 
the parasite Loranthxis aurcmtiacus (mistletoe) frequently grows 
on this tree. 

Yellow Box. — Group Hemiphloia (specimen No. 10). — 
There are two species of this tree ; one has narrow lanceolate 
leaves, and the other broad ovate ; but the timbers are in every 
other respect similar. The former, however, appears to have a 
greater range of soil than the latter, which grows chiefly in 
argillaceous or granitic formations. Thej are both distinguished 
by a bright saSron-coloured undercoating to the bark, which 
externally is of a reddish-brown colour, rough, but more 
resembling the common gum bark than that of the box. Wood: 
Hard and tough ; very durable as material for fencing ; makes 
good poles and shafts for drays, &c. Leaf: 2^ to 4 inches long ; 
midrib stands slightly above surface of the leaf ; marginal nerve 
well defined, alternate ; petiole about an inch long, on some of 
which two leaves grow. Seed-vessel: The umoels. generally 
contain seven florets ; the peduncle is twice as long as the 
pedicel ; the capsule and operculum are about equal in length, 
six-celled, and the valves are sunk. Habits, Sfc, : The narrow- 



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rOHEST TEOETATION. 35 

leafed varietj enters into combination with almost every kind of 
timber growing in Now England. On all its soils and in every 
climate it appears to retain its general characteristics with very 
slight modifications ; but the broad-leaved yellow box grows only 
in the poorer soils in cold localities ; they both, however, prefer 
high and dry ground to flats. 

Blackbut.— *-Group RemiplilouB (specimen No. 11). — The 
tree resembles the stringy-bark (JE". obliqua)^ bat the branchefir 
are smooth, and the bark is thinner and not quite so fibrous. It 
appears to partake of the peppermint and stringy-bark. Wood : 
Soit, but fairly durable, free in grain and easily wrought,* light 
in colour. Zeaf: Opposite and alternate ; those on one side of 
stem are at shorter intervals than those on the other — petioled,. 
and a well defined but not prominent midrib ; narrow marginal 
nerve. Seed-vessel : The umbeU contain from six to eight florets. 
The operculum is about two-thirds as long as the calyx ; the- 
pedicel is one-sixth of an inch long, and the peduncle one-third 
of an inch. The valves are not protuberant, and the capsule is 
usually four-celled. Sabits, Sfc, : This blackbut grows generally 
on granitic soils, but it frequently occurs on the junctions of 
basaltic soils with those of poorer formation. It combines with 
stringy-bark, iron-bark, oak, and various kinds of gum. 

"White Box. — E, Hemiphloia ; Group Hemiphlous (12).— 
The average height of this tree is from 50 to 70 feet, and tha 
diameter from 18 to 30 inches. The bark is persistent on trunk, 
and branches smooth. It is light-coloured and slightly fibrous,, 
and is used for covering outbuildings, huts, &c. ; but it is much 
more liable to crack than the bark of the E, ohliqua, and is not 
nearly so durable. The wood is hard, tough, and durable ; it is 
heavy and close-grained, and is generally difficult to split. It 
forms an excellent fuel, as it bums readily, throws out great 
heat, and leaves little ash. The leaves are of a bluish-green 
colour, slightly glaucous ; the midrib is prominent, as also the 
marginal nerve ; and the veins are better defined and further- 
apart than in most other leaves of the genus EucaJt/ptus. The 
width of the leaf is about 2 inches, and length 5. The petiole 
seldom exceeds i an inch in length. On some trees the leaves 
appear to be partly alternate and partly opposite. The alternations: 
on all are irregular. Many of the leaves on saplings are nearly 
circular, and are concave, as though the internal portion of the 
leaf grew more rapidly than the margin. Seed-vessels: T]^ 
umbels generally contain seven florets, six surrounding, one 
standing in the centre. The pedicel is very short, and appears 
to be simply the termination of the calyx. The peduncle is 
nearly i an inch long. The calyx is three times as long as the 
operculum, and before the latter falls off^, the former is marked 
by four or five prominent ribs. The vessel is four or five celled. 



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86 F0BE8T TEQETATIOK. 

and the valves are deeply sunk. In the fully developed seed- 
vessels the ribs disappear. The capsule narrows slightly above 
the valves and then widens out again at the mouth, giving it 
rather a bell shape. Habits, &c. : This tree occurs chiefly on 
good basaltic soils, in warm regions, similar to those occupied by 
gum and apple in colder parts of New England. 

Peppeemint. Ghroup RhytiphloicB (specimen No. 13). — Bark: 
^ugh and wrinkled, similar to that of the apple-tree {Angophera 
suhvelutina) , but more harsh and solid. Of a dark brown colour, 
slightly fibrous. Wood: Light-coloured, soft, heart reddish- 
brown: It is generally said to be unfit for use as a timber, 
iexcept for fuel ; but I recently examined some pegs which I put 
in the ground in June, 1872, and found them to be perfectly 
«ound and good, excepting the sap, which was slightly decaved. 
The straight bole is very free in the grain, and easily worked. 
From specimens of this tree about Glen Elgin it appears to be 
A fast-growing timber, attaining a diameter of 12 to 18 inches, 
and height of about 50 feet in twenty-five years. Leaf: Alternate, 
lanceolate, from 2i to 4 inches long (those of saplings are 
generally longer, bein^ as much as 6 or 8 inches in many cases) ; 
dark green colour ; midrib well defined ; narrow marginal nerve; 
veins indistinct ; petiole half an inch to an inch long. Seed- 
vessel : Small ; some trivalved and some quadrivalved on game 
tree. The umbels contain four, five, or six florets ; the peduncle 
is about one-fourth of an inch long, and is four times as long as 
the pedicel. One or two florets generally stand in the centre of 
the umbel, , and the valves are slightly protuberant. In most 
cases the umbel stands in the junction of the leaf -stem with 
twig. Habits, Sfc. : In the coldest portions of New England this 
timber grows on basaltic soils, as at Ben Lomond ; but it is 
generally found on granitic soils, or those of an argillaceous 
formation. On purely granitic formation it forms open forests, 
but on the others it is generally in combination with yellow box, 
gum, or stringy-bark. 

Box Messmate— Group Bhytip1iloi<B (specimen No. 14). — This 
timber appears to partake in some respects the nature of the 
white box E, hemipnloia), and in others that of the New England 
peppermint. The bark so much resembles that of the box that 
the tree is frequently mistaken for that timber. It is, however, 
thicker than box bark, and on being cut with an axe pieces 
frequently break off with a conchoidal fracture, owing to the 
large amount of sappy substance which it contains. In the grain 
it is somewhat like peppermint bark. Wood : The wood is soft 
and light coloured, very much resembling the peppermint; it 
perhups contains more moisture. Leaf: £i the leai messmate 
differs from both the peppermint and box. It is generally much 
longer and more lanceolate than either; some are 10 inches 



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FOBBST VEGETATION. 37 

long ; they are alternate, and the petiole is from | to 1 inch 
long. The veins are siiyiilar to those of peppermint. Seed- 
vessel : The seed-vessels, both in appearance and arrangement, 
are so much like those of the latter timber that I have been 
unable to detect the difference, if any, between them. In fapt 
the general similarity between the two trees is so great that the 
only apparent difference is in the bark, and this might be called 
the white peppermint much more appropriately than box mess- 
mate, as there are no real points of similarity between it and the 
box further than the colour of the bark, and further they belong 
to different groups in the genus. 

Bastaud Box. — Group Rhyti^lilox, — Bark: Eather lighter 
in colour than that of peppermint ; resembles that of blacSbut, 
but is persistent to branchlets. Leaf: in alternate pairs on 
young trees, but alternate on old ones; dull green with a 
mottled appearance, which is more observable on the under side 
of leaf, looking like grease showing through on patches. The 
leaves are curved, and are about 5 inches long in full-grown trees, 
but those of saplings exceed that length by 2 or 3 inches. They 
are lanceolate, and the midrib is prominent ; the marginal nerve 
is narrow and veins well defined ; petiole | of an inch long. 
Seefi'Vessel : Small, ovate, truncated ; the calyx is about half as 
long again as the operculum, and the iimbels contain seven 
florets. Wood: Soft and free ingrain, easily worked, but vrill 
not bear much exposure to the weather. Habits, Sfc, : This 
timber is never found in rich soils — generally in swampy granitic 
country, in combination with peppermint, grey gum, banksia^ 
blackbut, and occasional stringy-bark. Ferns mix with the 
undergrowth. The only soils on which I have seen this timber 
are formed of the detritus of quartz or. red granite. 

Steingt-baek (M ohliqua). — fl-roup Pachyphloia Tspecimen 
No. 16.) — The bark of this tree is fibrous and p^sistent through- 
out, and is thick. It is usually used for the purpose of covermg 
outbuildings, and if properly stripped and put on it forms a very 
good roof, lasting for several years. The wood is easily split or 
sawn ; it is generally straight and free in grain, and the average 
size of the timber being from thirty to forty-eight inches m 
diameter, with a straight bole of twenty or thirty feet, without 
branches, it is much in request by splitters and fencers. The 
leaves are alternate, and the younger ones are of a bright, glossy, 
green colour, looking as though varnished ; the midrib is well 
defined, and the marginal nerve narrow, but not clearly marked, ; 
the veins form an angle with the midrib of about thirty degrees. 
Seed-vessels : The umbels contain six or more florets, generally 
with one or two standing in centre ; the operculum is short and 
hemispherical, pedicel short and thick, and the peduncle tliree- 
tenths of an inch long; the capsule is slightly contracted at 



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,38 FOBEST TEaETATIOK. 

orifice, it is trivalved, and the valves protrude slightly. Hahitt, 
^c. : This tree grows in all classes of soil except black alluvial ; 
on the red friable soils of the basaltic formations about Vegetable 
Creek it is a large tree, frequently exceeding four feet in diameter; 
on those soils it is always accompanied with wild hop (Dodonea) 
and wattle (Acacia) ; on granite and elvanite soils its under- 
.firowth is generally saplings of stringy-bark ; it is sometimes, 
however, on those soils accompanied by wattle ; its timber com- 
binations are iron-bark and various kinds of gutn. 

Yellow Ibon-babe. — Group ^VAJ>c^p7iZo^^» (specimen No. 17). 
— ^The l»rk of this tree is mucn less wrinkled and the wrinkles 
sre narrower than that previously described, and it has a rich 
yellow sap-coating under. The wrinkles form diamond shapes. 
In the larger trees the bark is smoother than in the smaller ones. 
The wood is hard and tough ; the heart reddish brown. It is a 
durable wood, and well suited for poles and shafts of drays. 
Leaf: Lanceolate ; midrib is prominent on the under side, as are 
also the marginal nerves ; bluish-green colour, and the petiole is 
about half an inch long, alternate. Seed-vessel: The umbels 
<^ntain generally six florets, supported on long, thin, and pliant 
pedicels nearly half an inch long ; they droop. The operculum 
IS much shorter than the calyx, 'which contracts at the orifice. 
The capsule is six-celled, and the valves are sunk ; the orifice is 
surrounded by a well-defined lip; the peduncle is about a quarter 
of an inch long, and is thin and tougn. Habits, Sfc, : Frequents 
poor granitic soils ; scrub oak generally grows in company with it, 
also irtringy-bark, blackbut, and yellow box ; the blue gum also 
.grows on this soil. In swampy patches the plant known as 
** bottle-weed," a flesh -eater, Drosera peltata of. botanist*, occurs. 

Ibok-babk. — Group Schizophloia (specimen No. 18). — This 
tree generally inhabits soil of a very poor character. On New 
^gland it grows on elvanite ridges most frequently ; not often 
on purely mnitic country, but frequently about the junction of 
granite with basalt. The bark is very thick and hard ; the creases 
are deep and irregular; its general colour is dark brownish 
black, but between the creases it is reddish. The wood is veiy 
hard and durable. There is more evenness in size between the 
leaves of young and old trees than is usual between those of 
most other species of the genus Ei^alyptus ; they are about three 
inches long, and half-an-inch wide, of a bluish-green colour; 
dark and sombre looking foliage. They are alternate in pairs, 
the intervals between the pairs on one side of the twig bemg 
shorter than those of the other ; after two or three alternations 
one pair is oi)po8ite. The petiole is three-tenths of an inch lon^t 
and the midrib is well defined, but does not stand above the plam 
of the leaf ; the veins are delicate and regular, but the marginal 
nerve is not well defined. Seed-vessel : The umbel generally 
contains seven florets, and there are frequently two or three 



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I'OBSST YEaKTATIOK. 89 

umbels on the same stem. The operculum is half as long as the 
caljx ; the pedicel and calyx are of equal length, and the peduncle 
twice as long as the capsule. Habits, Sfc, : In rocky elvanite 
land this iron-bark mixes with yellow box, red gum, aud string- 
bark, with a little stunted apple. The undergrowths are chieny 
Jackstmia seoparia (dogwood) a species of blackwattle, and 
numerous small shrubs — five-comer, geebung, Ac. 

Stsinoy-babk. — Group Pttehyphhia (specimen No. 19). — 
This tree differs from that previously described ([specimen No, 
16) in the leaf and seed-vessel more than in anything else. The 
leaf is of a dark-green colour, and the young ones lack the bright 
glossy appearance of those on the former species. The petiole is 
half an inch long, and the midrib well defined and slightly pro- 
minent. The operculum is two-thirds as long as the capsule, and 
the pedicel is short and very thick. The peduncle is about four- 
tentbs of an inch long, and is also thick. The leaves and florets 
frequently appear to be covered with a dirty black substance 
resembling soot. Usually there are five florets in the umbel, 
some of which are bigger than others, and finish flowering before 
the others are open. Some of the fully-developed seed-vessels 
attain a large size ; they are three-celled, and the valves form an 
upper hemisphere to the calyx, from which it is divided by a 
broad creased band. HMU, Sfc, : This tree is generally found 
in rocky elvanite soils, where the rock approaches in its granular 
character to the nature of sandstone. It combines with all 
timbers peculiar to this class of soil. 

Bastabd Yellow-jacket. — Group Bhytiphloim (specimen No. 
20). — This tree is very similar in bark and wood to the white 
box {E, kemtphloia), but the leaf is similar to that of the yellow 
box. It is of exactly the same size and appearance as that of 
that tree, but the petiole is much shorter, being only half an 
inch long. The seed-vessel is in umbels of three, four, five, or 
six florets. The pedicel is short, and the peduncle one-fourth of 
an inch long. The operculum is very small, and is one-third as 
long as the calyx, and idmost flat. In • its young state, before 
paHing with the operculum, the seed-vessel is not more than one- 
sixteenth of an inch in diameter ; after flowering it is about one- 
tenth. The calyx is sometimes three and sometimes four celled, 
BiaA, the valves do not protrude. Many of the leaves of this tree 
are affected by a disease which causes gnarled lumps on them ; 
in the centre of these lumps is a small white insect, a species of 
grub, probably the larvsB of a small fly, which appears to be 
numerous about many specimens of the tree, all of which were 
affected with the disease. The excrescences may be caused by 
the larv». HahiU^ Sfc. : Frequents granitic and elvanite soils in 
company with box, messmate, stringy-bark, &c. 



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41 



On Dromomis Australis (Owen), a new Fossil Bird of 

Australia. 

By the Eev. W. B. Clabke, M.A., P.E.S., &a 



ISMd h^fbre ike Boyal Society ofN,8. W., 6 Jitney 1877.] 



Ik the year 1869 a letter of mine appeared in the Sydnof Morning 
Herald on a subject of some interest to Australian naturaUsts. 
(See Appendix No. 2.) • ^ 

A discovery had recently been made of the fossilised femur of 
a bird resting on a block of granite, at a depth of 180 feet in the 
superficial beds of Peak Downs, in Queensland, about latitude 22^ 
40^^ 8. 

This femur was submitted to examination by the Curator of 
the Australian Musei^, and was compared by him and myself 
with New Zealand specimens of femora of the genus DinimiU. 
We came to the conclusion that the. bone belonged to a species 
of Moa. (See Appendix No. 1.) 

This was afterwards stated by me in a commimication to the 
Qeologicdl Magazine (vol. vi, p. 288), in which I dwelt, perhaps 
prematurely, on the supposed evidence offered by this bone of a 
former connection between New Zealand and Australia, inasmuch 
as fli^htles^ birds could not have passed so wide an ocean as 
intervenes between these countries. In my ** Bemarks an the 
Sedimentary Formations of New South Wales" I have considered 
that connection in another light. (See Appendix No. 8.) 

Professor Owen, to whom a cast of the bone was sent (the 
original still remaining in the Australian Museum), informed 
me that it had some characteristics agreeing wiUi those of 
Dinomis, but that others led to the determination that it did not 
belong to the Moas, havii^ nearer relation to the Emu. 

Since that time, in the Transactions of the Zoological Society, 
the learned Professor published a description and figures of the 
bone, with comparisons which no one was better able to make 
than himself. (See Appendix No. 4.) 

In thal^ memoir he says : " Of the femora of Dinomisy I have 
selected that of Din, elephantopus (Transactions Zoological 
Sociei^, vol. iv, p. 149, pi. 48, fig. 1) as nearest to the present 
fossil in regard to length, 18 inches ; the breadth of the shaft is 
the same, or in the largest examples of D. elephantopus exceeds 
only by 2 lines." 



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42 OK DBOMOBKIS AU8TBAXIS. 

Here we have some justification of the opinion I had yentured 
to express. But, in conclusion of his review, he adds : " I infer 
that in its essential characters this femur resembles more that 
bone in the Emu than in the Moa, and that the characters in 
which it more resembles Binornis are concomitant with and 
related to the more general robustness of the bone, from whidi 
we mav infer that the species manifested dinomithic strength 
and proportions of the hmd limbs, combined with characters of 
closer affinity to the existing smaller, more slender-limbed, and 
swifter wingless bird peculiar to the Australian continent. 

" From the proportions of the femora of Dinamis I infer also 
that those of the tibia and metatarse would be longer and more 
slender than in Dinomit elephantopus, and in a greater degree 
than is the case with the femur. Consequently, the stature of 
Dromomis would* be greater in proportion to the solitary bone 
by which we know it than is that ox the Dinornis elephantopui, 
we may, therefore, have a comfortable assurance that it indi- 
cates the former existence in Australia of a bird nearly of the 
stature of the ostrich, but with relatively shorter and stronger 
hind limbs. • • • • From the general analogy, not un- 
frequently pointed out, between the recent animal and vegetable 
forms of the Australian continent and the extinct ones of ihe 
European oolitic beds, together with the massive mineralized 
condition of the ornithic and mammalian fossils found deep 
in the enormous superficial accumulations of drift and trappean 
alluvium, we are led to surmise that Australia, or parts or that 
continent, have not been subject to the frequent movements by 
which the earth's crust has been modified in the European con- 
tinent, but that it may have been subject exclusively to the sub- 
aerial conditions of clian^e from the period of the oolitic deposits 
in our hemisphere. Thus the Dromomis of Queensland may 
have been contemporary with the impressors of the omithicnit^ 
of Connecticut." 

These remarks of the illustrious paleontologist are not without 
bearing on other points of inquiry on which I have ventured to 
speculate elsewhere. 

But, as my object in this communication is to show what 
advance has been made in the history of Dromami*, I must go 
further into the subject. 

Since 1869 I have been on the look out for additional evidence 
as to Dromomis, but not till 1876 did I meet with any. 

In January of that year, when at GK)ree, neiur Mu^ee, I 
received intimation that a large bone had been disinterred from a 
depth of 200 feet at the Canadian Gold Lead. On ffoing that 
day, with my friend Mr. Lord, I found the bone in the posses- 
f|jon of Mr. Deitz, a former correspondent of mine on mineral 
matters : but not (as I suspected trom the first account of it 



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OK DB0M0BKI8 AXJSTBALIS. 48 

ciyen to me) a femur or other limb bone of Diprotodon, but a 
Iragment of the pelvis of a bird, wbicb was considered by some 
of the diggers to be the bead of some animal. This fragment 
was placed in my hands for examination. On arriving in Sydney 
I took it to the Museum for comparison, and came to the con- 
clusion that it had also resemblance to Dinomit,- but was not the 
pelvis of the true Emu. 

Photographs of it were afterwards sent by me to Professor 
Owen, and a model of it was cmade by the taxidermist of the 
Museum for that institution, from the Trustees of which 1 receiyed 
a copy. 

The original pelvis I sent on to Professor Owen by Captain 
Pile, of the " Patriarch." The latter had not reached its destina- 
tion on the 31st January, 1877, the date of the Professor^s last 
letter to me